CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id aea2
authors Laurel, B. (ed.)
year 1990
title The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design
source New York: Addison-Wesley.
summary Human-computer interface design is a new discipline. So new in fact, that Alan Kay of Apple Computer quipped that people "are not sure whether they should order it by the yard or the ton"! Irrespective of the measure, interface design is gradually emerging as a much-needed and timely approach to reducing the awkwardness and inconveniences of human-computer interaction. "Increased cognitive load", "bewildered and tired users" - these are the byproducts of the "plethora of options and the interface conventions" faced by computer users. Originally, computers were "designed by engineers, for engineers". Little or no attention was, or needed to be, paid to the interface. However, the pervasive use of the personal computer and the increasing number and variety of applications and programs has given rise to a need to focus on the "cognitive locus of human-computer interaction" i.e. the interface. What is the interface? Laurel defines the interface as a "contact surface" that "reflects the physical properties of the interactors, the functions to be performed, and the balance of power and control." (p.xiii) Incorporated into her definition are the "cognitive and emotional aspects of the user's experience". In a very basic sense, the interface is "the place where contact between two entities occurs." (p.xii) Doorknobs, steering wheels, spacesuits-these are all interfaces. The greater the difference between the two entities, the greater the need for a well-designed interface. In this case, the two very different entities are computers and humans. Human-conputer interface design looks at how we can lessen the effects of these differences. This means, for Laurel, empowering users by providing them with ease of use. "How can we think about it so that the interfaces we design will empower users?" "What does the user want to do?" These are the questions Laurel believes must be asked by designers. These are the questions addressed directly and indirectly by the approximately 50 contributors to The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design. In spite of the large number of contributors to the book and the wide range of fields with which they are associated, there is a broad consensus on how interfaces can be designed for empowerment and ease of use. User testing, user contexts, user tasks, user needs, user control: these terms appear throughout the book and suggest ways in which design might focus less on the technology and more on the user. With this perspective in mind, contributor D. Norman argues that computer interfaces should be designed so that the user interacts more with the task and less with the machine. Such interfaces "blend with the task", and "make tools invisible" so that "the technology is subervient to that goal". Sellen and Nicol insist on the need for interfaces that are 'simple', 'self-explanatory', 'adaptive' and 'supportive'. Contributors Vertelney and Grudin are interested in interfaces that support the contexts in which many users work. They consider ways in which group-oriented tasks and collaborative efforts can be supported and aided by the particular design of the interface. Mountford equates ease of use with understating the interface: "The art and science of interface design depends largely on making the transaction with the computer as transparent as possible in order to minimize the burden on the user".(p.248) Mountford also believes in "making computers more powerful extensions of our natural capabilities and goals" by offering the user a "richer sensory environment". One way this can be achieved according to Saloman is through creative use of colour. Saloman notes that colour can not only impart information but that it can be a useful mnemonic device to create associations. A richer sensory environment can also be achieved through use of sound, natural speech recognition, graphics, gesture input devices, animation, video, optical media and through what Blake refers to as "hybrid systems". These systems include additional interface features to control components such as optical disks, videotape, speech digitizers and a range of devices that support "whole user tasks". Rich sensory environments are often characteristic of game interfaces which rely heavily on sound and graphics. Crawford believes we have a lot to learn from the design of games and that they incorporate "sound concepts of user interface design". He argues that "games operate in a more demanding user-interface universe than other applications" since they must be both "fun" and "functional".
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 001a
authors Stiny, George
year 1990
title What Designers Do That Computers Should
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 17-30
summary Designers do many things that computers don't. Some of these are bad habits that the stringencies of computation will correct. But others are basic to design, and cannot be ignored if computation is to serve creation and invention. Two of these provide the correlative themes of this paper. Both are concerned with description, and its variability and multiplicity in design.
series CAAD Futures
email stiny@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id f586
authors Gabriel, G. and Maher, M.L.
year 2000
title Analysis of design communication with and without computer mediation
source Proceedings of Co-designing 2000, pp. 329-337
summary With recent developments in CAD and communication technologies, the way we visualise and communicate design representations is changing. A matter of great interest to architects, practitioners and researchers alike, is how computer technology might affect the way they think and work. The concern is not about the notion of 'support' alone, but about ensuring that computers do not disrupt the design process and collaborative activity already going on (Bannon and Schmidt, 1991). Designing new collaborative tools will then have to be guided by a better understanding of how collaborative work is accomplished and by understanding what resources the collaborators use and what hindrances they encounter in their work (Finholt et al., 1990). Designing, as a more abstract notion, is different than having a business meeting using video conferencing. In design it is more important to 'see' what is being discussed rather than 'watch' the other person(s) involved in the discussion. In other words the data being conveyed might be of more importance than the method with which it is communicated (See Kvan, 1994). Similarly, we believe that by using text instead of audio as a medium for verbal communication, verbal representations can then be recorded alongside graphical representations for later retrieval and use. In this paper we present the results of a study on collaborative design in three different environments: face-to-face (FTF), computer-mediated using video conferencing (CMCD-a), and computer-mediated using "talk by typing" (CMCD-b). The underlying aim is to establish a clearer notion of the collaborative needs of architects using computer-mediation. In turn this has the potential in assisting developers when designing new collaborative tools and in assisting designers when selecting an environment for a collaborative session.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a23f
authors Jordan, J. Peter (Ed.)
year 1990
title From Research to Practice [Conference Proceedings]
source ACADIA Conference Proceedings / Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, 231 p.
summary For the tenth time in as many years, the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) has invited architectural educators and professionals to discuss their activities and interests related to computer-aided architectural design. This annual meeting has grown from a small group representing a handful of schools to a conference with international participation. For the fifth time, the papers presented at this annual conference have been collected and published in a bound volume as the conference proceedings. In organizing these meetings, ACADIA must be viewed has having firmly established itself as a valuable forum for those who are interested and active in this area. Moreover, the proceedings of these conferences have become an important record for documenting the progress of ideas and activities in this field. This organization and its annual conferences have been a critical influence on my own professional development. The first conference I attended, ACADIA '86, confirmed a nagging suspicion that courses in computer-aided design (CAD) offered at the university level should be more than vendor training. Papers and conversations at subsequent conferences have reinforced this conviction and strengthened my commitment to CAD education which does more than convey electronic drawing technology. At the same time, I have been frustrated at the apparent lack of communication between those involved in these activities in architectural education and the average professional practice. With some notable exceptions, architects are only beginning to make basic computer-aided drafting pay for itself. In many small offices, "The CAD Computer" remains more decoration and status symbol than useful tool. While it can be argued that the economics of computer-aided drafting have only recently become attractive, it must be admitted that many members of ACADIA are actively involved in the development and use of computer applications which are significantly more challenging. In the short run, most of these activities will go largely unnoticed by the community of practicing architects. This situation raises a number of questions on the value of the work produced by members of ACADIA. One can (and many do) challenge the worth of "design" research produced by academia to those in professional practice. However, it is a fundamental mistake to insist that such work be of immediate and direct relevance to the profession. In fact, some presentations at the ACADIA conferences have focused solely on the pedagogical environment (which may be of some intellectual interest) but do not even attempt to address professional design issues. Other work may serve as the basis for further activities which may result in useful applications at some future point in time. Such work is strategic in nature and should not be expected to bear fruit for many years. These are the *natural" products of a university environment and, indeed, may be what the university does best. Still, design professionals remain indifferent (if not somewhat hostile) to these endeavors. The central dilemma resides in the ongoing debate about the fundamental goals of professional education. A number of design professionals believe that architectural education should follow more of a “trade school” model where a professional degree program becomes solely a process of acquiring (and practicing) a set of skills which are directly and immediately useful upon graduation. Today these people stiR closely examine the drafting skill of any recent graduate, but they are also likely to demanding expertise on AutoCAD. It is my view that this position tends to deprecate the image of architects and depreciate the economic status of the profession. On the other hand, there is a similar minority in architectural academia who teach because they are unable or unwilling to deal with the very real complexities and challenges of professional practice. These instructors tend to focus on obscure theory and academic credentials while discounting the importance of professional development. For most who participate in this discussion, it is becoming increasingly clear that professional competency must be founded on an effective marriage of intellectual theory and practical expertise. This must lead to the conclusion that CAD research must recognize and give serious consideration to the professional agenda in a substantive manner without abandoning those activities which deal with strategic and pedagogical issues.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id e91f
authors Mitchell, W.J., Liggett, R.S. and Tan, M.
year 1990
title Top-Down Knowledge-Based Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 137-148
summary Traditional computer drafting systems and three- dimensional geometric modeling systems work in bottom-up fashion. They provide a range of graphic primitives, such as vectors, arcs, and splines, together with operators for inserting, deleting, combining, and transforming instances of these. Thus they are conceptually very similar to word processors, with the difference that they operate on two- dimensional or three-dimensional patterns of graphic primitives rather than one-dimensional strings of characters. This sort of system is effective for input and editing of drawings or models that represent existing designs, but provides little more help than a pencil when you want to construct from scratch a drawing of some complex object such as a human figure, an automobile, or a classical column: you must depend on your own knowledge of what the pieces are and how to shape them and put them together. If you already know how to draw something then a computer drafting system will help you to do so efficiently, but if you do not know how to begin, or how to develop and refine the drawing, then the efficiency that you gain is of little practical consequence. And accelerated performance, flashier color graphics, or futuristic three-dimensional modes of interaction will not help with this problem at all. By contrast, experienced expert graphic artists and designers usually work in top-down fashion-beginning with a very schematic sketch of the whole object, then refining this, in step-by-step fashion, till the requisite level of precision and completeness is reached. For example, a figure drawing might begin as a "stick figure" schema showing lengths and angles of limbs, then be developed to show the general blocking of masses, and finally be resolved down to the finest details of contour and surface. Similarly, an architectural drawing might begin as a parti showing just a skeleton of construction lines, then be developed into a single-line floor plan, then a plan showing accurate wall thicknesses and openings, and finally a fully developed and detailed drawing.
series CAAD Futures
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 831d
authors Seebohm, Thomas
year 1992
title Discoursing on Urban History Through Structured Typologies
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 157-175
summary How can urban history be studied with the aid of three-dimensional computer modeling? One way is to model known cities at various times in history, using historical records as sources of data. While such studies greatly enhance the understanding of the form and structure of specific cities at specific points in time, it is questionable whether such studies actually provide a true understanding of history. It can be argued that they do not because such studies only show a record of one of many possible courses of action at various moments in time. To gain a true understanding of urban history one has to place oneself back in historical time to consider all of the possible courses of action which were open in the light of the then current situation of the city, to act upon a possible course of action and to view the consequences in the physical form of the city. Only such an understanding of urban history can transcend the memory of the actual and hence the behavior of the possible. Moreover, only such an understanding can overcome the limitations of historical relativism, which contends that historical fact is of value only in historical context, with the realization, due to Benedetto Croce and echoed by Rudolf Bultmann, that the horizon of "'deeper understanding" lies in "'the actuality of decision"' (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990).

One cannot conduct such studies on real cities except, perhaps, as a point of departure at some specific point in time to provide an initial layout for a city knowing that future forms derived by the studies will diverge from that recorded in history. An entirely imaginary city is therefore chosen. Although the components of this city at the level of individual buildings are taken from known cities in history, this choice does not preclude alternative forms of the city. To some degree, building types are invariants and, as argued in the Appendix, so are the urban typologies into which they may be grouped. In this imaginary city students of urban history play the role of citizens or groups of citizens. As they defend their interests and make concessions, while interacting with each other in their respective roles, they determine the nature of the city as it evolves through the major periods of Western urban history in the form of threedimensional computer models.

My colleague R.J. van Pelt and I presented this approach to the study of urban history previously at ACADIA (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990). Yet we did not pay sufficient attention to the manner in which such urban models should be structured and how the efforts of the participants should be coordinated. In the following sections I therefore review what the requirements are for three-dimensional modeling to support studies in urban history as outlined both from the viewpoint of file structure of the models and other viewpoints which have bearing on this structure. Three alternative software schemes of progressively increasing complexity are then discussed with regard to their ability to satisfy these requirements. This comparative study of software alternatives and their corresponding file structures justifies the present choice of structure in relation to the simpler and better known generic alternatives which do not have the necessary flexibility for structuring the urban model. Such flexibility means, of course, that in the first instance the modeling software is more timeconsuming to learn than a simple point and click package in accord with the now established axiom that ease of learning software tools is inversely related to the functional power of the tools. (Smith 1987).

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 235d
authors Catalano, Fernando
year 1990
title The Computerized Design Firm
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 317-332
summary This paper is not just about the future of computerized design practice. It is about what to do today in contemplation of tomorrow-the issues of computercentered practice and the courses of action open to us can be discerned by the careful observer. The realities of computerized design practice are different from the issues on which design education still fixes its attention. To educators, the present paper recommends further clinical research on computerized design firms and suggests that case studies on the matter be developed and utilized as teaching material. Research conducted by the author of this paper indicates that a new form of design firm is emerging-the computerized design firm-totally supported and augmented by the new information technology. The present paper proceeds by introducing an abridged case study of an actual totally electronic, computerized design practice. Then, the paper concentrates on modelling the computerized design firm as an intelligent system, indicating non-trivial changes in its structure and strategy brought about by the introduction of the new information technology into its operations - among other considerations, different strategies and diverse conceptions of management and workgroup roles are highlighted. In particular, this paper points out that these structural and strategic changes reflect back on the technology of information with pressures to redirect present emphasis on the individual designer, working alone in an isolated workstation, to a more realistic conception of the designer as a member of an electronic workgroup. Finally, the paper underlines that this non-trivial conception demands that new hardware and software be developed to meet the needs of the electronic workgroup - which raises issues of human-machine interface. Further, it raises the key issues of how to represent and expose knowledge to users in intelligent information - sharing systems, designed to include not only good user interfaces for supporting problem-solving activities of individuals, but also good organizational interfaces for supporting the problem-solving activities of groups. The paper closes by charting promising directions for further research and with a few remarks about the computerized design firm's (near) future.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 49a8
authors McCall, R., Fischer, G. and Morch, A.
year 1990
title Supporting Reflection-in-Action in the Janus Design Environment
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 247-259
summary We have developed a computer-based design aid called Janus, which is based on a model of computer-supported design that we think has significance for the future of architectural education. Janus utilizes a knowledge-based approach to link a graphic construction system to hypertext. This allows the computer to make useful comments on the solutions that students construct in a CAD-like environment. These comments contain information intended to make students think more carefully about what they are doing while they are doing it. In other words, Janus promotes what Donald Schon has called "reflection-inaction" (Schon, 1983). The Janus design environment is named for the Roman god with a pair of faces looking in opposite directions. In our case the faces correspond to complementary design activities we call construction and argumentation. Construction is the activity of graphically creating the form of the solution e.g., a building. Traditionally this has been done with tracing paper, pencils, and pens. Argumentation is the activity of reasoning about the problem and its solution. This includes such things as considering what to do next, what alternative courses of action are available, and which course of action to choose. Argumentation is mostly verbal but partly graphical.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 1c3b
authors Rubinger, Morton
year 1989
title Will CAD Survive Designers?
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 159-173
summary Discussion about the future of CAD often focuses on hardware and software. But that is the wrong emphasis. Future directions for CAD should be considered from the point of view of what is of value to architectural design. This paper is mainly concerned with the needs of architectural design education. For CAD to develop effectively, design education must first address some existing problems which threaten the future of CAD. These problems result mainly from conflicts between traditional design values and needs of using computers. For computers to aid design, software designers need a clearer picture of what design is. But there is no single acceptable meaning of design. Instead several different yet coherent meanings with historical roots are suggested. Each of these directions have different implications for the development of CAD.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id 2bb6
authors Van Bakergem, Dave
year 1990
title Image Collections in the Design Studio
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 261-271
summary No matter what the medium, architects are constantly using images in all aspects of design thinking. Whether it is the perception of the environment, an image in the mind's eye, an abstract drawing or a photographic record, designers use images to conceive of, and manipulate their design ideas. Managing these image collections occurs at a variety of levels in the creative process and is dependent on the type of image that is called upon for reference. The most basic example would be the image collection residing in the mind's memory which is a result of the designer’s world experiences and the relative impressiveness of each experience. Clearly, personal memory plays a significant role in the use of imagery in design, but it is unreliable and can be abstracted in uncontrollable ways. The sketchbook and later photographic collections of the grand tour were the beginnings of efforts to manage and utilize image collections as an aid to drawing and thinking about design. Now the capacity to use electronic means of creating, altering, storing, and retrieving images will enable designers to effectively use large image collections in ways that have not been possible before. This paper describes current work at the School of Architecture at Washington University in a graduate design studio. The students use a powerful 3D modeling CAD system (HOKDraw) to design and present their studio projects. In addition, we are experimenting with an image storage and retrieval system which is directly linked to the CAD model through a relational database (INGRES). Access to the database and images is instantly available through the command language and graphic display. The CAD model in effect becomes a 3D menu to an extensive image database stored on an optical memory disc recorder. Several collections are available to the studio members: the library's slide collection which relates to the studio project, specific photographs and drawings of the project site, and personal image collections stored by individuals for their own reference. The commonly accessible images are basically background material and images collected by the students to document the site, urban context and building typology. The personal images collections are any images (drawings, photographs, published images, CAD images) created or collected by the students for purposes of informing their design thinking. This work relates to the use of precedents and typology in architecture as a point of departure as well as in development of design ideas.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id b565
authors Yessios, Chris I. (Ed.)
year 1989
title New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [Conference Proceedings]
source ACADIA Conference Proceedings / Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, 262 p.
summary About a year ago, a comment of mine to Bob Johnson that recent Acadia Conferences appeared to be bypassing some of the real issues of CAAD and that the attendants seemed to be missing the opportunity to debate and to argue, landed me a request to be the Technical Chair for this Acadia 89. In spite of an expected heavy load this past year, I could not refuse. I certainly did not realize at the time what it would take to put the technical program of this Conference together: two "calls" for papers, many- many phone calls and the gracious acceptance of three invited speakers and twelve panelists. In response to a recommendation by Pamela Bancroft, last year's Technical Chair, the first call for papers had a deadline which was by about a month earlier than it has been in recent years. This must have found our membership unprepared and generated only thirteen submissions. A second call was issued with the end of July as a deadline. It generated another eleven submissions. Out of that total of twenty-four papers, ten were selected and are presented in this Conference. The selection process was based strictly on averaging the grades given by each of the three referees who blindly reviewed each paper. The names of the reviewers have been listed earlier in this volume and I wish to take this opportunity to wholeheartedly thank them. In most cases the reviewers offered extensive comments which were returned to the authors and helped them improve their papers. Many of the papers have actually been rewritten in response to the reviewers' comments and what are included in these Proceedings are substantially improved versions of the papers originally submitted. This is the way it is supposed to be, but could not be done without the excellent response by the authors. I"hey deserve our sincere thanks. It must be noted that the reviewers were not always in agreement, which should tell us something about the diverse orientations of our members. In the case of at least three papers, one reviewer gave a 0 or 1 (very low) when another gave a 9 or 10 (very high). In these cases the third reviewer gave the deciding grade. In no case was there a need for me to break a tie. Under normal circumstances, these "controversial" papers should have gone out for another cycle of reviews. Time did not permit to do so. However, I feel confident that the papers which have been selected deserve to be heard. It may be worth speculating why it took two calls to generate only 24 submissions when last year we had 42. There are a number of factors which must have had an effect. First of all, the early deadline. Secondly, the theme of this year's Conference was more focussed than it has been in the recent past. In addition, it was quite challenging. Even though the calls also encouraged submissions in areas other than the central theme, they discouraged contributions which might be redundant with past presentations. This must have filtered out presentations about "CAD in the studio" which did not have an orientation distinctively different from what everybody else is doing. Last, but possibly the most decisive factor must have been that, this year, Acadia was in competition with the Futures Conference. It does not take much to observe that more than half of the presentations at the CAAD Futures Conference were given by active Acadia members. Acadia should by all means be delighted that the bi-annual Futures took place in the States this year, but it certainly made our organizational task harder. As a matter of fact, as a record of CAAD happenings in 1989, 1 believe the Proceedings of the two Conferences complement each other and should be read as a pair.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id diss_anders
id diss_anders
authors Anders, P.
year 2003
title A Procedural Model for Integrating Physical and Cyberspaces in Architecture
source Doctoral dissertation, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, U.K
summary This dissertation articulates opportunities offered by architectural computation, in particular the digital simulation of space known as virtual reality (VR) and its networked, social variant cyberspace. Research suggests that environments that hybridize technologies call for a conception of space as information, i.e. space is both a product of and tool for cognition. The thesis proposes a model whereby architecture can employ this concept of space in creating hybrids that integrate physical and cyberspaces.The dissertation presents important developments in architectural computation that disclose concepts and values that contrast with orthodox practice. Virtual reality and cyberspace, the foci of this inquiry, are seen to embody the more problematic aspects of these developments. They also raise a question of redundancy: If a simulation is good enough, do we still need to build? This question, raised early in the 1990's, is explored through a thought experiment - the Library Paradox - which is assessed and critiqued for its idealistic premises. Still, as technology matures and simulations become more realistic the challenge posed by VR/cyberspace to architecture only becomes more pressing. If the case for virtual idealism seems only to be strengthened by technological and cultural trends, it would seem that a virtual architecture should have been well established in the decade since its introduction.Yet a history of the virtual idealist argument discloses the many difficulties faced by virtual architects. These include differences between idealist and professional practitioners, the failure of technology to achieve its proponents' claims, and confusion over the meaning of virtual architecture among both architects and clients. However, the dissertation also cites the success of virtual architecture in other fields - Human Computer Interface design, digital games, and Computer Supported Collaborative Work - and notes that their adoption of space derives from practice within each discipline. It then proposes that the matter of VR/cyberspace be addressed from within the practice of architecture, a strategy meant to balance the theoretical/academic inclination of previous efforts in this field.The dissertation pursues an assessment that reveals latent, accepted virtualities in design methodologies, instrumentation, and the notations of architectural practices. Of special importance is a spatial database that now pervades the design and construction processes. The unity of this database, effectively a project's cyberspace, and its material counterpart is the subject of the remainder of the dissertation. Such compositions of physical and cyberspaces are herein called cybrids. The dissertation examines current technologies that cybridize architecture and information technology, and proposes their integration within cybrid wholes. The concept of cybrids is articulated in seven principles that are applied in a case study for the design for the Planetary Collegium. The project is presented and critiqued on the basis of these seven principles. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of possible effects of cybrids upon architecture and contemporary culture.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id f9e5
authors Cherneff, Jonathan Martin
year 1990
title Knowledge Based Interpretation of Architectural Drawings
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Cambridge, MA
summary Architectural schematic drawings have been used to communicate building designs for centuries. The symbolic language used in these drawings efficiently represents much of the intricacy of the building process (e.g. implied business relationships, common building practice, and properties of construction materials). The drawing language is an accepted standard representation for building design, something that modern data languages have failed to achieve. In fact, the lack of an accepted standard electronic representation has hampered efforts at computer intergration and perhaps worsened industry fragmentation. In general, drawings must be interpreted, by a professional, and then reentered in order to transfer them from one CAD system to another. This work develops a method for machine interpretation of architectural (or other) schematic drawings. The central problem is to build an efficient drawing parser (i.e. a program that identifies the semantic entitites, characteristics, and relationships that are represented in the drawing). The parser is built from specifications of the drawing grammar and an underlying spatial model. The grammar describes what to look for, and the spatial model enables the parser to find it quickly. Coupled with existing optical recognition technology, this technique enables the use of drawings directly as: (1) a database to drive various AEC applications, (2) a communication protocol to integrate CAD systems, (3) a traditional user interface.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id e1c9
authors Danahy, John and Wright, Robert
year 1989
title Computing and Design in the Canadian Schools of Architecture and Landscape Architecture: A Proposed Research Agenda for Integrated CAD & GIS in the 1990's
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 227-244
summary Conventional computer systems currently used by architecture and landscape architecture are not addressing complex decision making, system interface, dynamic manipulation and real time visualization of data. This paper identifies a strategy by which Canadian Schools could form a supportive network, incorporate and expand their research development. Within this larger framework schools would have better tools, a larger research base and access to funding as a group. The following discussion is an idea of what we at the Canadian Schools need to do differently over the next five years in our research and teaching in order to make a unique contribution to our fields.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/04/26 19:42

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 68c0
authors Gero, John S. and Rosenman, Michael A.
year 1990
title Design Decision Making Using Pareto-Optimal Dynamic Programming
source Berlin: Springer- Verlag, 1990. pp. 376-396
summary When designing using the systems approach, the given system is decomposed into a number of subsystems, and for each subsystem a set of feasible alternatives is selected by the designer. A building design example is presented in which it is demonstrated that sufficient relevant solutions are generated in one pass of the dynamic programming procedure to give a good approximation to the Pareto set, thus offering designers sufficient choice in making a final selection. The relevant information is displayed in an intelligent manner so that designers can either make a final decision or else perceive what extra information they require
keywords optimization, decision making, design process, architecture, multicriteria, evaluation, decomposition, dynamic programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id c903
authors Mark, Earl
year 1990
title Case Studies in Moviemaking and Computer-Aided Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 393-412
summary A movie which is developed from site location video, sync sound, and computer graphics animation can provide a highly convincing simulation of reality. A movie that conveys a sense of the space, materials and juxtaposition of objects of a proposed architectural design provides a special kind of realism, where the representation may be of a proposed building that exists only within the mind of an architect. For an experienced architect, however, the movie may not provide a good surrogate experience for what it feels like to actually be within the architectural space. In these case studies, a few projects that combine moviemaking and computer-aided design technologies are examined. These projects were completed using a combination of resources at the MIT School of Architecture and Planning and the Harvard Graduate School of Design. The integrated use of these media is presented as conceptualized with the Electronic Design Studio, a research project that has been supported over the past five years by Project Athena at MIT. The impact of movies and computer-aided design on the perception of architectural space is also reported- based on a pilot study of twenty architectural students.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 2ca1
authors Montagu, A. and Bermudez, J.
year 1998
title Datarq: The Development of a Website of Modern Contemporary Architecture
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998
summary The pedagogic approach in the architectural field is suffering a deep change taking in consideration the impact that has been produced mainly by the CAD and multimedia procedures. An additional view to be taken in consideration is the challenge produced by the influence of advanced IT which since 1990-92, has affected positively the exchange of information among people of the academic environment. Several studies confirm this hypothesis, from the wide cultural spectrum when the digitalization process was emerging as an alternative way to data processing (Bateson 1976) to the pedagogical-computational side analyzed by (Papert 1996). One of the main characteristics indicated by S. Papert (op.cit) is the idea of "self teaching" which students are used everywhere due to the constant augment of "friendly" software and the decreasing costs of hardware. Another consequences to point out by S. Paper (op.cit) is that will be more probably that students at home will have more actualized equipment that most of the computer lab. of schools in general. Therefore, the main hypothesis of this paper is, "if we are able to combine usual tutorials design methods with the concept of "self-teaching" regarding the paradigmatic architectural models that are used in practically all the schools of architecture (Le Corbusier, F.L.Wright, M.v. der Rohe, M.Botta, T.Ando, etc.) using a Web site available to everybody, what we are doing is expanding the existing knowledge in the libraries and fulfill the future requirements of the newly generations of students".
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/25 17:23

_id 8a0c
authors Tan, Milton
year 1990
title Saying What It Is by What It Is Like - Describing Shapes Using Line Relationships
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 201-213
summary Shapes - taken as well-defined collections of lines - are fundamental building blocks in architectural drawings. From doodles to shop drawings, shapes are used to denote ideas and represent elements of design, many of which ultimately translate into actual objects. But because designs evolve, the shapes representing a design are seldom static - instead, they are perpetually open to transformations. And since transformations involve relationships, conventional methods of describing shapes as sets of discrete endpoints may not provide an appropriate foundation for schematic design. This paper begins with a review of the perception of shapes and its significance in design. In particular, it argues that juxtapositions and inter-relationships of shapes are important seedbeds for creative development of designs. It is clear that conventional representation of shapes as sets of discrete lines does not cope with these -emergent" subshapes; the most basic of which arise out of intersecting and colinear lines. Attempts to redress this by using ‘reduction rules’ based on traditional point-and-line data structures are encumbered by computational problems of precision and shape specification. Basically, this means that some ‘close’ cases of sub-shapes may escape detection and their specifications are difficult to use in substitution operations. The paper presents the findings of a computer project - Emergence II - which explored a 'relational' description of shapes based on the concept of construction lines. It builds on the notion that architectural shapes are constructed in a graphic context and that, at a basic compositional level, the context can be set by construction lines. Accordingly, the interface enables the delineation of line segments with reference to pre-established construction lines. This results in a simple data structure where the knowledge of shapes is centralized in a lookup table of all its construction lines rather than dispersed in the specifications of line segments. Taking this approach, the prototype software shows the ease and efficiency of applying ‘reduction rules’ for intersection and colinear conditions, and for finding emergent sub-shapes by simply tracking the construction lines delimiting the ends of line segments.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 8c92
authors Vinograd, T. and Flores, F.
year 1990
title Understanding Computers and Cognition: A New Foundation for Design
source Alex Publishing Corporation
summary Winograd and Flores' `Understanding Computers and Cognition' proposes that the rationalist tradition in AI must be replaced by a hermeneutic approach. Associating the rationalist tradition with the goal of building a human mind, the authors propose that a hermeneutic approach must adopt the goal of constructing prostheses which magnify the human mind. This paper argues that what AI needs is not so much a hermeneutic approach as a better appreciation of biology and psychology. Understanding Computers and Cognition is a groundbreaking book that presents an important new approach to understanding what computers do and how their functioning is related to human language, thought and action.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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