CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 0e93
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1989
title Interactive Animation on the Macintosh II
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.5.1-9.5.6
summary The efficiency of images in communication between humans has so far been used almost exclusively by TV and other mass medias. The costs have been too great to encourage the use of images in the financially restricted everyday practice of architecture. With a range of application programs for the Apple Macintosh II the vision has come close to reality. It is now possible to create guided walks with the chance to choose different routes and views in a model of buildings and surroundings in 256 colour graphics. The makers of these programs may not have foreseen this use for their products and that is why it takes quite a lot of effort to make all the necessary images. With some supplementary routines however, this will be made much easier. Animation can also be used to visualize different processes inside a building. We have been studying the working environment in mechanical industry. The goal of this project is to make communication possible between the workers at all levels of an organization in planning changes and has so far been very successful. The use of this technique is only limited by our imagination and funding. Some examples to be tested in the near future are "Escape at a fire", "Animation of a Dairy", "Traffic situations in a parking lot-, "CAD-working place" and others. One of the difficulties in interactive planning with users has been to come close enough to their reality. With animated images it is possible to visualize what is going to happen and what it is going to look like in a more understandable way. In education this must be a challenging possibility. Changes and processes are some of the most difficult subjects to describe and explain! The software used is a handful of individual programs which, thanks to the graphics standards of the Macintosh, can exchange data with each other.

series eCAADe
email Jonas.af_Klercker@caad.lth.se
more http://www.caad.lth.se/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id a74a
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 1989
title Four Easy Questions
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.18.1-9.18.4
summary Should we teach CAAD? - yes, but why? Answer to this question is clear too. Question three - "when?" - on the 5, 6 and 7 term. Why so rate? - it is a compromise because "Architecture is an art" and students of architecture should know how to make a project without computers. How to teach CAAD? - we should teach haw to use professional computer programs and not programming. We must work out a new manual for architects. It should be constructed in such a way as to correspond to consecutive steps of the architectural design process.
keywords CAAD, Manuals, Architectural Design Process
series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 1e3d
authors Bernard, Rusty
year 1989
title USL/State Facility Planning and Control Automation Pilot Project
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 179-192
summary State supported Universities often lend a helping hand to their state by providing services which may be difficult or impossible to acquire otherwise. This presentation reviews the process of computer aided facility management with special reference to a recently completed joint venture project to fully automate Louisiana's Facility Planning and Control services.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id ascaad2014_002
id ascaad2014_002
authors Burry, Mark
year 2014
title BIM and the Building Site: Assimilating digital fabrication within craft traditions
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 27-36
summary This paper outlines a particular component of very well known project: Antoni Gaudí’s Sagrada Família Basilica in Barcelona (1882– on-going but scheduled for completion in 2026). At the time of writing the realisation of the project has proceeded for 87 years since Gaudí's death (1852-1926). As a building site it has been a living laboratory for the nexus between traditional construction offsite manufacturing and digital fabrication since the computers were first introduced to the project:CAD in 1989 closely followed by CAAD two years later. More remarkably CAD/CAM commenced its significant influence in 1991 with the take-up of sem robotised stone cutting and carving. The subject of this paper is an elevated auditorium space that is one of the relatively few ‘sketchy’ areas that Gaudí bequeathed the successors for the design of his magnum opus.
series ASCAAD
email mburry@rmit.edu.au
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 268e
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1990
title Integration of Knowledge Based Systems and Media
source BYGGA MED IT. Informatiosteknologi i byggprocess. November, 1990. 4 p. : ill. includes bibliography The borders between different representations and their implementation in the computer systems are not sharp. It is possible now to create models which bring about a clearer and more obvious connection between the application and the computer stored models. knowledge base / systems / media / modeling / representation / integration. 32. Christiansson, Per. 'The KBS-MEDIA Project.' MacWorld Expo Asia '89. 1989. 2 p. : ill.
summary A short description of the KBS-MEDIA, knowledge based systems - media project advanced software
keywords knowledge base, systems, media
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 417a
authors Cipriani, R., Lagomarsino, A.D., Stagnaro, A., Valenti, E. and Sambolino, T.
year 1990
title Some Years' Experience Teaching CAAD
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 347-361
summary In the conventional way of teaching architecture, it is common to think of design as the final synthesis of an intellectual process (composizione in Italian) integrating different elements from different curriculum subjects: history, structural analysis., technology, regional and urban planning, and so on. These elements, being comprehensive of their specific domains, together build the project. This process is supported by a long traditional that cannot easily be modified; however, we must not consider it to be the only one. Architectural practice should be much more. The Scuole di Architettura has walked a long and difficult road in the last thirty years., with a significant widening of interest in social, political, and economic issues. There have been recurring attempts at epistemological reformulation in some areas. There has been an acknowledgment of a crisis in contemporary town planning and a dimming of several certitudes that had developed with the birth and growth of the modernist school. And there has been a weakening of the promises that had given life to the vigorous discussion about town and regional planning. All of this leads to a reconsideration of the meaning and the deeper assumptions that the project implies, a question mark at the center of the human sciences that architectural practice involves. The old tradition., which assigned composition a central role in the project, is no longer sufficient because it is related to a reductive reading of epistemology that views human sciences as defining segments of physical knowledge of the actual world. Contemporary reflection on the difference between understanding and unfolding, together with the attention given to interpreting a moment as compared to purely describing one, gives to the project the task of inquiry instead of solution.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 801b
authors Cocchioni, Cristina and Mecca, Saverio
year 1989
title Utilization of Rules for Modular Coordination in Relational Models to Be Employed In CAAD
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 7.5.1-7.5.11
summary The paper deals with the structure of experimental software to be used for the interactive relational database and a graphic package. Proposed is the development that considers the main implications of a modular space grid for the project´s development already from the stage of preliminary wire-frame design.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/04/01 19:00

_id e365
authors Danahy, John
year 1989
title Intuition & Computer Visualization in an Urban Design Studio
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 4.2.1-4.2.6
summary This paper will present prototypical software being used in the teaching of urban design to students and for use by professionals in the early stages of a project. The system is intended to support a heuristic approach to design. That is, it supports a process of refining ideas and understandings through a process of trial and error. The support or aid to design comes in the form of a didactic real-time programme. Its power lies in its ability to provide instantaneous response to operations on the data that can allow one to develop three-dimensional spatial ideas in an intuitively driven manner. This condition appears to occur for both novice and expert computer operators.

The presentation will present our experience to-date in using conventional computer graphic tools to represent design ideas and contrast it with a video demonstration of ow prototypical dynamic urban design modelling software for the Silicon Graphics IRIS computers.

keywords Intuition, Visualization, Urban Design, Modelling, Real-Time
series eCAADe
email jwdanahy@rogers.com
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id e33a
authors De Cola, S., De Cola, B. and Pentasuglia, Francesco
year 1990
title Messina 1908: The Invisible City
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 239-246
summary The initial purposes of this work were to build a 3D model of the old city of Messina and to reconstruct a walk through it; to understand the "Ghost city," the parts that form it, and the rules of its plan, which are explicit in some cases but hidden most of the time; to measure its space, appreciate the similarities to and differences from modern city plans, and use the information to improve the plans of tomorrow. It might seem a useless study of a nonexistent city, and yet during the months of detailed work, of patient reconstruction from the surveys and photographs of the city destroyed in 1908, we began to consider how it was still possible to obtain spatial values of and to project behaviors in the lost city, in other words, to practice tests on memory that are very interesting for people working in a context in which memory no longer exists. The work presented here is the first stage of a more complex research project still to be carried out on Messina as it was at the end of the nineteenth century. Here we constructed a 3D model of some parts of the city prior to the earthquake of 1908 and made a five-minute video, using cartoon techniques, of an "impossible" walk through the city. The fragments of the city were reconstructed from available documentary sources, primarily photographic images, which tended to be of the most important places in the city.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id a8b7
authors De Grassi, Mario and Di Manzo, Mauro
year 1989
title The Design of Buildings as Changes of Known Solutions: A Model for “Reasoner B” ; Reasoner B" in the Castorp System
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 7.3.1-7.3.9
summary The paper presents a study aimed at the modelization of a design operation of perturbation of an architectural framework in order to comply with a series of given design specifications. A formalized representation of the building object is assumed, Artificial Intelligence techniques are adopted to work on it. It is assumed that the computer carries out deformations starting from one of these structures in order to attain to a solution consistent with project specifications. A description of the structures employed for the representation of the building body (matroids) is firstly proposed. A planning theme is then assumed, as an example, whose main feature is to maintain the outer perimeter of a dwelling, to change its internal distribution in such a way as to resemble as closely as possible to the original and yet meaningfully alter its typology.
series eCAADe
type normal paper
last changed 2007/07/23 07:19

_id b66a
authors Dvorak, Robert W.
year 1989
title CAD Tools for Systems Theory and Bottom Up Design
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 209-226
summary The use of CAD is investigated in the teaching of systems theory to a fourth year group of design students. A comparison is made between the CAD group using MacArchitrion and a non-CAD group using traditional design methods. The paper includes a discussion of the meaning of systems design theories, relates the CAD and non-CAD student design methods and illustrates the results. It also includes recommendations for improvements so the computer can become more effective in this type of design teaching. Finally, it concludes with recommendations from the students at the end of the semester project. The basic premise for the CAD design group is that computers should encourage students to understand and use systems design theory.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:27

_id 68c8
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R. and Fenves, S. (et al.)
year 1994
title SEED: A Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design
source Proceeding of IKM '94, Weimar, Germany, pp. 5-10
summary The SEED project intends to develop a software environment that supports the early phases in building design (Flemming et al., 1993). The goal is to provide support, in principle, for the preliminary design of buildings in all aspects that can gain from computer support. This includes using the computer not only for analysis and evaluation, but also more actively for the generation of designs, or more accurately, for the rapid generation of design representations. A major motivation for the development of SEED is to bring the results of two multi-generational research efforts focusing on `generative' design systems closer to practice: 1. LOOS/ABLOOS, a generative system for the synthesis of layouts of rectangles (Flemming et al., 1988; Flemming, 1989; Coyne and Flemming, 1990; Coyne, 1991); 2. GENESIS, a rule-based system that supports the generation of assemblies of 3-dimensional solids (Heisserman, 1991; Heisserman and Woodbury, 1993). The rapid generation of design representations can take advantage of special opportunities when it deals with a recurring building type, that is, a building type dealt with frequently by the users of the system. Design firms - from housing manufacturers to government agencies - accumulate considerable experience with recurring building types. But current CAD systems capture this experience and support its reuse only marginally. SEED intends to provide systematic support for the storing and retrieval of past solutions and their adaptation to similar problem situations. This motivation aligns aspects of SEED closely with current work in Artificial Intelligence that focuses on case-based design (see, for example, Kolodner, 1991; Domeshek and Kolodner, 1992; Hua et al., 1992).
series other
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 8cff
authors Fridqvist, Sverker
year 1989
title Computers as a Creative Tool in Architecture
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.6.1-9.6.4
summary The School of Architecture at Lund Institute of Technology was augmented by the establishment of the Computer Studio in 1987. As a result the school now has a device for teaching and research in the architects' use of computers. We are now conducting several research projects as well as courses and an education project. The third and fourth years of the education at the school of architecture are arranged as education projects instead of traditional lecturing. The students choose from projects that are organised by different departments at the School of Architecture. The issue is that the students will ask for instruction when felt needed, and that learning will therefore be more efficient. The Computer Studio has conducted such a project during the first half of 1989. We have tried to encourage the students to use our different computers and programs in new and creative ways. One of the issues of the computer project is to teach the students how computers are used at the architects offices today as well as expected future developments. The students shall be acquainted well enough with present and future possibilities to make good choices when deciding upon buying computers for architectural use. Another issue is to develop new ways of making and presenting architecture by using computers. As a group the teachers at the school of architecture have a very restrictive attitude towards the use of computers. We hope that our project will open their minds for the possibilities of computers, and to engage them in the development of new ways to use computers creatively in architecture. An interesting question is if the use of computers will yield different outcomes of he students' work than traditional methods. An object for research is whether the added possibilities of considering different aspects of he design by using a computer will make for higher quality of the results.

series eCAADe
email Sverker.Fridqvist@caad.lth.se
more http://www.caad.lth.se/
last changed 1998/08/24 10:13

_id 22ed
authors Glaser, Migges M.
year 1989
title ART + COM Lab Report - BERKOM Project "New Media in Urban Planning"
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 6.1.1-6.1.6
summary The highly developed glasfiber technology of the Berlin ISDN-B prototype network will make it possible to test a future benefit of the possibilities of real time visual communication for architects and planers in their home office. In the project an external user will be able to share high end visual outputs of a Service Center for Visualisation with his own low end CAAD workstation via ISDN-B. The capabilities of these services will range from a still picture archive, real time access to video film archive, a variety of conventional database services to special postproduction for his own 3D data models. The transferred 3D model can be rendered an animated on the Center's systems, if requested also integrated into a video background film. The production will than be available on his workstation screen. These new means will be evaluated in the view of the architects new possibilities for the design process.
keywords Multimedia, CAAD Services, Computer Animation
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:58

_id 578d
authors Helpenstein, H. (Ed.)
year 1993
title CAD geometry data exchange using STEP
source Berlin: Springer-Verlag
summary With increasing demand for data exchange in computer integrated manufacturing, a neutral connection between dissimilar systems is needed. After a few national and European attempts, a worldwide standardization of product data has been developed. Standard ISO 10303 (STEP - STandard for Exchange of Product data) produced in its first version those parts that are relevant for CAD geometrical data. A European consortium of 14 CAD vendors and users was supported by the ESPRIT programme to influence the emerging standard and implement early applications for it. Over the years 1989-1992, project CADEX (CAD geometry data EXchange) worked out application protocols as a contribution to STEP; developed a software toolkit that reads, writes, and manipulates STEP data; and, based on this toolkit, implemented data exchange processors for ten different CAD and FEA systems. This book reports the work done in project CADEX and describes all its results in detail.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id a87a
authors Kroszynski, U.I., Palstorem, Bj. and Trostmann, E. (et al)
year 1989
title Geometric Data Transfer Between CAD Systems : Solid Models
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications September, 1989. vol. 9: pp. 57-71 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The CAD/CAM community is showing great interest in the development of data exchange standards. This article highlights some aspects of the work accomplished during the first phase of the ESPRIT project CAD*1. Part of this work has resulted in a specification for the exchange of solid models, as well as in some pilot implementations of processors based on this specification. This work also contributes to the efforts of the International Standards Organization (ISO) in developing the Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP). The authors present a summary of the CAD*1 approach, addressing the structure of neutral files for solids, entities, and attributes supporting three kinds of representations; facilities for the transfer of parametric designs; referencing library components; and other general mechanisms. Also is described the current state of the specification and processor implementations. An example of a CAD*1 neutral file is included. Results from cycle and intersystem solid model transfer tests are presented, showing the practicality of the CAD*1 proposal. B-rep model transfer results are discussed in some detail. Finally, the authors outline the relationship of this work with standardization
keywords communication, solid modeling, standards, STEP, B-rep
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id ec09
authors Lemma, Massimo and Fornarelli, Andrea
year 1989
title Decisional Problems in the Building Process. Contextual Evaluation of Performance and Cost Parameters: “Reasoner C" in the Castorp System
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 7.4.1-7.4.8
summary The study contains the provisional results of investigations currently in progress on the application of CAD and Design Management techniques to building design. The research aims at showing the feasibility of decisional procedures and economic analyses in current design practice, even referring to rather complex buildings, by exploring the possibility to know in full detail the technical and economic feasibility of a project already at its early stages.

series eCAADe
last changed 2002/12/19 11:30

_id c903
authors Mark, Earl
year 1990
title Case Studies in Moviemaking and Computer-Aided Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 393-412
summary A movie which is developed from site location video, sync sound, and computer graphics animation can provide a highly convincing simulation of reality. A movie that conveys a sense of the space, materials and juxtaposition of objects of a proposed architectural design provides a special kind of realism, where the representation may be of a proposed building that exists only within the mind of an architect. For an experienced architect, however, the movie may not provide a good surrogate experience for what it feels like to actually be within the architectural space. In these case studies, a few projects that combine moviemaking and computer-aided design technologies are examined. These projects were completed using a combination of resources at the MIT School of Architecture and Planning and the Harvard Graduate School of Design. The integrated use of these media is presented as conceptualized with the Electronic Design Studio, a research project that has been supported over the past five years by Project Athena at MIT. The impact of movies and computer-aided design on the perception of architectural space is also reported- based on a pilot study of twenty architectural students.
series CAAD Futures
email ejmark@virginia.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 07aa
authors McIntosh, John and Pihlak, Madis
year 1990
title The Thousand-Acre Sketch Problem
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 427-440
summary An unusually large sketch problem in urban design was given to an undergraduate studio class to introduce visualization techniques and to explore fundamental urban design principles. This thousand-acre sketch problem was distributed to students on a floppy disk as a three- dimensional computer model. The availability of a large number of Macintosh IIs and access to a pre-release version of the three-dimensional modeling program ModelShop allowed us to conduct this prototype electronic studio. This paper looks at the productivity gains experienced by our students during this project and discusses the increased level of understanding witnessed in student performance. More importantly, this sketch problem is examined as a philosophical parable for several pedagogical issues of design education in the microcomputer age.
series CAAD Futures
email john.mcintosh@asu.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

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