CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 21 to 40 of 201

_id 0711
authors Kunnath, S.K., Reinhorn, A.M. and Abel, J.F.
year 1990
title A Computational Tool for Evaluation of Seismic Performance of RC Buildings
source February, 1990. [1] 15 p. : ill. graphs, tables. includes bibliography: p. 10-11
summary Recent events have demonstrated the damaging power of earthquakes on structural assemblages resulting in immense loss of life and property (Mexico City, 1985; Armenia, 1988; San Francisco, 1989). While the present state-of-the-art in inelastic seismic response analysis of structures is capable of estimating response quantities in terms of deformations, stresses, etc., it has not established a physical qualification of these end-results into measures of damage sustained by the structure wherein system vulnerability is ascertained in terms of serviceability, repairability, and/or collapse. An enhanced computational tool is presented in this paper for evaluation of reinforced concrete structures (such as buildings and bridges) subjected to seismic loading. The program performs a series of tasks to enable a complete evaluation of the structural system: (a) elastic collapse- mode analysis to determine the base shear capacity of the system; (b) step-by-step time history analysis using a macromodel approach in which the inelastic behavior of RC structural components is incorporated; (c) reduction of the response quantities to damage indices so that a physical interpretation of the response is possible. The program is built around two graphical interfaces: one for preprocessing of structural and loading data; and the other for visualization of structural damage following the seismic analysis. This program can serve as an invaluable tool in estimating the seismic performance of existing RC buildings and for designing new structures within acceptable levels of damage
keywords seismic, structures, applications, evaluation, civil engineering, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 315caadria2004
id 315caadria2004
authors Kuo-Chung Wen, Wei-Lung Chen
year 2004
title Application of Genetic Algorithms to Establish Flooding Evacuation Path Model in Metropolitan Area
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 557-570
summary This research has shown the difficulties associated with the GIS and the flooding evacuation path search through the huge searching space generated during the network analysis process. This research also presents an approach to these problems by utilizing a search process whose concept is derived from natural genetics. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been introduced in the optimization problem solving area by Holland (1975) and Goldberg (1989) and have shown their usefulness through numerous applications. We apply GA and GIS to choice flooding evacuation path in metropolitan area in this study. We take the region of Shiji city in Taiwan for case. That could be divided into four parts. First, is to set the population of GA operation. Second, is to choose crossover and mutation. Third, is to calculate the fitness function of each generation and to select the better gene arrangement. Fourth, is to reproduce, after evolution, we can establish Flooding Evacuation Path that more reflect really human action and choice when flood takes place. However we can apply GA to calculate different evacuation path in different time series. Final, we compare and establish real model of evacuation path model to choosing flooding evacuation path.
series CAADRIA
email wenkc@ms1.hinet.net
last changed 2004/05/20 17:39

_id 49a8
authors McCall, R., Fischer, G. and Morch, A.
year 1990
title Supporting Reflection-in-Action in the Janus Design Environment
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 247-259
summary We have developed a computer-based design aid called Janus, which is based on a model of computer-supported design that we think has significance for the future of architectural education. Janus utilizes a knowledge-based approach to link a graphic construction system to hypertext. This allows the computer to make useful comments on the solutions that students construct in a CAD-like environment. These comments contain information intended to make students think more carefully about what they are doing while they are doing it. In other words, Janus promotes what Donald Schon has called "reflection-inaction" (Schon, 1983). The Janus design environment is named for the Roman god with a pair of faces looking in opposite directions. In our case the faces correspond to complementary design activities we call construction and argumentation. Construction is the activity of graphically creating the form of the solution e.g., a building. Traditionally this has been done with tracing paper, pencils, and pens. Argumentation is the activity of reasoning about the problem and its solution. This includes such things as considering what to do next, what alternative courses of action are available, and which course of action to choose. Argumentation is mostly verbal but partly graphical.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 07aa
authors McIntosh, John and Pihlak, Madis
year 1990
title The Thousand-Acre Sketch Problem
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 427-440
summary An unusually large sketch problem in urban design was given to an undergraduate studio class to introduce visualization techniques and to explore fundamental urban design principles. This thousand-acre sketch problem was distributed to students on a floppy disk as a three- dimensional computer model. The availability of a large number of Macintosh IIs and access to a pre-release version of the three-dimensional modeling program ModelShop allowed us to conduct this prototype electronic studio. This paper looks at the productivity gains experienced by our students during this project and discusses the increased level of understanding witnessed in student performance. More importantly, this sketch problem is examined as a philosophical parable for several pedagogical issues of design education in the microcomputer age.
series CAAD Futures
email john.mcintosh@asu.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id a708
authors McLaughlin, S. and Gero, John S.
year 1989
title Creative Processes : Can They be Automated?
source Design Computing Unit, Department of Architectural and Design Science, University of Sydney, 1989. pp. 69-94. CADLINE has abstract only
summary This paper attempts to identify the nature of creative processes and the relationship of those processes to the automated information processing techniques. Creative processes are characterized in terms of three categories of activity: problem solving, selection and reminding. Intuitive control is identified as a necessary component of any process capable of yielding a creative outcome. The nature of intuitive control is explored. The possibility of automating such control is considered. The implications of the presented characterization of creative processes in relation to the development of fully-automated systems and semi-automated support systems are described
keywords creativity, design process, architecture, problem solving, intuition, control, automation
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e91f
authors Mitchell, W.J., Liggett, R.S. and Tan, M.
year 1990
title Top-Down Knowledge-Based Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 137-148
summary Traditional computer drafting systems and three- dimensional geometric modeling systems work in bottom-up fashion. They provide a range of graphic primitives, such as vectors, arcs, and splines, together with operators for inserting, deleting, combining, and transforming instances of these. Thus they are conceptually very similar to word processors, with the difference that they operate on two- dimensional or three-dimensional patterns of graphic primitives rather than one-dimensional strings of characters. This sort of system is effective for input and editing of drawings or models that represent existing designs, but provides little more help than a pencil when you want to construct from scratch a drawing of some complex object such as a human figure, an automobile, or a classical column: you must depend on your own knowledge of what the pieces are and how to shape them and put them together. If you already know how to draw something then a computer drafting system will help you to do so efficiently, but if you do not know how to begin, or how to develop and refine the drawing, then the efficiency that you gain is of little practical consequence. And accelerated performance, flashier color graphics, or futuristic three-dimensional modes of interaction will not help with this problem at all. By contrast, experienced expert graphic artists and designers usually work in top-down fashion-beginning with a very schematic sketch of the whole object, then refining this, in step-by-step fashion, till the requisite level of precision and completeness is reached. For example, a figure drawing might begin as a "stick figure" schema showing lengths and angles of limbs, then be developed to show the general blocking of masses, and finally be resolved down to the finest details of contour and surface. Similarly, an architectural drawing might begin as a parti showing just a skeleton of construction lines, then be developed into a single-line floor plan, then a plan showing accurate wall thicknesses and openings, and finally a fully developed and detailed drawing.
series CAAD Futures
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 435a
authors Mitchell, William J.
year 1990
title Afterword: The Design Studio of The Future
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 479-494
summary Things began to change in the mid-1940s, though architects hardly noticed. Scientists and engineers started to speculate that the new electronic technologies which had emerged in the wartime years would profoundly change the character of intellectual work. Vannevar Bush (1945) imagined a device called the Memex, which would function as a personal information server. By the 1950s computers were becoming a commercial reality, and in 1956 Fortune magazine published a remarkably prescient depiction of a machine that we can now recognize as a computer-aided design workstation complete with graphic input devices and a multi-window display showing different views of a three-dimensional object. These wonderful machines were never built, much less put to any practical use, but they established a powerful idea.
series CAAD Futures
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id e324
authors Oksala, Tarkko
year 1989
title Typological Knowledge in Computer-Aided Housing Design -- Chapter 6
source Helsinki, Finland: the Finish Academy of Technology, 1989. No. 92: pp. 49-60 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper considers logical aspects in the knowledge and rule based approach to housing planning and design. The generation problem in housing design is formulated and some experimental work in the field is discussed. Logical methods in knowledge-based generation are introduced as a frame for various production situation. Formation of typical compositions is discussed as a basis for more advanced design. Generation of typological classes and mastering of individual solutions by means of sets of predicates are used to form knowledge-bases for elementary housing solutions. The possibilities of sentenial calculi are characterized in order to allow reconstruction of tradition-guided expert know how. Finally some desirable characteristics of computer aided housing design systems are illustrated
keywords housing, knowledge base, design, shape grammars, synthesis, floor plans, layout
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id ce38
authors Paoluzzi, Alberto and Sansoni, Claudio
year 1989
title A Programming Language for Architectural Symbolic Modeling
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 8.4.1-8.4.16
summary In this paper a software project supporting architectural design is outlined. Such a project aims to develop the new design language PLASM (a Programming Language for Architectural Symbolic Modeling), which is planned to be a very high-level, user-oriented language, belonging to the class of constraint languages. The language PLASM will support a small set of abstract data types which are significant in various outstanding problems of architectural design, and will offer both procedural features and non-procedural constraints satisfaction. It will allow the designer to make use of a large set of computing tools in any phase of architectural design, in order to explore a wider set of design solutions. Customizable evaluation functions will be available in the language. The execution of a PLASM program may result either in generating or in updating a semantic network over a set of data objects solving the geometric problem under consideration. The proposed language will support both abstract data types significant in the design domain, and tools performing automatized data generation and transformations between different data types. The modification of any object in such a system, both performed by editing a daemon program and/or by interactively modifying a data object, will result in the immediate propagation of changes into the problem network, by activating a message passing mechanism.

series eCAADe
email c.sansoni@archiworld.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 5bec
authors Penrose, R.
year 1989
title The Emperor's New Mind. Concerning Computers Minds, and the Laws of Physics.
source Oxford University Press
summary The Emperor's New Mind, physicist Roger Penrose's 1989 treatise attacking the foundations of strong artificial intelligence, is crucial for anyone interested in the history of thinking about AI and consciousness. Part survey of modern physics, part exploration of the philosophy of mind, the book is not for casual readers--though it's not overly technical, it rarely pauses to let the reader catch a breath. The overview of relativity and quantum theory, written by a master, is priceless and uncontroversial. The exploration of consciousness and AI, though, is generally considered as resting on shakier ground. Penrose claims that there is an intimate, perhaps unknowable relation between quantum effects and our thinking, and ultimately derives his anti-AI stance from his proposition that some, if not all, of our thinking is non-algorithmic. Of course, these days we believe that there are other avenues to AI than traditional algorithmic programming; while he has been accused of setting up straw robots to knock down, this accusation is unfair. Little was then known about the power of neural networks and behavior-based robotics to simulate (and, some would say, produce) intelligent problem-solving behavior. Whether these tools will lead to strong AI is ultimately a question of belief, not proof, and The Emperor's New Mind offers powerful arguments useful to believer and nonbeliever alike
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 1920
authors Riesbeck, C. and Schank, R.C.
year 1989
title Inside Case-based Reasoning
source Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ
summary Case-based reasoning, broadly construed, is the process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems. An auto mechanic who fixes an engine by recalling another car that exhibited similar symptoms is using case-based reasoning. A lawyer who advocates a particular outcome in a trial based on legal precedents is using case-based reasoning. It has been argued that case-based reasoning is not only a powerful method for computer reasoning, but also a pervasive behavior in everyday human problem solving. Case-based reasoning (CBR) has been formalized as a four-step process:N 1. Retrieve: Given a target problem, retrieve cases from memory that are relevant to solving it. A case consists of a problem, its solution, and, typically, annotations about how the solution was derived. For example, suppose Fred wants to prepare blueberry pancakes. Being a novice cook, the most relevant experience he can recall is one in which he successfully made plain pancakes. The procedure he followed for making the plain pancakes, together with justifications for decisions made along the way, constitutes Fred's retrieved case. 2. Reuse: Map the solution from the previous case to the target problem. This may involve adapting the solution as needed to fit the new situation. In the pancake example, Fred must adapt his retrieved solution to include the addition of blueberries. 3. Revise: Having mapped the previous solution to the target situation, test the new solution in the real world (or a simulation) and, if necessary, revise. Suppose Fred adapted his pancake solution by adding blueberries to the batter. After mixing, he discovers that the batter has turned blue -- an undesired effect. This suggests the following revision: delay the addition of blueberries until after the batter has been ladled into the pan. 4. Retain: After the solution has been successfully adapted to the target problem, store the resulting experience as a new case in memory. Fred, accordingly, records his newfound procedure for making blueberry pancakes, thereby enriching his set of stored experiences, and better preparing him for future pancake-making demands. At first glance, CBR may seem similar to the rule-induction algorithmsP of machine learning.N Like a rule-induction algorithm, CBR starts with a set of cases or training examples; it forms generalizations of these examples, albeit implicit ones, by identifying commonalities between a retrieved case and the target problem. For instance, when Fred mapped his procedure for plain pancakes to blueberry pancakes, he decided to use the same basic batter and frying method, thus implicitly generalizing the set of situations under which the batter and frying method can be used. The key difference, however, between the implicit generalization in CBR and the generalization in rule induction lies in when the generalization is made. A rule-induction algorithm draws its generalizations from a set of training examples before the target problem is even known; that is, it performs eager generalization. For instance, if a rule-induction algorithm were given recipes for plain pancakes, Dutch apple pancakes, and banana pancakes as its training examples, it would have to derive, at training time, a set of general rules for making all types of pancakes. It would not be until testing time that it would be given, say, the task of cooking blueberry pancakes. The difficulty for the rule-induction algorithm is in anticipating the different directions in which it should attempt to generalize its training examples. This is in contrast to CBR, which delays (implicit) generalization of its cases until testing time -- a strategy of lazy generalization. In the pancake example, CBR has already been given the target problem of cooking blueberry pancakes; thus it can generalize its cases exactly as needed to cover this situation. CBR therefore tends to be a good approach for rich, complex domains in which there are myriad ways to generalize a case.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 8d9d
authors Tascini, Guido and Puliti, Paolo
year 1989
title Automatic Recognition of Graphic Documentation in Building Design
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 7.6.1-7.6.6
summary Automatic image recognition by means of Artificial Intelligence techniques poses some unsolved problems but it can be viable in technical drawing because standards allow the problem to be managed in terms of knowledge. The paper deals with the feasibility of a knowledge-based design. A semantic network is employed to model knowledge and an expectation-driven recognition strategy is used.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/04/01 19:07

_id ddss2004_d-63
id ddss2004_d-63
authors Wen, K.-C. and W.-L. Chen
year 2004
title Applying Genetic Algorithms to Establish Disaster Decision Support System for Flooding Evacuation Path of Hsichih Area in Taiwan
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 63-75
summary Because of the special geography features and subtropics weather in Taiwan, we need to provide correct information to help people making decision when they are in disaster. So the disaster decision support system must offer proper information of evacuation path to people. This research has shown the difficulties associated with the GIS and the flooding evacuation path search through the huge searching space generated during the network analysis process. This research also presents an approach to these problems by utilizing a search process whose concept is derived from natural genetics. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been introduced in the optimization problem solving area by Holland (1975) and Goldberg (1989) and have shown their usefulness through numerous applications. We apply GA and GIS to choice flooding evacuation path in metropolitan area in this study. We take the region of Shiji city in Taiwan for case. Firstly, we establish the node relationship of GA calculation, the level of the weight is the standard of the date that is exported by Disaster Database. Secondly, we apply GA to calculate different evacuation path in different time series. Finally, we build the model of choosing flooding evacuation path.
keywords Genetic Algorithms, Decision Support System, GIS, Evacuation Path
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id abdb
authors Wood, D.J., Brown, A.G.P. and Brown, G.Z.
year 1989
title A Sunlight Design Tool
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.3.1-9.3.7
summary Computer-based techniques for Environmental design tend to be analytical. They are aimed at the engineer who takes a previously designed building and then analyses the environmental performance of the building so as to be able to give performance requirements for servicing plant. Thus the building has been designed by an architect using experience and some broad background knowledge of environmental performance, but it is usually not until the analysis stage is reached that the building's environmental performance is accurately assessed. A sunlight design program (application) has been written to address this problem. This program is aimed at the designer and should allow them to assess quickly the sunlight characteristics of' their building. The intention has been to produce a tool which is easy to understand and use: a tool which is interactive and in which data can be changed easily. Thus the tool can be used: to check the effect of design changes on sunlight performance. The tool is meant to the both an aid to design itself and to the understanding of the environmental performance of buildings. This paper describes the application and the use of it by architectural students. We describe the application, assess it and evaluate its educational value by comparing students' estimations of sunlight performance in their own buildings with performance predicted by it. We look at how students interact with the program to modify their design in response to this interaction and report on their evaluation of the application during a controlled exercise.

keywords Design Tools, Sunlight, Design Education
series eCAADe
email andygpb@liverpool.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 2786
authors Woodwark, J.R.
year 1989
title Splitting Set-Theoretic Solid Models into Connected Components
source 10 p. : ill. Winchester: IBM UK Scientific Center, IBM United Kingdom Laboratories Limited, June, 1989. IBM UKSC 210. includes bibliography In general, there is no way to tell how many pieces (connected components) a set-theoretic (CSG) solid model represents, except via conversion to a boundary model. Recent work on the elimination of redundant primitives has been linked with techniques for identifying connected components in quad-trees and oct-trees into a strategy to attack this problem. Some success has been achieved, and an experimental Prolog program, working in two dimensions, that finds connected components and determines the set-theoretic representation of each component, is reported, and further developments proposed. CSG / quadtree / octree / primitives / algorithms. 43. Woodwark, J. R. and Quinlan K. M. 'Reducing the Effect of Complexity on Volume Model Evaluation.' Computer Aided Design. April, 1982. pp. 89-95 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary A major problem with volume modelling systems is that processing times may increase with model complexity in a worse than linear fashion. The authors have addressed this problem, for picture generation, by repeatedly dividing the space occupied by a model, and evaluating the sub-models created only when they meet a criterion of simplicity. Hidden surface elimination has been integrated with evaluation, in such a way that major portions of the model which are not visible are never evaluated. An example demonstrates a better than linear relationship between model complexity and computation time, and also shows the effect of picture complexity on the performance of the process
keywords CAD, computational geometry, solid modeling, geometric modeling, algorithms, hidden surfaces, CSG
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0e93
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1989
title Interactive Animation on the Macintosh II
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.5.1-9.5.6
summary The efficiency of images in communication between humans has so far been used almost exclusively by TV and other mass medias. The costs have been too great to encourage the use of images in the financially restricted everyday practice of architecture. With a range of application programs for the Apple Macintosh II the vision has come close to reality. It is now possible to create guided walks with the chance to choose different routes and views in a model of buildings and surroundings in 256 colour graphics. The makers of these programs may not have foreseen this use for their products and that is why it takes quite a lot of effort to make all the necessary images. With some supplementary routines however, this will be made much easier. Animation can also be used to visualize different processes inside a building. We have been studying the working environment in mechanical industry. The goal of this project is to make communication possible between the workers at all levels of an organization in planning changes and has so far been very successful. The use of this technique is only limited by our imagination and funding. Some examples to be tested in the near future are "Escape at a fire", "Animation of a Dairy", "Traffic situations in a parking lot-, "CAD-working place" and others. One of the difficulties in interactive planning with users has been to come close enough to their reality. With animated images it is possible to visualize what is going to happen and what it is going to look like in a more understandable way. In education this must be a challenging possibility. Changes and processes are some of the most difficult subjects to describe and explain! The software used is a handful of individual programs which, thanks to the graphics standards of the Macintosh, can exchange data with each other.

series eCAADe
email Jonas.af_Klercker@caad.lth.se
more http://www.caad.lth.se/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 450c
authors Akin, Ömer
year 1990
title Computational Design Instruction: Toward a Pedagogy
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 302-316
summary The computer offers enormous potential both in and out of the classroom that is realized only in limited ways through the applications available to us today. In the early days of the computer it was generally argued that it would replace the architect. When this idea became obsolete, the prevailing opinion of proponents and opponents alike shifted to the notion of the computer as merely adding to present design capabilities. This idea is so ingrained in our thinking that we still speak of "aiding" design with computers. It is clear to those who grasp the real potential of this still new technology - as in the case of many other major technological innovations - that it continues to change the way we design, rather than to merely augment or replace human designers. In the classroom the computer has the potential to radically change three fundamental ingredients: student, instruction, and instructor. It is obvious that changes of this kind spell out a commensurate change in design pedagogy. If the computer is going to be more than a passive instrument in the design studio, then design pedagogy will have to be changed, fundamentally. While the practice of computing in the studio continues to be a significant I aspect of architectural education, articulation of viable pedagogy for use in the design studio is truly rare. In this paper the question of pedagogy in the CAD studio will be considered first. Then one particular design studio taught during Fall 1988 at Carnegie Mellon University will be presented. Finally, we shall return to issues of change in the student, instruction, and instructor, as highlighted by this particular experience.
series CAAD Futures
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id sigradi2012_30
id sigradi2012_30
authors Angeluzzi, Gustavo; Hanns, Daniela Kutschat
year 2012
title Um levantamento de requisitos gerais para o desenvolvimento e posicionamento de DOOTERS – um aplicativo lúdico de listas de tarefas para iPhone [A survey of general requirements for developing and positioning DOOTERS - a to-do list application for iPhone]
source SIGraDi 2012 [Proceedings of the 16th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Brasil - Fortaleza 13-16 November 2012, pp. 191-195
summary DOOTERS is a to-do list application for iPhone which entertains and motivates the user to get things done. It was developed based on requirements obtained trough: 1. the study of several personal information organizing methods (Covey, 1989; Allen, 2005; Foster, 2006); 2. answers to a task lists user focused questionnaire; 3. observation of to-do list users while creating lists and organizing tasks; 4. comparison of digital and non-digital task list media (paper, computer and mobile device); 5. analysis of profiles, behaviors and to-do list applications for iPhone. In this paper, the authors present the process of obtaining requirements for developing and positioning DOOTERS.
keywords information and interface design, requirements, to-do list application, iPhone, DOOTERS
series SIGRADI
email dk.hanns@uol.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

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