CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 201

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
email kenfield@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 45e6
authors Agger, Kristian and Lentz, Uffe (Eds.)
year 1989
title CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [Conference Proceedings]
source eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4 / Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989
summary In the announcement of the sixth eCAADe Conference we stated that It is held at a time where CAAD is moving into practice very fast, with heavy influence on research and education. We stated that research is directed towards the early design phases, and that education is facing the problem of mass education.

In that situation much benefit can be obtained from collaboration with practice. We decided to give the conference the title “CAAD: Education - Research and Practice” to state the importance of practice as a test bench.

The conference papers cover education and research in depth in many important areas and give a good overview, whereas the practical theme is more or less missing, indicating, that experience here is still modest.

At the lecture material market and the exhibition the situation is opposite and shows state of art in practical use.

series eCAADe
email uffe.lentz@a-aarhus.dk
last changed 1998/08/24 09:36

_id 4bf3
authors Blinn, James F.
year 1989
title Optimal Tubes
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. September, 1989. vol. 9: pp. 8-13 : ill. (some col.)
summary The author discusses how to cut down the number of polygons required to model and render the Voyager spacecraft. The geometric problem is to find the tangent lines from a point to a circle. There are two ways to go about solving this, one using garden-variety analytical geometry and the other using high tech homogeneous coordinates. The author in this column discusses the simple way
keywords programming, geometry, algorithms, computer graphics, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id b4c4
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 2000
title A framework for an Architectural Collaborative Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 57-60
summary The building industry involves a larger number of disciplines, operators and professionals than other industrial processes. Its peculiarity is that the products (building objects) have a number of parts (building elements) that does not differ much from the number of classes into which building objects can be conceptually subdivided. Another important characteristic is that the building industry produces unique products (de Vries and van Zutphen, 1992). This is not an isolated situation but indeed one that is spreading also in other industrial fields. For example, production niches have proved successful in the automotive and computer industries (Carrara, Fioravanti, & Novembri, 1989). Building design is a complex multi-disciplinary process, which demands a high degree of co-ordination and co-operation among separate teams, each having its own specific knowledge and its own set of specific design tools. Establishing an environment for design tool integration is a prerequisite for network-based distributed work. It was attempted to solve the problem of efficient, user-friendly, and fast information exchange among operators by treating it simply as an exchange of data. But the failure of IGES, CGM, PHIGS confirms that data have different meanings and importance in different contexts. The STandard for Exchange of Product data, ISO 10303 Part 106 BCCM, relating to AEC field (Wix, 1997), seems to be too complex to be applied to professional studios. Moreover its structure is too deep and the conceptual classifications based on it do not allow multi-inheritance (Ekholm, 1996). From now on we shall adopt the BCCM semantic that defines the actor as "a functional participant in building construction"; and we shall define designer as "every member of the class formed by designers" (architects, engineers, town-planners, construction managers, etc.).
keywords Architectural Design Process, Collaborative Design, Knowledge Engineering, Dynamic Object Oriented Programming
series eCAADe
email fioravanti@uniroma1.it
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 235d
authors Catalano, Fernando
year 1990
title The Computerized Design Firm
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 317-332
summary This paper is not just about the future of computerized design practice. It is about what to do today in contemplation of tomorrow-the issues of computercentered practice and the courses of action open to us can be discerned by the careful observer. The realities of computerized design practice are different from the issues on which design education still fixes its attention. To educators, the present paper recommends further clinical research on computerized design firms and suggests that case studies on the matter be developed and utilized as teaching material. Research conducted by the author of this paper indicates that a new form of design firm is emerging-the computerized design firm-totally supported and augmented by the new information technology. The present paper proceeds by introducing an abridged case study of an actual totally electronic, computerized design practice. Then, the paper concentrates on modelling the computerized design firm as an intelligent system, indicating non-trivial changes in its structure and strategy brought about by the introduction of the new information technology into its operations - among other considerations, different strategies and diverse conceptions of management and workgroup roles are highlighted. In particular, this paper points out that these structural and strategic changes reflect back on the technology of information with pressures to redirect present emphasis on the individual designer, working alone in an isolated workstation, to a more realistic conception of the designer as a member of an electronic workgroup. Finally, the paper underlines that this non-trivial conception demands that new hardware and software be developed to meet the needs of the electronic workgroup - which raises issues of human-machine interface. Further, it raises the key issues of how to represent and expose knowledge to users in intelligent information - sharing systems, designed to include not only good user interfaces for supporting problem-solving activities of individuals, but also good organizational interfaces for supporting the problem-solving activities of groups. The paper closes by charting promising directions for further research and with a few remarks about the computerized design firm's (near) future.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 8bdf
authors Crocker, Gary A. and Reinke, William F.
year 1989
title Boundary Evaluation in a Non-Manifold Environment
source November, 1989. 30 p., [16] p. of ill. includes bibliography
summary The recent availability of Non-Manifold Topology (NMT) enables the coexistence of wireframe geometry, surfaces, and solids in a single representation with complete topological resolution. This in turn allows a new approach to boundary evaluation. This new approach merges a set of primitives into a single Boundary REPresentation (B-rep), and selects the desired Boolean results without destroying any B-rep entities. The results of the Boolean operations are displayed by drawing only selected entities. The B-rep resulting from the merge contains a complete description of the input primitives. While traditional algorithms allow incremental addition of primitives, this new approach also allows incremental deletion of primitives from the merged B-rep. Changes in Boolean operators and/or their order of evaluation can be reflected in the B-rep simply by changing the criteria of the selection process. Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) editing operations can be mirrored in the B-rep incrementally, i.e. without performing complete reevaluation of the B-rep from its constituent primitive definitions. In addition, the domain of boundary evaluation has been extended to include Boolean operations between wireframe geometry, surfaces, and solids. This new approach has been successfully implemented and tested to boundary evaluation. Test results have shown an order of magnitude reduction in the cost associated with reflecting CSG editing operations on existing B-reps, with only minimal additional cost for initial construction. Also shown are examples of Boolean operations between solids, surfaces, and wires
keywords computational geometry, boolean operations, solid modeling, B-rep, CSG, representation, topology, curved surfaces, intersection, curves,
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a718
authors Cuomo, Donna L. and Sharit, Joseph
year 1989
title A Study of Human Performance in Computer-Aided Architectural Design
source International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction. 1989. vol. 1: pp. 69-107 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper describes the development and application of a cognitively-based performance methodology for assessing human performance on computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) tasks. Two CAAD tasks were employed that were hypothesized to be different in terms of the underlying cognitive processes required for these tasks to be performed. Methods of manipulating task complexity within each of these tasks were then developed. Six architectural graduate students were trained on a commercially available CAAD system. Each student performed the two experimental design tasks at one of three levels of complexity. The data collected included protocols, video recordings of the computer screen, and an interactive script (time-stamped record of every command input and the computers textual response). Performance measures and methods of analysis were developed which reflected the cognitive processes used by the human during design (including problem- solving techniques, planning times, heuristics employed, etc.) and the role of the computer as a design aid. The analysis techniques used included graphical techniques, Markov process analysis, protocol analysis, and error classification and analysis. The results of the study indicated that some measures more directly reflected human design activity while others more directly reflected the efficiency of interaction between the computer and the human. The discussion of the results focuses primarily on the usefulness of the various measures comprising the performance methodology, the usefulness of the tasks employed including methods for manipulating task complexity, and the effectiveness of this system as well as CAAD systems in general for aiding human design processes
keywords protocol analysis, problem solving, planning, CAD, design process, performance, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a235
authors Danahy, John W.
year 1990
title Irises in a Landscape: An Experiment in Dynamic Interaction and Teaching Design Studio
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 363-376
summary The capacity of most computer-aided design systems is inadequate to represent landscape architectural ideas and compute landscape scenes quickly. As part of our teaching agenda, we decided to write software for the Silicon Graphics Iris workstations to tackle this problem directly. This paper begins with a discussion of our concerns about the use of CAD tools in the representation of landscape architectural space. Secondly, we discuss the approach that Toronto takes to computing and teaching with particular emphasis on the use of computers to support an integrated representational work environment. Finally, a fourth-year design studio that used our software is reviewed. Static illustrations of the system are presented here, although there is a videotape that demonstrates the dynamic nature of the system.
series CAAD Futures
email jwdanahy@rogers.com
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 298e
authors Dave, Bharat and Woodbury, Robert
year 1990
title Computer Modeling: A First Course in Design Computing
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 61-76
summary Computation in design has long been a focus in our department. In recent years our faculty has paid particular attention to the use of computation in professional architectural education. The result is a shared vision of computers in the curriculum [Woodbury 1985] and a set of courses, some with considerable historyland others just now being initiated. We (Dave and Woodbury) have jointly developed and at various times over the last seven years have taught Computer Modeling, the most introductory of these courses. This is a required course for all the incoming freshmen students in the department. In this paper we describe Computer Modeling: its context, the issues and topics it addresses, the tasks it requires of students, and the questions and opportunities that it raises. Computer Modeling is a course about concepts, about ways of explicitly understanding design and its relation to computation. Procedural skills and algorithmic problem solving techniques are given only secondary emphasis. In essential terms, the course is about models, of design processes, of designed objects, of computation and of computational design. Its lessons are intended to communicate a structure of such models to students and through this structure to demonstrate a relationship between computation and design. It is hoped that this structure can be used as a framework, around which students can continue to develop an understanding of computers in design.
series CAAD Futures
email b.dave@unimelb.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 4104
authors Ervin, Stephen McTee
year 1989
title The structure and function of diagrams in environmental design :a computational inquiry
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology
summary The design process often begins with a graphical description of the proposed device or system and sketching is the physical expression of the design engineer's thinking process. Computer Aided Design is a technique in which man and machine are blended into a problem solving team, intimately coupling the best characteristics of each. Solid modelling is developed to act as the common medium between man and the computer. At present it is achieved mainly by designing with volumes and hence does not leave much room for sketching input, the traditional physical expression of the thinking process of the design engineer. This thesis describes a method of accepting isometric free hand sketching as the input to a solid model. The design engineer is allowed to make a sketch on top of a digitizer indicating (i) visible lines; (ii) hidden lines; (iii) construction lines; (iv) centre lines; (v) erased lines; and (vi) redundant lines as the input. The computer then processes this sketch by identifying the line segments, fitting the best possible lines, removing the erased lines, ignoring the redundant lines and finally merging the hidden lines and visible lines to form the lines in the solid in an interactive manner. The program then uses these lines and the information about the three dimensional origin of the object and produces three dimensional information such as the faces, loops, holes, rings, edges and vertices which are sufficient to build a solid model. This is achieved in the following manner. The points in the sketch are first written into a file. The computer than reads this file, breaks the group of points into sub-groups belonging to individual line segments, fits the best lines and identify the vertices in two dimensions. These improved lines in two dimensions are then merged to form the lines and vertices in the solid. These lines are then used together with the three dimensional origin (or any other point) to produce the wireframe model in three dimensions. The loops in the wireframe models are then identified and surface equations are fitted to these loops. Finally all the necessary inputs to build a B-rep solid model are produced.
series thesis:PhD
email servin@gsd.harvard.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 84f6
authors Ferrari, Carlo and Naticchia, Berardo
year 1989
title Definition of Spatial Elements of the Building System: “Reasoner A” in the Castorp System
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 7.2.1-7.2.10
summary This paper tackles the problem of the functional and morphological definition of elementary spaces (in relation to the overall definition of the building object) through the study and the modelization of the designer's knowledge and of the cognitive processes which use it. An interactive automatic system which solves the problem of the placing of objects within a predefined environment is then described. This is the first element in a more general system which is meant as an intelligent aid to building design.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/04/01 19:01

_id 68c8
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R. and Fenves, S. (et al.)
year 1994
title SEED: A Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design
source Proceeding of IKM '94, Weimar, Germany, pp. 5-10
summary The SEED project intends to develop a software environment that supports the early phases in building design (Flemming et al., 1993). The goal is to provide support, in principle, for the preliminary design of buildings in all aspects that can gain from computer support. This includes using the computer not only for analysis and evaluation, but also more actively for the generation of designs, or more accurately, for the rapid generation of design representations. A major motivation for the development of SEED is to bring the results of two multi-generational research efforts focusing on `generative' design systems closer to practice: 1. LOOS/ABLOOS, a generative system for the synthesis of layouts of rectangles (Flemming et al., 1988; Flemming, 1989; Coyne and Flemming, 1990; Coyne, 1991); 2. GENESIS, a rule-based system that supports the generation of assemblies of 3-dimensional solids (Heisserman, 1991; Heisserman and Woodbury, 1993). The rapid generation of design representations can take advantage of special opportunities when it deals with a recurring building type, that is, a building type dealt with frequently by the users of the system. Design firms - from housing manufacturers to government agencies - accumulate considerable experience with recurring building types. But current CAD systems capture this experience and support its reuse only marginally. SEED intends to provide systematic support for the storing and retrieval of past solutions and their adaptation to similar problem situations. This motivation aligns aspects of SEED closely with current work in Artificial Intelligence that focuses on case-based design (see, for example, Kolodner, 1991; Domeshek and Kolodner, 1992; Hua et al., 1992).
series other
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id a9b9
authors Galle, Per
year 1989
title Computer Methods in Architectural Problem Solving : Critique and Proposals
source Journal of Architectural and Planning Research. Spring, 1989. vol. 6: pp. 34-54 : ill. includes bibliography
summary While the development of modelling and drafting tools for computer-aided design has reached a state of considerable maturity, computerized decision support in architectural sketch design is still in its infancy after more than 20 years. The paper analyzes the difficulties of developing computer tools for architectural problem solving in the early stages of design where decisions of majors importance are made. The potentials of computer methods are discussed in relation to design as a static system of information, and to design as a creative process. Two key problems are identified, and on this background current computer methods intended for use in architectural sketch design are critically reviewed. As a result some guidelines are suggested for future research into computer-aided architectural problem solving. The purpose of the paper is twofold: (1) to encourage research that will take this field into a state of maturity and acceptance by practitioners, and (2) to provoke further debate on the question of how to do it
keywords architecture, CAD, design process, information, problem solving
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id e3c7
authors Galle, Per
year 1989
title Computer Methods in Architectural Problem Solving: Critique and Proposals
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 6.4.1-6.4.21
summary While the development of modeling and drafting tools for computer-aided design has reached a state of considerable maturity, computerized decision support in architectural sketch design is still in its infancy after more than 20 years. The paper analyzes the difficulties of developing computer tools for architectural problem solving in the early stages of design where decisions of major importance are made. The potentials of computer methods are discussed in relation to design as a static system of information and to design as a dynamic creative process. Two key problems are identified, and on this background current computer methods intended for use in architectural sketch design are critically reviewed. As a result some guidelines are suggested for future research into computer- aided architectural problem solving. The purpose of the paper is twofold: (1) to encourage research that will take this field into a state of maturity and acceptance by practitioners, and (2) to provoke further debate on the question of how to do it.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:59

_id 841d
authors Gilleard, John D.
year 1989
title Integrating Microcomputer CADr and Bill of Material Routines Using AutoCad
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.2.1-9.2.10
summary Through the integration of microcomputer-aided draughting (CADr), and in particular with AutoCAD, the industries most extensively used CADr program, and automated routines for the production of bills of materials, a dramatic incr-ease in productivity is possible in the architectural design domain. Working from a variety of material take off methods complete cost estimates may be achieved through the manipulation of drawing data and exchanging the information with third-party estimating software. However, the area of study is currently at a formative stage of development and full integration, although technically feasible, is rarely attempted. Therefore, the paper comments on the development of 'in-house' routines using AutoCAD's data extraction features and AutoLISP; reviews current commercial systems of interfacing AutoCAD with bills of materials and automated specification routines; and, finally, discusses possible future advances in this major area of study.

keywords AutoCAD, Bills-of-Materials, Integration
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 10:09

_id 1a4e
authors Goel, Ashok Kumar
year 1989
title Integration of case-based reasoning and model-based reasoning for adaptive design problem solving
source Ohio State University
summary In the case-based approach to design, a novel problem is solved by adapting a design known to solve a related problem. Adapting a known design to solve a related problem by the commonly used methods of heuristic association and search, however, can be computationally expensive if the adaptation search space is not small. The adaptation space, then, needs to be decomposed into smaller and simpler spaces that can be searched more efficiently and effectively. The knowledge for decomposing the adaptation search space can be represented as a behavior-structure model that specifies how the structure of the known design results in its output behaviors. This research investigates the use of such behavior-structure models for adapting the designs of physical devices. Comprehension of how the output behaviors of a design arise from its structure is represented as a behavioral component-substance model for the design. The model explicitly specifies (i) the expected output behaviors of the design including its functions, (ii) the elementary structural and behavioral interactions between components and substances constituting the structure of the design, and (iii) the internal causal behaviors of the design that compose the elementary interactions into its output behaviors. The causal behaviors of the design, in this model, are indexed by the expected output behaviors for which they are responsible. The model aids case-based design in several ways. First, it identifies conceptual primitives for specifying the functions of designs, which are used to index the known designs stored in a case-based memory. Second, it identifies elementary types of behavior transformations and elementary types of structure modifications. Third, it provides knowledge for decomposition of the adaptation search space into smaller spaces so that the search for the needed structure modifications is localized. Fourth, it leads to a novel method for simulating the behavioral effects of structure modifications. The output and causal behaviors of the modified design, in this method, are derived by revising the output and causal behaviors of the known design. This integrative approach unifies case-based methods, associative methods, heuristic search methods, decomposition methods, and model-based methods into one architecture for adaptive design problem solving. Core portions of this approach have been implemented in an experimental design system called KRITIK.  
keywords Case Based Reasoning; Model Based Reasoning; Adaptive Design; Problem Solving
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id a076
authors Hyde, R.
year 1989
title Design procedures in architectural design: applications in CAAD
source Design Studies, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 239-245
summary Normally, CAAD systems are used at the production end of the design process. Yet there is great potential, particularly with the graphics facility offered by these systems, to use them at the beginning or formative part of the design process. One problem with this direction lies in the procedures for using these systems. This paper compares traditional procedures for using graphic information with computer-aided procedures and discusses the relative merits of the approaches for the designer.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id f4fb
authors Karasick, Michael
year 1989
title On the Representation and Manipulation of Rigid Solids
source McGill University, Department of Computer Science, Montreal
summary Solid modeling studies how to represent geometric properties of solids by computer. A fundamental operation is the construction of representations of solids. Algorithms for set operations construct boundary representations of solids from boundary representations of other solids. A correct and efficient intersection algorithm for polyhedral solids that uses boundary representations is described. A finite-precision implementation of the algorithm uses incidence tests that use symbolic inference in order to limit errors due to finite-precision approximations. The incidence tests are described and experimental evidence is presented to show that the incidence tests are both empirically reliable and practical. The intersection algorithm uses a new boundary representation called the Star-Edge representation. A complementation algorithm for solids that uses the new representation is given, and an algorithm is given that uses the new representation to determine if two boundary representations describe the same solid. A canonical boundary representation for solids is described and used to prove a lower bound for the same-object problem.
series thesis:PhD
email msk@us.ibm.com
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id acadia06_079
id acadia06_079
authors Kumar, Shilpi
year 2006
title Architecture and Industrial Design A Convergent Process for Design
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 79-94
summary The use of technology has grown with the way design professions have evolved over time. Changing needs, desires of comfort, and perceptions of the consumers have led to a distinct improvement in the design of both product and architecture. The use of the digital media and emerging technologies has brought a dramatic change to the design process allowing us to view, feel, and mould a virtual object at every stage of design, development, and engineering. Change is often quick and easy since a virtual product does not inherently carry the biases of its physical counterpart. In order to communicate ideas across the team, digital processes are also used to bring together opinions, experiences, and perspectives. These methods encourage decision making based on information rather than prejudice or instinct. Thus, digital exchanges (technology) impact firm strategies at three levels: product, process, and administrative or support activities (Adler 1989).Digital tools for design exchange in Industrial Design (ID) began much earlier than many other professions. The profession of Architecture is also slowly moving to a similar model with digital exchange finding increasing prevalence in drawing, modeling, performance simulation, design collaboration, construction management, and building fabrication. The biggest problem is the disintegrated use of technology in the architectural profession without a strategy toward streamlining the design process from conception to fabrication. In this paper we investigate how the use of technology has evolved in the professions of Industrial Design and Architecture comparatively in their product, process, and support activities. Further, we will present a set of guidelines that will help architects in the convergence of design process, helping in a more efficient work flow with a strategic use of digital technology.
series ACADIA
email skumar@caad.msstate.edu
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

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