CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 3824
authors Mitchell, William J.
year 1989
title A New Agenda for Computer-Aided Architectural Design
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 27-43
summary The essential theoretical foundations for today's practical computer-aided design systems were laid more than two decades ago. They have served us well, but they are now sorely in need of revision. This paper suggests some directions that this revision might take. In particular, I focus on the roles of ambiguity and discontinuity in shape interpretation, instability in rules for carrying out shape computations, and nonmonotonicity in critical reasoning. I suggest that the challenge before us is to build a new generation of CAD systems that respond in sophisticated ways to these issues.
series ACADIA
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id cdd3
authors Mitchell, William J.
year 1990
title A New Agenda For Computer-Aided Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 1-16
summary Design is the computation of shape information that is needed to guide fabrication or construction of an artifact. This information normally specifies artifact topology (connections of vertices, edges, surfaces, and closed volumes), dimensions, angles, and tolerances on dimensions and angles. There may also be associations of symbols with subshapes to specify material and other such properties. The process of design takes different forms in different contexts, but the most usual computational operations are transformations (unary operations) and combinations (binary operations) of shapes in a two-dimensional drawing or a three-dimensional geometric model. An initial vocabulary of shapes, together with a repertoire of shape transformation and combination operators., establishes the shape algebra within which the computation takes place. The computation terminates successfully when it can be shown that certain predicates are satisfied by a shape produced by recursively applying the transformation and combination operators to the initial vocabulary. These predicates are usually stated in symbolic (verbal or numerical) form. Thus determination of whether a predicate is satisfied usually involves producing a numerical or verbal interpretation of a drawing, then deriving inferences from this interpretation by applying rules or formulae.
series CAAD Futures
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 8775
authors Cigolle, Mark and Coleman, Kim
year 1990
title Computer Integrated Design: Transformation as Process
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 333-346
summary To bring together poetry, magic and science, to explore beyond preconceptions, to invent spaces and forms which re-form and inform man's experience, these are the possibilities of architecture. Computer integrated design offers a means for extending the search, one which integrates both conceptual and perceptual issues in the making of architecture. The computer may assist in generating constructs which would not have been created by conventional methods. The application of computer techniques to design has to date been focused primarily on production aspects, an area which is already highly organizable and communicable. In conceptual and perceptual aspects of design, computer techniques remain underdeveloped. Since the impetus for- the development of computer applications has come from the immediate economics of practice rather than a theoretically based strategy, computer-aided design is currently biased toward the replication of conventional techniques rather than the exploration of new potentials. Over the last two years we have been involved in experimentation with methodologies which engage the computer in formative explorations of the design idea. Work produced from investigations by 4th and 5th year undergraduate students in computer integrated design studios that we have been teaching at the University of Southern California demonstrates the potential for the use of the computer as a principal tool in the exploration of syntax and perception, space and program. The challenge is to approach the making of architecture as an innovative act, one which does not rely on preconceived notions of design.
series CAAD Futures
email kcoleman@usc.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id e303
authors Coyne, Richard D. and Newton, S.
year 1989
title A Tutorial on Neural Networks and Expert Systems for Design
source University of Sydney, 1989. pp. 321-337. CADLINE has abstract only
summary This paper presents an overview of neural network (connectionist) systems and their potential contribution to computer-aided design. The authors discuss the appeal of neural networks and some of the problems. The major contribution to design is in the representation and manipulation of schemas. A neural network system can be 'taught' various examples (such as room descriptions). The system then apparently recognizes schemas (room types) and can produce novel but sensible combinations of descriptions constituting new types. A simple handworked example is presented, and the learning and reasoning mechanism is explained
keywords representation, CAD, expert systems, design, neural networks
series CADline
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id e1c9
authors Danahy, John and Wright, Robert
year 1989
title Computing and Design in the Canadian Schools of Architecture and Landscape Architecture: A Proposed Research Agenda for Integrated CAD & GIS in the 1990's
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 227-244
summary Conventional computer systems currently used by architecture and landscape architecture are not addressing complex decision making, system interface, dynamic manipulation and real time visualization of data. This paper identifies a strategy by which Canadian Schools could form a supportive network, incorporate and expand their research development. Within this larger framework schools would have better tools, a larger research base and access to funding as a group. The following discussion is an idea of what we at the Canadian Schools need to do differently over the next five years in our research and teaching in order to make a unique contribution to our fields.
series ACADIA
email jwdanahy@rogers.com
last changed 2003/04/26 19:42

_id a235
authors Danahy, John W.
year 1990
title Irises in a Landscape: An Experiment in Dynamic Interaction and Teaching Design Studio
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 363-376
summary The capacity of most computer-aided design systems is inadequate to represent landscape architectural ideas and compute landscape scenes quickly. As part of our teaching agenda, we decided to write software for the Silicon Graphics Iris workstations to tackle this problem directly. This paper begins with a discussion of our concerns about the use of CAD tools in the representation of landscape architectural space. Secondly, we discuss the approach that Toronto takes to computing and teaching with particular emphasis on the use of computers to support an integrated representational work environment. Finally, a fourth-year design studio that used our software is reviewed. Static illustrations of the system are presented here, although there is a videotape that demonstrates the dynamic nature of the system.
series CAAD Futures
email jwdanahy@rogers.com
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 4cf3
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1989
title Modeling Objects and Environments
source xix, 402 p. : ill. New York: Wiley, 1989. includes a short bibliography and index. Part of the Principles of Computer Aided Design series. --- See also review by Patricia G
summary McIntosh, in ACADIA Newsletter Vol. 9 No. 3 pp 20-23, June 1990. This book introduces the concept of modeling objects in the computer's memory so it can be used to aide the process of their design. Modeling is defined as an hierarchical abstraction of data and operators to manipulate it, subject to semantic integrity constraints that guarantee the realizability of the designed artifact in the real world. Starting with general concepts of modeling, the book moves on to discuss the modeling of shapes (form) in two and in three dimensions. The discussion covers both topology and geometry. Next the book introduces the concept of shape transformations (translation, scaling, rotation, etc.), both in absolute and in relative terms. The book then introduces the concept of assembly modeling, and adds non-graphical attributes to the representation. It concludes with a discussion on user interface and parametrization. The book includes many examples written in Pascal that complement the theory, and can be used as a basis for building a geometric modeling engine. It also includes exercises, so it can be used as a text book for a two-semester advance course in geometric modeling
keywords CAD, data structures, solid modeling, abstraction, polygons, solids, boolean operations, transforms, computer graphics, user interface, parametrization, B-rep, polyhedra, objects, PASCAL
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0565
authors Oxman, Robert and Oxman, Rivka
year 1990
title The Computability of Architectural Knowledge
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 171-185
summary In an important contribution to the theoretical foundation of design computing, Mitchell noted "an increasingly urgent need to establish a demonstrably sound, comprehensive, rigorously formalized theoretical foundation upon which to base practical software development efforts" (Mitchell, 1986). In this paper we propose such a theoretical framework. A basic assumption of this work is that the advancement of design computing is dependent upon the emergence of a rigorous formulation of knowledge in design. We present a model of knowledge in architectural design which suggests a promising conceptual basis for dealing with knowledge in computer-aided design systems. We require models which can represent the formal knowledge and manipulative operations of the designer in all of their complexity-that is formal models rather than just geometric models. Shape Grammars (Stiny,1980) represent an example of such models, and constitute a relatively high level of design knowledge as compared to, for example, use of symmetry operations to generate simple formal configurations. Building upon an understanding of the classes of design knowledge as the conceptual basis for formal modeling systems may contribute a new realization of the potential of the medium for design. This will require a comprehensive approach to the definition of architectural and design knowledge. We consider here the implications of a well-defined body of architectural and design knowledge for design education and the potential mutual interaction-in a knowledge-rich environment-of design learning and CAAD learning. The computational factors connected with the representation of design knowledge and its integration in design systems are among the key problems of CAAD. Mitchell's model of knowledge in design incorporates formal knowledge in a comprehensive, multi-level, hierarchical structure in which types of knowledge are correlated with computational concepts. In the main focus of this paper we present a structured, multi-level model of design knowledge which we discuss with respect to current architectural theoretical considerations. Finally, we analyze the computational and educational relevance of such models.
series CAAD Futures
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id c5a8
authors Schmitt, Gerhard N. (Ed.)
year 1991
title CAAD Futures '91 [Conference Proceedings]
source International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design 1989/ ISBN 3-528-08821-4 / Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, 594 p.
summary Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) is the art of design and computation. Since the establishment of the CAAD futures organization in 1985, experts meet every two years to explore the state-of-the-art and postulate on future development in Computer Aided Architectural Design. The fourth international CAAD futures conference took place in July 1991 in Zürich at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), organized by the Chair for CAAD. More than 220 participants from 25 countries attended the conference. Presentation topics were education, research, and application. The mission of CAAD futures '91 was to provide an international forum for the dissemination and discussion of future oriented developments and new experiences in the field of Computer Aided Architectural Design. This book is one result of the conference and is divided into three sections: Education, Research and Application. This international overview of the 1991 state-of-the- art in Computer Aided Architectural Design will serve as a reference for design teachers, researchers, and application developers interested in CAAD.
series CAAD Futures
email gerhard.schmitt@sl.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 450c
authors Akin, Ömer
year 1990
title Computational Design Instruction: Toward a Pedagogy
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 302-316
summary The computer offers enormous potential both in and out of the classroom that is realized only in limited ways through the applications available to us today. In the early days of the computer it was generally argued that it would replace the architect. When this idea became obsolete, the prevailing opinion of proponents and opponents alike shifted to the notion of the computer as merely adding to present design capabilities. This idea is so ingrained in our thinking that we still speak of "aiding" design with computers. It is clear to those who grasp the real potential of this still new technology - as in the case of many other major technological innovations - that it continues to change the way we design, rather than to merely augment or replace human designers. In the classroom the computer has the potential to radically change three fundamental ingredients: student, instruction, and instructor. It is obvious that changes of this kind spell out a commensurate change in design pedagogy. If the computer is going to be more than a passive instrument in the design studio, then design pedagogy will have to be changed, fundamentally. While the practice of computing in the studio continues to be a significant I aspect of architectural education, articulation of viable pedagogy for use in the design studio is truly rare. In this paper the question of pedagogy in the CAD studio will be considered first. Then one particular design studio taught during Fall 1988 at Carnegie Mellon University will be presented. Finally, we shall return to issues of change in the student, instruction, and instructor, as highlighted by this particular experience.
series CAAD Futures
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id a74a
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 1989
title Four Easy Questions
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.18.1-9.18.4
summary Should we teach CAAD? - yes, but why? Answer to this question is clear too. Question three - "when?" - on the 5, 6 and 7 term. Why so rate? - it is a compromise because "Architecture is an art" and students of architecture should know how to make a project without computers. How to teach CAAD? - we should teach haw to use professional computer programs and not programming. We must work out a new manual for architects. It should be constructed in such a way as to correspond to consecutive steps of the architectural design process.
keywords CAAD, Manuals, Architectural Design Process
series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 1e3d
authors Bernard, Rusty
year 1989
title USL/State Facility Planning and Control Automation Pilot Project
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 179-192
summary State supported Universities often lend a helping hand to their state by providing services which may be difficult or impossible to acquire otherwise. This presentation reviews the process of computer aided facility management with special reference to a recently completed joint venture project to fully automate Louisiana's Facility Planning and Control services.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id e19d
authors Birmingham, William P. and Siewiorek, Daniel P.
year 1989
title Capturing Designer Expertise : The CGEN System
source 18 p. : ill Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, August, 1989. EDRC 18-08-89. includes bibliography.
summary Knowledge-based systems are becoming pervasive in the computer-aided design area. For these systems to achieve satisfactory levels of performance large amounts of knowledge are necessary. However, the acquisition of knowledge is a difficult and tedious task. Automated knowledge-acquisition tools (AKAT) provide capabilities for quickly building and maintaining knowledge-bases. This paper describes the CGEN AKAT, which allows hardware designers, unfamiliar with artificial intelligence programming techniques, to deposit their expertise into a synthesis tool's knowledge-base. A set of experiments which tested CGEN's capabilities are presented. The experiments show that with CGEN hardware designers can produce high quality knowledge-bases
keywords CAD, automation, knowledge acquisition, tools, AI, programming, knowledge base, systems, integrated circuits, hardware
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 0105
authors Bossan, Mario and Ronchi, Alfredo M.
year 1989
title Presentazione Esperienza Didattica del Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Sistemi Edilizi e Territoriali - Politecnico di Milano
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.8.1-9.8.19
summary Didactic and research experience developed at the "Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Sistemi Edilizi e Territoriali del Politecnico di Milano" in the environment of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD). From the early part of the 1980's, using initially at an experimental level the resources available at the departmental centre of calculation various applications of CAD techniques in the building sector have been effected at DISET (Dipartimento di Ingegneria del Politecnico di Milano). During 1983, after a three year period of experimenting with these systems, it was decided to organise and activate a small computer aided design centre, within the department, the use of which was reserved for dissertation and research students.

series eCAADe
email ronchi@cdc8g5.cdc.polimi.it
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ascaad2014_002
id ascaad2014_002
authors Burry, Mark
year 2014
title BIM and the Building Site: Assimilating digital fabrication within craft traditions
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 27-36
summary This paper outlines a particular component of very well known project: Antoni Gaudí’s Sagrada Família Basilica in Barcelona (1882– on-going but scheduled for completion in 2026). At the time of writing the realisation of the project has proceeded for 87 years since Gaudí's death (1852-1926). As a building site it has been a living laboratory for the nexus between traditional construction offsite manufacturing and digital fabrication since the computers were first introduced to the project:CAD in 1989 closely followed by CAAD two years later. More remarkably CAD/CAM commenced its significant influence in 1991 with the take-up of sem robotised stone cutting and carving. The subject of this paper is an elevated auditorium space that is one of the relatively few ‘sketchy’ areas that Gaudí bequeathed the successors for the design of his magnum opus.
series ASCAAD
email mburry@rmit.edu.au
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id 6b83
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 1989
title Towards a New Generation of Computer Assistants for Architectural Design: An Existing Scenario
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 8.3.1.8.3.10
summary The context in which designers operate is becoming more and more complex, owing to the large number of codes, new materials, technologies and professional figures; new instruments are needed, therefore, to support and verify design activity. The results obtained in the first years of 'computer era' were barely sufficient. The hardware and software available today is capable of producing a new generation of CAD systems which can aid the designer in the process of conceiving and defining building objects. At the CAD Laboratory in the Department of Building and Environmental Control Techniques at the 'La Sapienza' University of Rome, research is being carried out with the aim of defining a new kind of Knowledge-based assistant for architectural design. To this purpose a partnership has been established whit a private firm called CARTESIANA, whose partners are software houses, designing and building associations.
keywords Knowledge-Based Architectural Design
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 10:06

_id 235d
authors Catalano, Fernando
year 1990
title The Computerized Design Firm
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 317-332
summary This paper is not just about the future of computerized design practice. It is about what to do today in contemplation of tomorrow-the issues of computercentered practice and the courses of action open to us can be discerned by the careful observer. The realities of computerized design practice are different from the issues on which design education still fixes its attention. To educators, the present paper recommends further clinical research on computerized design firms and suggests that case studies on the matter be developed and utilized as teaching material. Research conducted by the author of this paper indicates that a new form of design firm is emerging-the computerized design firm-totally supported and augmented by the new information technology. The present paper proceeds by introducing an abridged case study of an actual totally electronic, computerized design practice. Then, the paper concentrates on modelling the computerized design firm as an intelligent system, indicating non-trivial changes in its structure and strategy brought about by the introduction of the new information technology into its operations - among other considerations, different strategies and diverse conceptions of management and workgroup roles are highlighted. In particular, this paper points out that these structural and strategic changes reflect back on the technology of information with pressures to redirect present emphasis on the individual designer, working alone in an isolated workstation, to a more realistic conception of the designer as a member of an electronic workgroup. Finally, the paper underlines that this non-trivial conception demands that new hardware and software be developed to meet the needs of the electronic workgroup - which raises issues of human-machine interface. Further, it raises the key issues of how to represent and expose knowledge to users in intelligent information - sharing systems, designed to include not only good user interfaces for supporting problem-solving activities of individuals, but also good organizational interfaces for supporting the problem-solving activities of groups. The paper closes by charting promising directions for further research and with a few remarks about the computerized design firm's (near) future.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 2b8f
authors Colajanni, Benedetto and De Grassi, Mario
year 1989
title Inferential Mechanisms to be Employed in CAAD: The Castorp System
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 7.1.1-7.1.9
summary The paper presents an approach to the problems of architectural design aided by Artificial Intelligence techniques that can solve the difficulties related to combinatorial explosion, often encountered in the past. Three expert systems, dubbed "reasoners", capable of some elementary design work and a hypothesis for their interaction have been developed. Reasoner A has an "analogical" view of space. A notion of conflict, managed by means of fuzzy logic, has been introduced. It corresponds, in an intuitive and straightforward fashion, to the common notion of conflict or contradiction in real space as a consequence of improper overlapping of actual physical objects or of their functional pertinence. Reasoner B works on formalized models of building objects. It designs new patterns from given patterns taken as defaults. Reasoner C picks up from an archive of patterns the one which best suits a list of given goals. Design is the result of interaction between the three reasoners. Finally, the proposed schema raises questions about formal structures ("images") and about the nature of culturally-linked options ("memory") on which some preliminary considerations are made. Prototypes of the reasoners are operating at the Instituto di Edilizia of the University of Ancona, Italy.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/12 05:21

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