CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 163

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 0dc3
authors Chambers, Tom and Wood, John B.
year 1999
title Decoding to 2000 CAD as Mediator
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 210-216
summary This paper will present examples of current practice in the Design Studio course of the BDE, University of Strathclyde. The paper will demonstrate an integrated approach to teaching design, which includes CAD among other visual communication techniques as a means to exploring design concepts and the presentation of complex information as part of the design process. It will indicate how the theoretical dimension is used to direct the student in their areas of independent study. Projects illustrated will include design precedents that have involved students in the review and assessment of landmarks in the history of design. There will be evidence of how students integrate DTP in the presentation of site analysis, research of appropriate design precedents and presentation of their design solutions. CADET underlines the importance of considering design solutions within the context of both our European cultural context and of assessing the environmental impact of design options, for which CAD is eminently suited. As much as a critical method is essential to the development of the design process, a historical perspective and an appreciation of the sophistication of communicative media will inform the analysis of structural form and meaning in a modem urban context. Conscious of the dynamic of social and historical influences in design practice, the student is enabled "to take a critical stand against the dogmatism of the school "(Gadamer, 1988) that inevitably insinuates itself in learning institutions and professional practice.
keywords Design Studio, Communication, Integrated Teaching
series eCAADe
email j.b.wood@strath.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id sigradi2018_1762
id sigradi2018_1762
authors de Albuquerque Montezi, Rafael; Tanoue Vizioli, Simone Helena
year 2018
title Digital morphogenesis and tectonics: an analysis of Peter Eisenman’s Aronoff Center
source SIGraDi 2018 [Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISSN: 2318-6968] Brazil, São Carlos 7 - 9 November 2018, pp. 359-366
summary The concept of architectural tectonics relates simultaneously to pragmatic and poetic aspects of the materiality, aiming the expression of these concerns in the result of the Form. Far from only a theoretical concerning, these design decisions affect how our society employs its natural and human resources. This work takes the Aronoff Center for Design and Arts (1988-1996), by Peter Eisenman, as a case study for a graphical analysis, dealing with the consequences of a free-form morphogenesis to its construction and investigating the tectonics of the contemporary architecture.
keywords Contemporary Architecture; Digital Project; Tectonics
series SIGraDi
email montezi@usp.br
last changed 2019/05/20 09:14

_id c057
authors Ganter, John H.
year 1988
title Interactive Graphics : Linking the Human to the Model
source GIS/LIS'88 Proceeding accessing the world (3rd. : 1988 : San Antonio). December, 1988. Vol. 1: pp. 230-239 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Discovery and innovation, which have traditionally involved thinking visually and producing images, increasingly benefit from labor-saving devices like GIS and CAD. As new visualization technologies are implemented, it is particularly important to understand the human faculties which use pictures as tools in thinking. Science and engineering define problems, explain processes, and design solutions through observation, imagination and logic. This conceptual thought relies on a cognitive `database' of sensed verbal and non-verbal information, which is retained, managed, and updated within the short and long-term human memories. Research suggests that the individual must actively manipulate a phenomenon under study and its representations to enhance and maintain this database, and to produce abstractions and generalizations. Graphics are particularly important in this process of discovering correlations, contradictions and connections, and subsequent communication to others. Graphics offer high information density, simultaneity, variable detail and the capacity for showing multivariate relations. A `gestalt' property leads to the discovery of new relationships since the graphic whole always exceeds the sum of its parts. A cycle occurs in which the individual interacts with the phenomenon and produces explicit knowledge in the form of graphics and text, testing and refining each against knowledge and abstractions held in the mind
keywords information, computer graphics, perception, user interface, visualization, cognition, abstraction
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id a19d
authors Brown, G.Z. and Novitski, Barbara-Jo
year 1988
title A Macintosh Design Studio
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 151-162
summary During the past year at the University of Oregon, we have conducted an experimental design studio in which each student had an Apple Macintosh SE microcomputer on his or her studio desk. Each term we experimented with a variety of software, furniture arrangements, and pedagogical approaches to integrating computers in design teaching. Like most others who have conducted such experiments, we encountered problems in trying to use hardware and software which is fundamentally inappropriate for the intuitive, graphic, and creative processes characteristic of preliminary design. However, we solved many of these problems and have produced useful techniques that may form the beginnings of a new approach to the use of computers in architecture schools.

Our results fall in three major categories: 1) pedagogical discoveries about learning to design with a computer, which is greater than the sum of learning to design and learning about computers; 2) design exercises based on the Macintosh environment, exploiting the unique graphic qualities of the machine while simultaneously developing the ideas and drawing skills needed in the preliminary stages of design; 3) descriptions of the studio environment, including hardware, software, workstation layouts, security solutions, and other practical information that might be useful to others who are contemplating a similar project.

series ACADIA
email novitski@architectureweek.com
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 5f4b
authors Coyne, R.D.
year 1988
title Logic Models of Design
source Pitman, London
summary This monograph places design in a theoretical context which applies developments in knowledge-based systems, logic programming and planning to design. It addresses two important design issues: the interpretation of designs, which concerns the discovery of implicit design attributes, a key activity in design evaluation that can be modelled by deductive inference in logic programming; and the process of generation, whereby a design description is produced which exhibits these implicit design attributes. Implicit attributes can be seen as analogous to the semantic content of natural language utterances. The work presented here is mainly concerned with design generation, and an operational model of design is investigated in which operations on processes are treated in a similar way to operations on form. It is argued that there are advantages in representing control knowledge as rules in a design system, and that logic is an effective medium for this purpose. This is demonstrated by means of programs developed in Prolog and C using the example of spatial layout in buildings. Primarily, this book is directed at those in artificial intelligence (AI) involved in logic programming, planning and expert systems. However, since AI techniques are finding widespread application in industry, the use of an architectural design example makes this work relevant to architects, designers, engineers and developers of intelligent architectural design software.
series other
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 56be
authors Dillon, Andrew and Marian, Sweeney
year 1988
title The Application of Cognitive Psychology to CAD Input/Output
source Proceedings of the HCI'88 Conference on People and Computers IV 1988 p.477-488
summary The design of usable human-computer interfaces is one of the primary goals of the HCI specialist. To date however interest has focussed mainly on office or text based systems such as word processors or databases. Computer aided design (CAD) represents a major challenge to the human factors community to provide suitable input and expertise in an area where the users goals and requirements are cognitively distinct from more typical HCI. The present paper is based on psychological investigations of the engineering domain, involving an experimental comparison of designers using CAD and the more traditional drawing board. By employing protocol analytic techniques it is possible to shed light on the complex problem-solving nature of design and to demonstrate the crucial role of human factors in the development of interfaces which facilitate the designers in their task. A model of the cognition of design is proposed which indicates that available knowledge and guidelines alone are not sufficient to aid CAD developers and the distinct nature of the engineering designer's task merits specific attention.
keywords Cognitive Psychology; Interface Design; Protocol Analysis
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id diss_howe
id diss_howe
authors Howe, Alan Scott
year 1988
title A new paradigm for life-cycle management of kit-of-parts building systems
source UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN , PhD
summary The research described in this dissertation brings together various technologies in manufacturing and information management and suggests a new paradigm for the design, manufacture, and lifetime use of artifacts using kit-of-parts systems and rule-based assembly. The questions are asked: If architects, designers, and users were given direct online connection to real-time design information sources and fabrication processes, and have the ability to monitor and control the current state of designed objects throughout the objects' lifetime, how would the entire life-cycle of a product be affected, and how would design processes change? During the course of the research described in this dissertation, a series of simulations and experiments were conducted which produced a computer-based simulated design, manufacture, and use environment wherein these questions could begin to be answered. A kit-of-parts model building system was devised which could be used to design model buildings in virtual form by downloading virtual representations of the components from the Internet and assembling them into a desired form. The virtual model building could then be used to order the manufacture of real components online, and remotely controlled robots used to assemble the actual building on the site. Through the use of special hardware manufactured into the components, real-time remote monitoring and control of the current state of the finished model building was affected during the building's lifetime. The research establishes the feasibility of an online life-cycle environment where a virtual representation of an artifact is created and used to both manufacture a real-world counterpart and also monitor and control the current state of the real-world object. The state-of-the-art of pertinent technologies were explored through literature searches and experiments. Data representation, rule-based design techniques, robotics, and digital control were studied, and a series of design principles established which lend themselves toward a life-cycle management paradigm. Several case studies are cited which show how the design principles and life-cycle management environment can be applied to real buildings and other artifacts such as vehicles and marine structures. Ideas for expanded research on the life-cycle management paradigm are cited.  

series thesis:PhD
email ash@plugin-creations.com
more http://wwwlib.umi.com/dissertations/fullcit/9909905
last changed 2003/11/20 18:57

_id 21b9
authors Landsdown, J.
year 1988
title Computers and Visualisation of Design Ideas: Possibilities and Promises
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 71-80
summary Drawing in all its various forms, from freehand sketching to detailed technical layout, is a type of modelling that designers find indispensable. In many cases, indeed, drawing is the only form of external modelling a designer uses. It has two basic functions: to assist in the externalisation and development of mental concepts and to help in the presentation of these concepts to others. The current thrust of work in computer graphics - although valuable - tends to concentrate almost exclusively on the presentation aspects and it is now possible to create images almost resembling photographs of real objects as well as production drawings of great accuracy and consistency. This paper summarises some of this presentation work as well as developments which might go further in assisting the activities and processes of design.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 2a6e
authors McCullough, Malcolm
year 1988
title Representation in the Computer Aided Design Studio
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 163-174
summary Application of commercial computer aided design systems to schematic design in a studio setting in a professionally oriented university provides the opportunity for observation of extensive use of CAD by designers with little or no orientation toward computing. Within a framework of studios intended to contrast media and highlight the issue of design representation, the most encouraging applications of computing have involved dynamic visual design representation. This paper presents a case study of three studios at the University of Texas at Austin together with commentary on the place of computing in this essentially artistic environment. It presents, in slide form, a body of aesthetically oriented CAD work which signals the spread of computer aided design out of the hands of researchers and into mainstream architectural design, where development of the visual and dynamic aspects of the medium may prove to be primary routes to improvement of itS power and acceptance. Much like a first design project, this paper then presents a lot of observations without yet much rigorous development of any one. It asks implicitly whether application of software constitutes research.

series ACADIA
email mmmc@umich.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id ed0f
authors Moshe, R. and Shaviv, E.
year 1988
title Natural Language Interface for CAAD System
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 137-148
summary This work explores issues involved in the development of a natural interface for man-machine dialogue in architectural design processes. A hand-touch on an interactive surface is suggested as the best natural-language interface for architectural CAD systems. To allow the development of a rich range of hand-touch natural-language for communicating information and commands to the computer, it is proposed to develop a new type of a touch-panel, for which a set of specifications is presented. A conceptual design of an architectural workstation, having the described touch-panel, is presented. This workstation is characterized by the integration of the entire range of control and communication facilities required for any architectural task into a single interactive unit. The conceptual model for this workstation is the standard size drawing board, on which the architect is accustomed to spread documents, drawings, books and tools, shuffle them around and interchange them freely by using the natural-language interface developed in this work. The potential of the suggested hand-touch natural-language and the proposed workstation are demonstrated by a case-study.
series CAAD Futures
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 0350
authors Norman, Richard B.
year 1988
title The Role of Color in Architectural Pedagogy Computation as a Creative Tool
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 217-223
summary From among the possible ways of introducing graphic computing in the design studio, it is customary to develop an argument from point, to line, to shape and finally to colon The logic of this process is undeniable as technology and perhaps as history, but it should be questioned as pedagogy. A designer, tuned to the visual focus of the studio and searching for creative self-expression is not overly stimulated by drawing lines, at first laboriously, in imitation of what he can do by hand.

Using color is among the more difficult of traditional studio chores -- it is not difficult on a computer. The manipulation of color can be a simple task if one is given reasonable software and a good graphic computer. Once introduced to students, the techniques for coloring elements on a computer find acceptance as a design tool. Methods can be quickly found for modifying the perception of space and form through the use of colon

Modern architecture is rooted in the study of color as a generator of form. This idea permeated the teachings of its founders. Yet modernist concern for color has over time evolved into a pedagogy of space and form at the exclusion of color, so much so that the modern movement today stands accused by its detractors as being formed in many shades of grey.

Modern architecture is not grey! This paper will illustrate how, using the modern graphic computer, color may be introduced to the studio and discovered as an element of design and as the substance of architectural form giving.

series ACADIA
email rnorman@CLEMSON.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 83b7
authors Oxman, Rivka E. and Gero, John S.
year 1988
title Designing by Prototype Refinement in Architecture
source Amsterdam: CMP, 1988. pp. 395- 412 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Design knowledge in the form of a priori knowledge is put forward as an essential ingredient in knowledge-based design. The concept of the prototype in design is introduced and different strategies for refinement processes are discussed. The concept of a generative prototype is proposed as a way to represent a generative design description in knowledge-based design systems. The refinement process is considered a successive classification of prototypes and subtypes, by executing design operations associated with the type. The application of these approaches is implemented in a system called PRODS: A PROtotype-based Design System. Finally, issues such as the role of prototypes and other forms of reasoning for creative design are discussed
keywords prototypes, knowledge base, design process
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4034
authors Rosenman, Michael A., Balachandran, M.B. and Gero, John S.
year 1988
title The Place of Expert Systems in Civil Engineering
source Symposium on Knowledge Based Systems in Civil Engineering. 1988. pp. 19-36 CADLINE has abstract only.
summary --- Also printed in 1989 Civil Engineering Systems 6(1&2):11-20. Engineering is concerned with much more than calculation and numeric analysis. It is concerned with ideas, concepts, judgement and deploying experience which cannot be represented numerically. All of these appear to be outside the realm of traditional engineering computing. Engineers make use of knowledge about objects, events and processes and make declarative statements about them which are often written down symbolically. These limitations of traditional computing in civil engineering can be overcome by expert systems. In this paper a number of expert systems dealing with analysis, design and knowledge acquisition in the field of civil engineering are presented
keywords analysis, design, civil engineering, expert systems, knowledge acquisition
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e05e
authors Schon, Donald A. and Wigging, Glenn
year 1988
title Kinds of Seeing and Their Functions in Designing
source November, 1988. 31 p. : ill
summary Architectural designing is described as a kind of experimentation that consists in reflective 'conversation' with the materials of a design situation. A designer sees, moves and sees again. Working in some visual medium -- drawing, in the article examples -- the designer sees what is 'there' in some representation of a site, draws in relation to it, and sees what has been drawn, thereby informing further designing. In all this 'seeing' the designer not only visually registers information but also constructs its meaning -- identifies patterns and gives them meaningsÔ h) 0*0*0*°° ÔŒ beyond themselves. Words like 'recognize,' 'detect,' 'discover' and 'appreciate' denote variants of seeing, as do such terms as 'seeing that,' 'seeing as' and 'seeing in.' The purpose here is to explore the kinds of seeing involved in designing and to describe their various functions. At local and global levels, and in many different ways, designing is an interaction of making and seeing, doing and discovering. On the basis of a few minuscule examples, the authors suggest some of the ways in which this sort of interaction works. Some conditions that enable it to work are described. And some of its consequences for design education and for the development of computer environments useful to designers are drawn
keywords design methods, education, architecture, cognition, perception, design process, semantics, protocol analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id eb5f
authors Al-Sallal, Khaled A. and Degelman, Larry 0.
year 1994
title A Hypermedia Model for Supporting Energy Design in Buildings
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 39-49
summary Several studies have discussed the limitations of the available CAAD tools and have proposed solutions [Brown and Novitski 1987, Brown 1990, Degelman and Kim 1988, Schuman et al 1988]. The lack of integration between the different tasks that these programs address and the design process is a major problem. Schuman et al [1988] argued that in architectural design many issues must be considered simultaneously before the synthesis of a final product can take place. Studies by Brown and Novitski [1987] and Brown [1990] discussed the difficulties involved with integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural process. One aspect of the problem is the neglect of technical factors during the initial phase of the design that, as the authors argued, results from changing the work environment and the laborious nature of the design process. Many of the current programs require the user to input a great deal of numerical values that are needed for the energy analysis. Although there are some programs that attempt to assist the user by setting default values, these programs distract the user with their extensive arrays of data. The appropriate design tool is the one that helps the user to easily view the principal components of the building design and specify their behaviors and interactions. Data abstraction and information parsimony are the key concepts in developing a successful design tool. Three different approaches for developing an appropriate CAAD tool were found in the literature. Although there are several similarities among them, each is unique in solving certain aspects of the problem. Brown and Novitski [1987] emphasize the learning factor of the tool as well as its highly graphical user interface. Degelman and Kim [1988] emphasize knowledge acquisition and the provision of simulation modules. The Windows and Daylighting Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) emphasizes the dynamic structuring of information, the intelligent linking of data, the integrity of the different issues of design and the design process, and the extensive use of images [Schuman et al 19881, these attributes incidentally define the word hypermedia. The LBL model, which uses hypermedia, seems to be the more promising direction for this type of research. However, there is still a need to establish a new model that integrates all aspects of the problem. The areas in which the present research departs from the LBL model can be listed as follows: it acknowledges the necessity of regarding the user as the center of the CAAD tool design, it develops a model that is based on one of the high level theories of human-computer interaction, and it develops a prototype tool that conforms to the model.

series ACADIA
email l-degelman@neo.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0697
authors Balachandran, M.B. and Gero, John S.
year 1988
title Development of a Knowledge-Based System for Structural Optimization
source Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1988. pp. 17-24
summary Optimization is a useful and challenging activity in structural design. It provides designers with tools for better designs while saving time in the design process. The features of conventional optimization tools are presented and their limitations are outlined. The impact and role of knowledge-based methodologies in structural optimization processes is discussed. Structural optimization involves a number of tasks which require human expertise, and are traditionally assisted by human designers. These include design optimization formulation, problem recognition and the selection of appropriate algorithm(s). In this representation and processing of constraints are crucial tasks. This paper presents a framework for developing a knowledge-based system to accomplish these tasks. Based on the needs and the nature of the optimization process, a conceptual architecture of an integrated knowledge-based system is presented. The structure and functions of various components of the system are described
keywords knowledge base, systems, integration, optimization, structures, engineering
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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