CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 203

_id 20a1
authors Hall, R.
year 1989
title Illumination and Color in Computer Generated Imagery
source New York: Springer Verlag
summary This is a discussion of the physics of illumination and the associated techniques for modeling global and local illumination in computer generated imagery. It was state-of-the-art in 1988, but is now rather outdated. It does include discussions of physics and color theory basics that have not changed, and a discussion of illumination models through ray tracing models using various specular reflectance functions and including Fresnel effects. This text is currently out of print. However, we still receive numerous requests for an electronic version of the source code in the book.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 840b
authors Knight, Weissman T.
year 1989
title Design and Computation
source August, 1989
summary Report No. 3: A color grammar that describes the composition and landscaping of Mughul gardens is discussed
keywords shape grammars
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e91f
authors Mitchell, W.J., Liggett, R.S. and Tan, M.
year 1990
title Top-Down Knowledge-Based Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 137-148
summary Traditional computer drafting systems and three- dimensional geometric modeling systems work in bottom-up fashion. They provide a range of graphic primitives, such as vectors, arcs, and splines, together with operators for inserting, deleting, combining, and transforming instances of these. Thus they are conceptually very similar to word processors, with the difference that they operate on two- dimensional or three-dimensional patterns of graphic primitives rather than one-dimensional strings of characters. This sort of system is effective for input and editing of drawings or models that represent existing designs, but provides little more help than a pencil when you want to construct from scratch a drawing of some complex object such as a human figure, an automobile, or a classical column: you must depend on your own knowledge of what the pieces are and how to shape them and put them together. If you already know how to draw something then a computer drafting system will help you to do so efficiently, but if you do not know how to begin, or how to develop and refine the drawing, then the efficiency that you gain is of little practical consequence. And accelerated performance, flashier color graphics, or futuristic three-dimensional modes of interaction will not help with this problem at all. By contrast, experienced expert graphic artists and designers usually work in top-down fashion-beginning with a very schematic sketch of the whole object, then refining this, in step-by-step fashion, till the requisite level of precision and completeness is reached. For example, a figure drawing might begin as a "stick figure" schema showing lengths and angles of limbs, then be developed to show the general blocking of masses, and finally be resolved down to the finest details of contour and surface. Similarly, an architectural drawing might begin as a parti showing just a skeleton of construction lines, then be developed into a single-line floor plan, then a plan showing accurate wall thicknesses and openings, and finally a fully developed and detailed drawing.
series CAAD Futures
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id effd
authors Morozumi, M., Nakamura, H. and Kijima, Y.
year 1990
title A Primitive-Instancing Interactive 3-D Modeling System for Spatial Design Studies
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 457-468
summary The authors have developed a basic, interactive, primitive-instancing 3-D modeling system (CAADF), which is based on a high-speed 3-D color graphic workstation, and have tested its potential ability to support spatial design studies in an architectural design studio. After- a review of work performed by a student with the system, this paper concludes that this system provides an attractive environment for spatial design studies which conventional CAD systems have not achieved. The interactive process of 3-D modeling in perspective or isometric view images and the dynamic viewing utility are the most successful features of the system. In contrast to those advantages, the resolution of color graphic display is a limitation of the system. The authors conclude that if sufficiently many appropriate 3-D geometric primitives are supported by a CAD system, a primitive instancing method can significantly reduce the work entailed in object modeling.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 55f1
authors Norman, Richard B. and Lowrey, Robert C.
year 1989
title Ground Sculpture on CADD: Forming and Coloring the Landform in a Graphic Data Base
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 49-59
summary A graphic data base of our campus is being developed to record physical inventory and to provide a three- dimensional development tool for the University. The campus has many changes in elevation. Computer terrain modeling is planned to provide traditional contour information as well as to furnish a base for perspective views of the campus. Selecting an appropriate geometry to record the landform, and determining criteria for coloration of the ground surface is critical to the success of the project. Methods of modeling a three-dimensional surface are discussed; color principles which articulate landform are explored. A methodology is illustrated which achieves a flexible model of the campus landform.
series ACADIA
email rnorman@CLEMSON.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id c1e2
authors Norman, Richard B.
year 1990
title Color Contrast and CAAD: The Seven Color Contrasts of Johannes Itten
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 469-478
summary Computer-aided architectural design is design with color - the monitor of a CAAD system is a display of color, a place where images are produced by color manipulation. The success of these images can be judged by the ability of the colors selected to communicate graphic ideas and to convey graphic information. Color as a visual phenomena intrigued the impressionist painters at the end of the nineteenth century; it was the focus of much attention at the Bauhaus in Weimar Germany. When Johannes Itten was appointed as a Master of Form at the Bauhaus in 1919, he developed "an aesthetic color theory originating in the experience and intuition of a painter". In his definitive work, Itten postulates seven ways to communicate visual information with color. "Each is unique in character and artistic value, in visual, expressive and symbolic effect, and together they constitute the fundamental resource of color design". These seven contrasts provide a lexicon of the methods by which computer images convey graphic information. The colors which form a computer image can be simply manipulated to illustrate these contrasts; today's computers make color manipulation a very simple matter. This paper is composed of short essays about each of these contrasts and how they can guide the selection of appropriate colors to convey visual intent on a picture tube. Considered together the contrasts of Itten provide a fundamental resource for electronic graphic communication.
series CAAD Futures
email rnorman@CLEMSON.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 0155
authors Sastre, R., Puigdomènech, J., Jorge, J. and Cusido, A.
year 1989
title A Comprehensive Approach to the Tensile Structures Design
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.7.1-9.7.8
summary We present an integrated set of programs as CAD-tools for the design of shapes, evaluation of stress field and displacements of tensile membrane structures as well as a way to find out their surface patterns. In early times simulation of physical small models has been used to obtain a phenomenological view rather than quantitative information about these structures. A progressive way has been thought to make a comprehensive an practical approach to this kind of structure, characterized by its ability to offer displacements of long range. We propose like a first steep a rough simulation through elastic member models or elastic-surface models. An iterative process starts, based on visualizations through different peripheric devices (screened and plottered graphic outputs). This first steep ends by the formulation of an optimum geometric performances of the structure. The resulting geometry serves like a source structure for a more accurate calculus achieved by the Finite Element Method. Discretization of the continues structure is carried out in a network of tiny triangular elements. Finally, 3-D realism techniques has been used to represent the form adopted or stress field calculated or both at the same time, by an adequate use of the color attributes of the finite elements.

keywords Tensile structures, Finite Elements
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 10:14

_id 020e
authors Wade, John W. and Baur, J. Scott
year 1989
title Evaluation According to a Metric for Visual Order
source December 1989. 18 p. includes bibliography
summary Varying degrees of stimulus in the environment are appropriate to different tasks, so a uniform level of order in design cannot account for the many activities that will take place in a building. An ability to measure the visual order in a scene would facilitate the evaluation of design proposals. The designer could apply such a measure to establish a preferred level of order for a particular activity. A measure of order would also make possible the evaluation of the finished building product in terms of its use and in terms of any explicit goals of the designer. This paper describes a group of hypotheses proposed by Wade in a 1976 paper intended to develop a metric for visual order. It then examines the available literature to include other research that relates to this topic. It brings the earlier hypotheses up to date, outlines a strategy for testing those hypotheses, and proposes to develop the metric using computer image processing techniques. It also describes the methods that will be applied to validate the metric against the order that people perceive in the environment. To establish an objective standard for order, the metric that assesses the order will address only the features and attributes specific to scene. Thus, the measure will depend on neither the semantic content nor the figural properties of the field. The hypotheses under investigation are: (1) That visual order is related to the number of potential figure-ground shifts present in a visual field; (2) that the number of figure- ground shifts is dependent on the degree of articulation of the field; (3) that the number of figure-ground shifts is dependent on the distribution of color in the visual field; and (4) that the number of figure-ground shifts is dependent on the structure of the visual field. The various components of these elements are also detailed. From this, the designer will be able to determine which components of a design possess the appropriate level of order for a given task and which do not. The direct application of these principles will be explored in the design studio
keywords evaluation, analysis, aesthetics, form
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ddss2004_d-63
id ddss2004_d-63
authors Wen, K.-C. and W.-L. Chen
year 2004
title Applying Genetic Algorithms to Establish Disaster Decision Support System for Flooding Evacuation Path of Hsichih Area in Taiwan
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 63-75
summary Because of the special geography features and subtropics weather in Taiwan, we need to provide correct information to help people making decision when they are in disaster. So the disaster decision support system must offer proper information of evacuation path to people. This research has shown the difficulties associated with the GIS and the flooding evacuation path search through the huge searching space generated during the network analysis process. This research also presents an approach to these problems by utilizing a search process whose concept is derived from natural genetics. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been introduced in the optimization problem solving area by Holland (1975) and Goldberg (1989) and have shown their usefulness through numerous applications. We apply GA and GIS to choice flooding evacuation path in metropolitan area in this study. We take the region of Shiji city in Taiwan for case. Firstly, we establish the node relationship of GA calculation, the level of the weight is the standard of the date that is exported by Disaster Database. Secondly, we apply GA to calculate different evacuation path in different time series. Finally, we build the model of choosing flooding evacuation path.
keywords Genetic Algorithms, Decision Support System, GIS, Evacuation Path
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id 0e93
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1989
title Interactive Animation on the Macintosh II
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.5.1-9.5.6
summary The efficiency of images in communication between humans has so far been used almost exclusively by TV and other mass medias. The costs have been too great to encourage the use of images in the financially restricted everyday practice of architecture. With a range of application programs for the Apple Macintosh II the vision has come close to reality. It is now possible to create guided walks with the chance to choose different routes and views in a model of buildings and surroundings in 256 colour graphics. The makers of these programs may not have foreseen this use for their products and that is why it takes quite a lot of effort to make all the necessary images. With some supplementary routines however, this will be made much easier. Animation can also be used to visualize different processes inside a building. We have been studying the working environment in mechanical industry. The goal of this project is to make communication possible between the workers at all levels of an organization in planning changes and has so far been very successful. The use of this technique is only limited by our imagination and funding. Some examples to be tested in the near future are "Escape at a fire", "Animation of a Dairy", "Traffic situations in a parking lot-, "CAD-working place" and others. One of the difficulties in interactive planning with users has been to come close enough to their reality. With animated images it is possible to visualize what is going to happen and what it is going to look like in a more understandable way. In education this must be a challenging possibility. Changes and processes are some of the most difficult subjects to describe and explain! The software used is a handful of individual programs which, thanks to the graphics standards of the Macintosh, can exchange data with each other.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 45e6
authors Agger, Kristian and Lentz, Uffe (Eds.)
year 1989
title CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [Conference Proceedings]
source eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4 / Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989
summary In the announcement of the sixth eCAADe Conference we stated that It is held at a time where CAAD is moving into practice very fast, with heavy influence on research and education. We stated that research is directed towards the early design phases, and that education is facing the problem of mass education.

In that situation much benefit can be obtained from collaboration with practice. We decided to give the conference the title “CAAD: Education - Research and Practice” to state the importance of practice as a test bench.

The conference papers cover education and research in depth in many important areas and give a good overview, whereas the practical theme is more or less missing, indicating, that experience here is still modest.

At the lecture material market and the exhibition the situation is opposite and shows state of art in practical use.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:36

_id 450c
authors Akin, Ömer
year 1990
title Computational Design Instruction: Toward a Pedagogy
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 302-316
summary The computer offers enormous potential both in and out of the classroom that is realized only in limited ways through the applications available to us today. In the early days of the computer it was generally argued that it would replace the architect. When this idea became obsolete, the prevailing opinion of proponents and opponents alike shifted to the notion of the computer as merely adding to present design capabilities. This idea is so ingrained in our thinking that we still speak of "aiding" design with computers. It is clear to those who grasp the real potential of this still new technology - as in the case of many other major technological innovations - that it continues to change the way we design, rather than to merely augment or replace human designers. In the classroom the computer has the potential to radically change three fundamental ingredients: student, instruction, and instructor. It is obvious that changes of this kind spell out a commensurate change in design pedagogy. If the computer is going to be more than a passive instrument in the design studio, then design pedagogy will have to be changed, fundamentally. While the practice of computing in the studio continues to be a significant I aspect of architectural education, articulation of viable pedagogy for use in the design studio is truly rare. In this paper the question of pedagogy in the CAD studio will be considered first. Then one particular design studio taught during Fall 1988 at Carnegie Mellon University will be presented. Finally, we shall return to issues of change in the student, instruction, and instructor, as highlighted by this particular experience.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id sigradi2012_30
id sigradi2012_30
authors Angeluzzi, Gustavo; Hanns, Daniela Kutschat
year 2012
title Um levantamento de requisitos gerais para o desenvolvimento e posicionamento de DOOTERS – um aplicativo lúdico de listas de tarefas para iPhone [A survey of general requirements for developing and positioning DOOTERS - a to-do list application for iPhone]
source SIGraDi 2012 [Proceedings of the 16th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Brasil - Fortaleza 13-16 November 2012, pp. 191-195
summary DOOTERS is a to-do list application for iPhone which entertains and motivates the user to get things done. It was developed based on requirements obtained trough: 1. the study of several personal information organizing methods (Covey, 1989; Allen, 2005; Foster, 2006); 2. answers to a task lists user focused questionnaire; 3. observation of to-do list users while creating lists and organizing tasks; 4. comparison of digital and non-digital task list media (paper, computer and mobile device); 5. analysis of profiles, behaviors and to-do list applications for iPhone. In this paper, the authors present the process of obtaining requirements for developing and positioning DOOTERS.
keywords information and interface design, requirements, to-do list application, iPhone, DOOTERS
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id a74a
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 1989
title Four Easy Questions
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.18.1-9.18.4
summary Should we teach CAAD? - yes, but why? Answer to this question is clear too. Question three - "when?" - on the 5, 6 and 7 term. Why so rate? - it is a compromise because "Architecture is an art" and students of architecture should know how to make a project without computers. How to teach CAAD? - we should teach haw to use professional computer programs and not programming. We must work out a new manual for architects. It should be constructed in such a way as to correspond to consecutive steps of the architectural design process.
keywords CAAD, Manuals, Architectural Design Process
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4032
authors Barron, Christopher L.
year 1989
title 3-D Modelling
source architectural and Engineering Systems. April, 1989. [41] -56 unevenly numbered
summary From screen to structure, more and more AEs are finding design solutions in the third dimension. The author reviews current 3-D modeling systems, what are the expectations of the users and the developers goals
keywords architecture, practice, drafting, modeling, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 29d2
authors Barsky, Brian A. and DeRose,Tony D.
year 1989
title Geometric Continuity of Parametric Curves: Three Equivalent Characterizations
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. November, 1989. vol. 9: pp. 60-68 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Geometric continuity of curves has received a good deal of research attention in recent years. The purpose of this article is to distill some of the important basic results into a self-contained presentation. The January 1990 issue of CG&M presents a paper that continues the discussion by offering applications of the theoretical background provided here
keywords continuity, parametrization, curves, computational geometry, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4cf2
authors Barsky, Brian A.
year 1990
title Geometric Continuity of Parametric Curves : Constructions of Geometrically Continuous Splines
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. January, 1990. vol. 10: pp. 60-68 : ill
summary This article is part two of an article published in November 1989. In the first article theoretical foundations for geometric continuity were presented. In this article the basic theory was applied to the construction of geometrically continuous spline curves
keywords Bezier, curves, curved surfaces, splines, continuity, computational geometry, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 1e3d
authors Bernard, Rusty
year 1989
title USL/State Facility Planning and Control Automation Pilot Project
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 179-192
summary State supported Universities often lend a helping hand to their state by providing services which may be difficult or impossible to acquire otherwise. This presentation reviews the process of computer aided facility management with special reference to a recently completed joint venture project to fully automate Louisiana's Facility Planning and Control services.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id 82b9
authors Beyers, Robert and Desa, Subhas
year 1989
title Design of Control Systems for Performance : A Constraint Mapping Approach
source 17 p. : ill Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, October, 1989. EDRC 24-10-89. includes bibliography.
summary Simple s-plane maps are used to graphically reveal interactions of performance requirements and constraints thus providing a control system designer insight into performance trade-offs. Two well-known but powerful ideas underlie this approach: (a) the characteristic equation of an nth-order system can be fully described by the specification of n variables and (b) any dynamic performance requirement or constraint can be expressed in terms of 2n variables of which n describe the open-loop and n describe the closed-loop characteristic equations. An example illustrates the application of the approach to controller design
keywords constraints, engineering, control, systems, design, performance
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6bfa
authors Bijl, Aart
year 1989
title Evaluation and Representation
source December, 1989. 11 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary In this paper the author will consider four key concepts: design, evaluation, models, and representation. In combination, definitions of these concepts impinge on each other and they are further conditioned by the author intention to represent design knowledge within computers. The issue of human-computer interaction then becomes critical to the usefulness of knowledge representations for designers
keywords CAD, representation, design, evaluation
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

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