CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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References

Hits 1 to 20 of 253

_id eee2
authors Gero, John S. and Rosenman, Michael A.
year 1989
title A Conceptual Framework for Knowledge-Based Design Research at Sydney University's Design Computing Unit
source Southampton/Berlin: CMP/Springer- verlag, 1989. pp. 363-382. Published also in Artificial Intelligence in Engineering 5(2):363-383, 1990
summary This paper presents the conceptual framework behind the Design Computing Unit's knowledge-based design research. It commences with a brief overview before introducing the role of experience in design. The conceptual schema 'prototypes' is introduced and described within a framework of design as transforming required or expected functions to structure descriptions. Current projects related to this conceptual framework are briefly described
keywords CAD, knowledge base, design, prototypes, representation
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ea98
authors Gero, John S.
year 1990
title Design Prototypes : A Knowledge Representation Schema for Design
source AI Magazine. 1990, vol. 11: pp. 26-36
summary This article commences with an elaboration of models of design as a process. It then introduces and describes a knowledge representation schema for design called design prototypes. This schema supports the initiation and continuation of the act of designing. Design prototypes are shown to provide a suitable framework to distinguish routine, innovative and creative design
keywords prototypes, knowledge, representation, design process
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e5e2
authors Coyne, R.D., Rosenman, M.A. and Radford, A.D. (et.al.)
year 1990
title Knowledge Based Design Systems
source 576 p. : ill Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1990. includes bibliographies and index.
summary This book describes the bases, approaches, techniques, and implementations of knowledge-based design systems, and advocates and develops new directions in design systems generally. A formal model of design coupled with the notion of prototypes provides a coherent framework for all that follows and is a platform on which a comprehension of knowledge-based design rests. The book is divided into three parts. Part I, Design, examines and describes design and design processes, providing the context for the remainder of the book. Part II, Representation and Reasoning, explores the kinds of knowledge involved in design and the tools and techniques available for representing and controlling this knowledge. It examines the attributes of design that must be described and the ways in which knowledge-based methods are capable of describing and controlling them. Part III, Knowledge-Based Design, presents in detail the fundamentals of the interpretation of design, including the role of expert systems in interpreting existing designs, before describing how to produce designs within a knowledge-based environment. This part includes a detailed examination of design processes from the perspective of how to control these processes. Within each of these processes, the place and role of knowledge is presented and examples of knowledge-based design systems given. Finally, the authors examine central areas of human design and demonstrate what current knowledge-based design systems are capable of doing now and in the future
keywords knowledge base, design process, representation, CAD, AI, prototypes, expert systems
series CADline
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id e496
authors Gero, John S. and Maher, Mary Lou
year 1990
title Theoretical Requirements for Creative Design by Analogy
source Formal Methods in Engineering Design, Manufacturing and Assembly, International Workshop (1st. : 1990 : Fort Collins, Colorado). editor. P Fitzhorn. pp. 19-27. CADLINE has abstract only.
summary This paper adopts the conceptual schema 'prototypes' as its base for representing function-behavior-structure relationships. Within this representation design by a transformational analogy is presented as a selection process on either function or structure which then transforms the structure or function respectively
keywords prototypes, creativity, design process
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 84e1
authors Kovacs, Laszio Bela and Galle, Per
year 1990
title Logic Programming for Concept Modelling and Support of Urban Housing Design : A Pilot Study
source 1990. 134 p. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Starting from a case study of manual sketch design of a residential area, the authors develop a prototypical site plan for low to medium density housing. The layout keeps pedestrian and vehicular traffic separated and provides open green area as well as a concentrated urban atmosphere. The constituents of the prototype layout are identified and a system of concepts devised accordingly. This conceptual analysis is formalized, using a Horn clause logic notation. Aspects of the resulting logic model concerning design of walking lines and plazas are refined into a considerable amount of detail. This exercise in knowledge representation seems to indicate that it will be possible, within the logic programming paradigm, to implement computerized support systems able to cooperate with and simulate designers working with architectural design. The main result of the study is that logical analysis of a particular prototype design can result in a collection of quite general concepts which are potentially useful in many other context than that of the prototype, for other kinds of design tasks. The report concludes by recommending several lines or aspects of future research in this area
keywords architecture, design, logic, programming, knowledge base, systems, CAD, layout, prototypes
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id f9e5
authors Cherneff, Jonathan Martin
year 1990
title Knowledge Based Interpretation of Architectural Drawings
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Cambridge, MA
summary Architectural schematic drawings have been used to communicate building designs for centuries. The symbolic language used in these drawings efficiently represents much of the intricacy of the building process (e.g. implied business relationships, common building practice, and properties of construction materials). The drawing language is an accepted standard representation for building design, something that modern data languages have failed to achieve. In fact, the lack of an accepted standard electronic representation has hampered efforts at computer intergration and perhaps worsened industry fragmentation. In general, drawings must be interpreted, by a professional, and then reentered in order to transfer them from one CAD system to another. This work develops a method for machine interpretation of architectural (or other) schematic drawings. The central problem is to build an efficient drawing parser (i.e. a program that identifies the semantic entitites, characteristics, and relationships that are represented in the drawing). The parser is built from specifications of the drawing grammar and an underlying spatial model. The grammar describes what to look for, and the spatial model enables the parser to find it quickly. Coupled with existing optical recognition technology, this technique enables the use of drawings directly as: (1) a database to drive various AEC applications, (2) a communication protocol to integrate CAD systems, (3) a traditional user interface.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id a235
authors Danahy, John W.
year 1990
title Irises in a Landscape: An Experiment in Dynamic Interaction and Teaching Design Studio
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 363-376
summary The capacity of most computer-aided design systems is inadequate to represent landscape architectural ideas and compute landscape scenes quickly. As part of our teaching agenda, we decided to write software for the Silicon Graphics Iris workstations to tackle this problem directly. This paper begins with a discussion of our concerns about the use of CAD tools in the representation of landscape architectural space. Secondly, we discuss the approach that Toronto takes to computing and teaching with particular emphasis on the use of computers to support an integrated representational work environment. Finally, a fourth-year design studio that used our software is reviewed. Static illustrations of the system are presented here, although there is a videotape that demonstrates the dynamic nature of the system.
series CAAD Futures
email jwdanahy@rogers.com
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id c2ed
authors De Vries, Mark and Wagter, Harry
year 1990
title A CAAD Model for Use in Early Design Phases
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 215-228
summary In this paper we present a model for handling design information in the early design phases. This model can be used for representing both vague and exact defined information. The first part describes the difficulties involved in using CAD in the architectural design process and the characteristics of that process. Then we give a description of the design information and its representation during the design process. Next an overview of the architectural design process describes how design information is added and manipulated during the design process in order to achieve an effective result. Finally, we include a brief description of a simple prototype program to illustrate how this theory acts in practice.
series CAAD Futures
email Harry.Wagter@brighthouse.nl
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 0f73
authors Ervin, Stephen M.
year 1990
title Designing with Diagrams: A Role for Computing in Design Education and Exploration
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 107-122
summary Environmental designers, design educators and design students using computers are a constituency with a set of requirements for database structure and flexibility, for knowledge representation and inference mechanisms, and for both graphical and non-graphical operations, that are now articulatable and to-date largely unmet. This is especially so in the area called 'preliminary' or 'schematic' design, where our requirements are related to, but different from, those of our colleagues in mechanical and electrical engineering, whose needs have dominated the notable developments in this area. One manifestation of these needs is in the peculiar form of graphics called diagrams , and the ways in which environmental designers (architects, landscape architects., urban designers) use them. Our diagrams are both similar to and different from structural, circuit, or logical diagrams in important ways. These similarities and differences yield basic insights into designing and design knowledge, and provide guidance for some necessary steps in the development of the next generation of CAD systems. Diagrams as a form of knowledge representation have received little scrutiny in the literature of graphic representation and computer graphics. In the following sections I present an overview of the theoretical basis for distinguishing and using diagrams; examine some of the computational requirements for a system of computer-aided diagramming; describe a prototype implementation called CBD (Constraint Based Diagrammer) and illustrate one example of its use; and speculate on the implications and potential applications of these ideas in computer-aided design education.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 04aa
authors Harfmann, Anton C. and Chen, Stuart S.
year 1990
title Building Representation within a Component Based Paradigm
source From Research to Practice [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, pp. 117-127
summary This paper questions the use of a 2-dimensional medium to convey 3-dimensional information about design intent and proposes a computer-aided paradigm that could radically alter the way in which buildings are designed and built. The paradigm is centered about the accurate and rational representation (Rush, 86) of each individual component that makes up a building in a single, shared, computer based model. The single model approach couples the accurate physical representation of components with the accurate representation of technical information and knowledge about the assemblies of building components. It is anticipated that implementation of this approach will result in fewer communication problems that currently plague the fragmented process of practicing in the professions of architecture and engineering. The paper introduces the basic concepts within the paradigm and focuses on the development of intuitive, reasoning about the component-based design suitable for incorporation in a computer-aided setting.
series ACADIA
email HARFMAAC@UCMAIL.UC.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 0b62
authors Maher, Mary Lou
year 1990
title Process Models for Design Synthesis
source AI Magazine. 1990. vol. 11: pp. 49-58
summary Models of design processes provide guidance in the development of knowledge-based systems for design. The basis for such models comes from both research in design theory and methodology as well as problem solving in artificial intelligence. Three models are presented: decomposition, case-based reasoning, and transformation. Each model provides a formalism for representing design knowledge and experience in distinct and complementary forms
keywords design process, knowledge base, systems, theory, decomposition, representation, reasoning
series CADline
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:19

_id c903
authors Mark, Earl
year 1990
title Case Studies in Moviemaking and Computer-Aided Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 393-412
summary A movie which is developed from site location video, sync sound, and computer graphics animation can provide a highly convincing simulation of reality. A movie that conveys a sense of the space, materials and juxtaposition of objects of a proposed architectural design provides a special kind of realism, where the representation may be of a proposed building that exists only within the mind of an architect. For an experienced architect, however, the movie may not provide a good surrogate experience for what it feels like to actually be within the architectural space. In these case studies, a few projects that combine moviemaking and computer-aided design technologies are examined. These projects were completed using a combination of resources at the MIT School of Architecture and Planning and the Harvard Graduate School of Design. The integrated use of these media is presented as conceptualized with the Electronic Design Studio, a research project that has been supported over the past five years by Project Athena at MIT. The impact of movies and computer-aided design on the perception of architectural space is also reported- based on a pilot study of twenty architectural students.
series CAAD Futures
email ejmark@virginia.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id e91f
authors Mitchell, W.J., Liggett, R.S. and Tan, M.
year 1990
title Top-Down Knowledge-Based Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 137-148
summary Traditional computer drafting systems and three- dimensional geometric modeling systems work in bottom-up fashion. They provide a range of graphic primitives, such as vectors, arcs, and splines, together with operators for inserting, deleting, combining, and transforming instances of these. Thus they are conceptually very similar to word processors, with the difference that they operate on two- dimensional or three-dimensional patterns of graphic primitives rather than one-dimensional strings of characters. This sort of system is effective for input and editing of drawings or models that represent existing designs, but provides little more help than a pencil when you want to construct from scratch a drawing of some complex object such as a human figure, an automobile, or a classical column: you must depend on your own knowledge of what the pieces are and how to shape them and put them together. If you already know how to draw something then a computer drafting system will help you to do so efficiently, but if you do not know how to begin, or how to develop and refine the drawing, then the efficiency that you gain is of little practical consequence. And accelerated performance, flashier color graphics, or futuristic three-dimensional modes of interaction will not help with this problem at all. By contrast, experienced expert graphic artists and designers usually work in top-down fashion-beginning with a very schematic sketch of the whole object, then refining this, in step-by-step fashion, till the requisite level of precision and completeness is reached. For example, a figure drawing might begin as a "stick figure" schema showing lengths and angles of limbs, then be developed to show the general blocking of masses, and finally be resolved down to the finest details of contour and surface. Similarly, an architectural drawing might begin as a parti showing just a skeleton of construction lines, then be developed into a single-line floor plan, then a plan showing accurate wall thicknesses and openings, and finally a fully developed and detailed drawing.
series CAAD Futures
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 0565
authors Oxman, Robert and Oxman, Rivka
year 1990
title The Computability of Architectural Knowledge
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 171-185
summary In an important contribution to the theoretical foundation of design computing, Mitchell noted "an increasingly urgent need to establish a demonstrably sound, comprehensive, rigorously formalized theoretical foundation upon which to base practical software development efforts" (Mitchell, 1986). In this paper we propose such a theoretical framework. A basic assumption of this work is that the advancement of design computing is dependent upon the emergence of a rigorous formulation of knowledge in design. We present a model of knowledge in architectural design which suggests a promising conceptual basis for dealing with knowledge in computer-aided design systems. We require models which can represent the formal knowledge and manipulative operations of the designer in all of their complexity-that is formal models rather than just geometric models. Shape Grammars (Stiny,1980) represent an example of such models, and constitute a relatively high level of design knowledge as compared to, for example, use of symmetry operations to generate simple formal configurations. Building upon an understanding of the classes of design knowledge as the conceptual basis for formal modeling systems may contribute a new realization of the potential of the medium for design. This will require a comprehensive approach to the definition of architectural and design knowledge. We consider here the implications of a well-defined body of architectural and design knowledge for design education and the potential mutual interaction-in a knowledge-rich environment-of design learning and CAAD learning. The computational factors connected with the representation of design knowledge and its integration in design systems are among the key problems of CAAD. Mitchell's model of knowledge in design incorporates formal knowledge in a comprehensive, multi-level, hierarchical structure in which types of knowledge are correlated with computational concepts. In the main focus of this paper we present a structured, multi-level model of design knowledge which we discuss with respect to current architectural theoretical considerations. Finally, we analyze the computational and educational relevance of such models.
series CAAD Futures
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 8c2b
authors Peleg, Uriel J. and Shaviv, Edna
year 1990
title A Knowledge Based Computer- Aided Solar Design System
source ASHRAE Transactions (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). Atlanta, GA: 1990. v.st.-96-2: [5] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary A knowledge based computer-aided architectural design system (KB-CAAD) for the schematic design and evaluation of passive solar buildings is presented. The presented tool is based on the integration of knowledge based and procedural simulation methods with any available CAAD system for building representation. The knowledge base contains the heuristic rules for the design of passive solar buildings. Whenever possible, the knowledge base guides the designer through the decision making process. However, if 'rules of thumb' are not acceptable for the particular design problem, the KB-CAAD tool guides the architect towards the optimal solution, by using a procedural simulation model. It is demonstrated, through a case study, that the proposed knowledge based design system not only leads to the design of better solar buildings, but that it takes less time and man-power to introduce the geometrical data that would be needed for a regular non-solar building representation
keywords CAD, knowledge base, energy, design, systems, evaluation, analysis
series CADline
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 8a0c
authors Tan, Milton
year 1990
title Saying What It Is by What It Is Like - Describing Shapes Using Line Relationships
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 201-213
summary Shapes - taken as well-defined collections of lines - are fundamental building blocks in architectural drawings. From doodles to shop drawings, shapes are used to denote ideas and represent elements of design, many of which ultimately translate into actual objects. But because designs evolve, the shapes representing a design are seldom static - instead, they are perpetually open to transformations. And since transformations involve relationships, conventional methods of describing shapes as sets of discrete endpoints may not provide an appropriate foundation for schematic design. This paper begins with a review of the perception of shapes and its significance in design. In particular, it argues that juxtapositions and inter-relationships of shapes are important seedbeds for creative development of designs. It is clear that conventional representation of shapes as sets of discrete lines does not cope with these -emergent" subshapes; the most basic of which arise out of intersecting and colinear lines. Attempts to redress this by using ‘reduction rules’ based on traditional point-and-line data structures are encumbered by computational problems of precision and shape specification. Basically, this means that some ‘close’ cases of sub-shapes may escape detection and their specifications are difficult to use in substitution operations. The paper presents the findings of a computer project - Emergence II - which explored a 'relational' description of shapes based on the concept of construction lines. It builds on the notion that architectural shapes are constructed in a graphic context and that, at a basic compositional level, the context can be set by construction lines. Accordingly, the interface enables the delineation of line segments with reference to pre-established construction lines. This results in a simple data structure where the knowledge of shapes is centralized in a lookup table of all its construction lines rather than dispersed in the specifications of line segments. Taking this approach, the prototype software shows the ease and efficiency of applying ‘reduction rules’ for intersection and colinear conditions, and for finding emergent sub-shapes by simply tracking the construction lines delimiting the ends of line segments.
series CAAD Futures
email miltontan@mac.com
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id cd2d
authors Tham, K.W., H.S. Lee and Gero, John S.
year 1990
title Building Envelope Design Using Design Prototypes
source St Louis, Missouri: 1990
summary CADLINE has abstract only. A knowledge-based system for the design of building envelopes using design prototypes is described. The notion of design prototypes and the architecture of a design system utilizing design prototypes for routine design are presented. Design prototypes are schemas for representing design knowledge comprehensively, providing descriptions of structure, behavior and function, and how these are interrelated to facilitate design. The authors identify the processes associated with such a model of design. The approach is object-centered. Examples are drawn from the building envelope design domain, demonstrating how design prototypes are structured and utilized in routine design. Considerations are given to energy, lighting and acoustic performance
keywords building, envelope, knowledge base, systems, prototypes, automation, applications, energy, lighting, acoustics
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 075b
authors Wade, John W. and De Dios, Bettina
year 1990
title Typification and Evaluation in Design
source February, 1990. [18] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary A number of writers have characterized the design process as an interaction between broad categories of design knowledge and their application in unique situations. The notion of 'type' summarizes this interaction. A typological view of design suggests that a designer keys knowledge from specific design situations to generic versions of those situations; it suggests that a designer invokes those generic situations in order to deal with current specific situations. If this view of design is correct, then a number of interesting subsidiary processes occur. The most important of these is in the classic interplay between classification and evaluation. In a strong sense, when a designer has built up a type, every member of that type has been declared a 'good' member of that type. If members of that type are later invoked as exemplars, they have been preevaluated by being classed with that group. This suggests that the notion of type extends beyond simple descriptions of objects that are members of the type to requirements that those objects were able to satisfy, and to conditions within which those satisfactions obtained. The authors examine different possible expressions of a type in (1) generic objects; (2) prototypical objects; (3) exemplar objects; and (4) symbols for object types. It has been examined how design appears to use different levels of specificity. These issues are of interest to the authors because they are engaged in the structuring of a computer- based design support system that will use a wide variety of information bearing components that are generic in character. They are imbedded within a typologically structured system. The overall library system and the typology that it will use is described briefly
keywords design process, prototypes, classification
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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