CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 4004
authors Lawson, Bryan
year 1990
title How designers think: the design process demystified
source University Press, Cambridge
summary How Designers Think is based on Bryan Lawson's many observations of designers at work, interviews with designers and their clients and collaborators. This extended work is the culmination of twenty-five years' research and shows the author's belief that we all can learn to design better. The creative mind continues to have power to surprise and this book aims to nurture and extend this creativity. This book is not intended as an authoritative description of how designers should think but to provide helpful advice on how to develop an understanding of design. 'How Designers Think' will be of great interest, not only to designers seeking a greater insight into their own thought processes, but also to students of design in general from undergraduate level upward.
series other
email b.lawson@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 67a9
authors Lawson, Stephen
year 1989
title In the Eye of the Beholder: A Proposal to Further the Critical Framework of Computer Graphics in Architectural Design
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 147-157
summary This paper speculates on some of the inherent differences between computer graphics and conventional media when used in architectural design. It suggests that a lot of work and thought has gone into developing computer graphics as a medium for the development and expression of architectural ideas and examines some of the reasons that the fruits of this labor have been slow to fmd their way into the mainstream of the profession. This slowness to embrace rapidly developing technologies seems to be resulting in an ever widening gap between potential and the mainstream practice.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id a33e
authors Linn, Gudrun
year 1991
title BATHROOM DESIGN AND FUNCTION ANALYSIS - BRIEF REPORTS FROM TWO RESEARCH PROJECTS
source Proceedings of the 3rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / ISBN 91-7740044-5 / Lund (Sweden) 13-16 September 1990, pp. 38-39
summary The problem behind this research project was the fact that Swedish standard bathrooms were (and most of them still are) difficult to clean, because of the building design. This has consequences not only for the inhabitants but also for the home helpers who assist old and disabled people in their own dwellings. The most difficult-to-clean spaces in a dwelling are the bathroom and the toilet-room. These spaces also are the most dirtied. In Sweden there of ten is a toilet in the bathroom. The aim of the project was to find out what or how much of physical agility a Swedish standard bathroom demands from the person who carries out the cleaning of it.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:18

_id ed07
authors Love, James
year 1990
title A Case Study in Knowledge-Based System Development : Envelope Design for Reduction of Traffic Noise Transmission
source February, 1990. 19 p. : some ill. and table. includes a bibliography
summary Researchers have demonstrated the value of replication of research and explicit testing of concepts in artificial intelligence (Ritchie and Hanna 1989). In this study, a rule- based system was implemented as an exercise in the application of the theory and practice of knowledge-based systems development to architectural design analysis. The test domain was the selection of wall and window assemblies to provide adequate noise reduction given a set of traffic and building site conditions. This domain was chosen for two reasons: (1) considerable detailed heuristic information was available; and (2) it avoided large solutions spaces, 'errorful' and time-dependent data, and unreliable knowledge. Development of the system in conjunction with an extensive literature review revealed that publications on construction and performance of rule-based systems provided insufficient detail on key aspects of system architecture. Topics suffering from neglect or insufficiently rigorous treatment included algorithms used in automated inference, methods for selection of inference procedures, the integration of numerical and symbolic processing, the formulation of explanation mechanisms to deal with integrated numerical and symbolic processing, testing methods, and software standardization. Improving the quality and scope of knowledge in these areas is essential if expert systems are to be applied effectively in architectural design
keywords CAD, expert systems, acoustics, applications, knowledge base, design, architecture, AI, analysis
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id e5d0
authors Lowe, John P.
year 1994
title Computer-Aided-Design in the Studio Setting: A Paradigm Shift in Architectural Education
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 230
summary The introduction of the personal computer in 1982 set forth a revolution that will continue to transform the profession of Architecture. Most architectural practices in America have embraced this revolution realizing the potentials of the computer. However, education seems to have been slower accepting the potentials and challenges of computers. Computer technology will change the design studio setting and therefore the fundamental way architects are educated. The Department of Architecture at Kansas State University has made a commitment to move toward a computer based design studio. In the fall of 1990, discussions began among the faculty to search for the placement of a computer studio within the five year program. Curriculum, staffing, and funding were issues that had to be overcome to make this commitment work. The strategy that was adopted involved placing the computer studio at the fourth year level in phase one. Phase two will progress as more staff are trained on the computer and course work was adapted to accommodate other year levels for a computer based design studios. Funding was a major obstacle. The decision was made to move from a position of being the primary suppliers of computing technology to one of support for student purchased computers. This strategy alleviated the department from maintaining and upgrading the technology. There was great enthusiasm and support from the faculty as a whole for the use of computers in the studio setting. However, the pedagogical impacts of such a change are just beginning to be realized.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:18

_id ba3b
authors Madrazo, L.
year 1999
title Types and Instances: a paradigm for teaching design with computers
source Design Studies 20 (2) (1999) pp. 177-193
summary Types and Instances is the conceptual paradigm of this course for teaching design with computers to architecture students which was devised at the ETH Zurich. The course was initiated in the academic year 1990/91. Since then, it has been offered each following Winter semester up to the academic year 1995/1996. This paper discusses the essential concepts of the course and describes the tools that were created specifically for it. A reflection based on the experience of teaching the course is also included in the conclusions.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id e7a7
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 1990
title The Integration of Computer Modeling in Architectural Design
source From Research to Practice [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, pp. 103-116
summary The integration of computers in architectural design is explored from the perspective of both architectural education and professional practice. The main part of this paper attempts to define the conditions necessary for an effective interaction between computers and architects in the process of design. In the second part, a specific example, developed by the author during the course of his practice, is used to illustrate the use of available systems in professional practice.
series ACADIA
email madrazo@salleURL.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id maver_097
id maver_097
authors Maver, Thomas W.
year 1994
title Information Technology in Design: A Perspective
source Journal of Housing, Building and Planning, vol 1, 0218-6536
summary In October 1990 a small group of people met at Ross Priory on the shores of Loch Lomond in Scotland to celebrate 21 years of computer aided building design. The calloboration- called CAAD Comes of Age - took the form of a seminar with papers presented by academics and design practitioners whose experience of this subject spanned these formative years during which the subject has grown from the minority time interest of a few eccentric academics into a multi- billion dollar business A number of the papers and much of the discussion focused on what had transpired over the 21 year period and how the evolution of the subject corresponded to the predictions which had been made at various times in the past This paper gathers together some of the perceptions which emerged from the event.
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/09/03 13:01

_id maver_105
id maver_105
authors Maver, Thomas W.
year 1994
title Information Technology in Design: A Perspective
source Journal of Housing, Building and Planning, vol 1, 0218-6536
summary In October 1990 a small group of people met at Ross Priory on the shores of Loch Lomond in Scotland to celebrate 21 years of computer aided building design. The calloboration- called CAAD Comes of Age - took the form of a seminar with papers presented by academics and design practitioners whose experience of this subject spanned these formative years during which the subject has grown from the minority time interest of a few eccentric academics into a multi- billion dollar business A number of the papers and much of the discussion focused on what had transpired over the 21 year period and how the evolution of the subject corresponded to the predictions which had been made at various times in the past This paper gathers together some of the perceptions which emerged from the event.
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/09/03 13:36

_id 49a8
authors McCall, R., Fischer, G. and Morch, A.
year 1990
title Supporting Reflection-in-Action in the Janus Design Environment
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 247-259
summary We have developed a computer-based design aid called Janus, which is based on a model of computer-supported design that we think has significance for the future of architectural education. Janus utilizes a knowledge-based approach to link a graphic construction system to hypertext. This allows the computer to make useful comments on the solutions that students construct in a CAD-like environment. These comments contain information intended to make students think more carefully about what they are doing while they are doing it. In other words, Janus promotes what Donald Schon has called "reflection-inaction" (Schon, 1983). The Janus design environment is named for the Roman god with a pair of faces looking in opposite directions. In our case the faces correspond to complementary design activities we call construction and argumentation. Construction is the activity of graphically creating the form of the solution e.g., a building. Traditionally this has been done with tracing paper, pencils, and pens. Argumentation is the activity of reasoning about the problem and its solution. This includes such things as considering what to do next, what alternative courses of action are available, and which course of action to choose. Argumentation is mostly verbal but partly graphical.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id aa49
authors McCall, R.J., Bennett, P.R. and D'oronzio, P.S. (et al)
year 1990
title PHIDIAS : Integrating CAD Graphics into Dynamic Hypertext
source Hypertext : Concepts, System and Applications, Proceedings of the European Conference on Hypertext, ECHT'90. Cambridge University Press., 1990. pp. 152-165 : ill. includes bibliography
summary PHIDIAS is a hypermedia system for supporting environmental design. It embodies a theory of design as continual alternation between two complementary activities: construction of solution form and argumentation about construction. To support these activities it implements a number of advanced hypermedia concepts. These include an applicative query language providing search by both structure and content, virtual structures, composite graphic notes, query-based graphic clustering, and 'triggered' queries which connect construction acts to relevant sections of the argumentive network. PHIDIAS constitutes a new type of integrated information environment design
keywords hypermedia, CAD, design, methods, user interface, argumentation, hypertext
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 752c
id 752c
authors McCall, R.J., Ostwald, J.L., Shipman, F.M. and Wallace, N.F.
year 1990
title The Phidias Hypercad System: Extending CAD with Hypermedia
source From Research to Practice [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, pp. 145-156
summary Phidias is software which integrates computer-aided design graphics with hypermedia to create a hypermedia CAD - or hyperCAD - system. Phidias allows architects to develop building form while having immediate and nearly effortless access to a rich store of textual, numerical, and graphical information. This information access can make a wide variety of design literature and research findings available to architects in a way and at a time that they can easily use it. Thus, Phidias is intended to help bridge the gap between architectural research and practice.
series ACADIA
last changed 2004/03/18 08:35

_id 2224
authors McCall, Raymond J.
year 1990
title PHI : A Conceptual Foundation For Design Hypermedia
source 1990? 12 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary PHI (Procedural Hierarchy of Issues) extends the IBIS ( Issue-Based Information System) method developed by Rittel to support an argumentative approach to design. PHI extend that approach, because it uses an additional argumentative process and deals with a greater range of design issues. PHI has recently gained recognition as the conceptual foundation for a number of design hypermedia systems
keywords argumentation, design, hypermedia, systems, methods, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 8bf3
authors McCullough, M., Mitchell, W.J. and Purcell, P. (Eds.)
year 1990
title The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [Conference Proceedings]
source International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design 1989/ ISBN 0-262-13254-0] (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, 505 p.
summary Design is the computation of shape information that is needed to guide fabrication or construction of artifacts. But it is not so straightforward as, say, the computation of numerical information required to balance a checkbook. This is partly because algebras of shapes are not as well understood and precisely formalized as algebras of numbers, partly because the rules for carrying out shape computations tend to be fluid and ill defined and partly because the predicates that must be satisfied to achieve successful termination are often complex and difficult to specify. For centuries architects have carried out shape computations by hand, using informal procedures and the simplest of tools. Over the last two decades though, they have made increasing use of more formal procedures executed by computers. It is still too early to be sure of the gains and losses that follow from this development, but there is no doubt that it raises some challenging questions of architectural theory and some perplexing issues for those concerned with the future of architectural education. This book frames those issues and provides a diversity of perspectives on them. Its contents were initially presented at the CAAD Futures 89 Conference-an international gathering of researchers and teachers in the field of computer-aided architectural design which was jointly sponsored by the Harvard Graduate School of Design and the MIT Department of Architecture and held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in July 1989. There are four major sections: Theoretical Foundations, Knowledge-Based Design Tools, Information Delivery Systems, and Case Studies: Electronic Media in the Design Studio. In a representative collection of current views, over thirty extensively illustrated papers discuss the experiences of universities in the USA, Europe, Japan, Israel, Canada, and Australia, articulate present theoretical and practical concerns, provide criticism of media and methods, and suggest directions for the future. Architectural educators and architects concerned with the effect of computer technology on the design process will find here an indispensable reference and a rich source of ideas. This book was itself prepared in an electronic design studio. Composition and typography, most image collection and placement, and such editing as was practical within this publishing format, were all performed digitally using Macintosh computers at the Harvard Graduate School of Design during a period of a few weeks in 1989.
series CAAD Futures
email mmmc@umich.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ac36
authors McCullough, Malcolm
year 1990
title Low-Threshold Modeling
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 413-426
summary This is a case study of teaching at the University of Texas at Austin. It is about using an electronic design studio to provide architecture students with their first exposure to computing. It suggests that, despite the limitations of present technology, there is reason to lower the thresholds to computer-aided design. The study presents a studio which attempted such by allowing students to find their own level of commitment to use of electronic media for geometric modeling. More generally, the paper aims to document issues presently facing the many professional schools not having substantial traditions in computer-aided design education.
series CAAD Futures
email mmmc@umich.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 07aa
authors McIntosh, John and Pihlak, Madis
year 1990
title The Thousand-Acre Sketch Problem
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 427-440
summary An unusually large sketch problem in urban design was given to an undergraduate studio class to introduce visualization techniques and to explore fundamental urban design principles. This thousand-acre sketch problem was distributed to students on a floppy disk as a three- dimensional computer model. The availability of a large number of Macintosh IIs and access to a pre-release version of the three-dimensional modeling program ModelShop allowed us to conduct this prototype electronic studio. This paper looks at the productivity gains experienced by our students during this project and discusses the increased level of understanding witnessed in student performance. More importantly, this sketch problem is examined as a philosophical parable for several pedagogical issues of design education in the microcomputer age.
series CAAD Futures
email john.mcintosh@asu.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 7449
authors Medero Rocha, Isabel A. and Danckwardt, Voltaire
year 2000
title Projeto Missões, Computação Gráfica - Multimídia da Reconstituição Computadorizada da Redução de São Miguel Arcanjo no Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil ("Missões" Project, Computer Graphics and Multimedia of the "Redução de São Miguel Arcanjo" Digital Reconstruction (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil))
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 191-193
summary The Project Missions - Graphical Computation, recoups in a graphical and digital the pictures of the Church and the Reduction of São Miguel Arcanjo/RS/Brasil, allowing to the public a virtual stroll through the set at the time of its foundation in 1687. Initiate in 1990, the design refers the appropriation and implementation of the new computational technologies. The 3D model allows the dynamic visualization of the set, through aerial sights and walkthrough animations into the main streets and the inward of the central ship of the church. For the generation of the model, it was followed the principles of the architectural composition to decompose the parts, to be shaped, defining the architectural and composition elements. This COMPACT DISC, is one of the some midias of the Design Missions - Graphical Computation. In this proposal, the music was developed especially for the COMPACT DISC, looks for to reflect the poetical aspect of the interaction between light, shadow, of the inwards and exteriors, attenuating the technology of a virtual environment. In the integration between the art and the technology its recovered virtually, the poetical way, the memory of one of the icons of the identity of the Rio Grande do Sul, with the objective to keep alive, for the new generations, a patrimony that practically in ruins would have the souvenir of its lost real picture in the time.
series SIGRADI
email isabel@prisma.unisinos.br, voltaire@prisma.unisinos.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 8ca2
authors Miller, Frank C.
year 1990
title Form Processing Workshop: Architectural Design and Solid Modeling at MIT
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 441-455
summary Computing impacts the preliminary architectural design process as a tool for observation and analysis, as a formal prototyping tool, and as a vehicle to generate variations of objects and assemblies. Through the use of both traditional and computing tools, the Form Processing Workshop examines the relationship between design decisions and design tools. The Workshop utilizes several software applications, with emphasis on the use of a solid modeler. This curriculum was developed with the support of MIT's Project Athena.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id bc8d
authors Mitchell, W.
year 1990
title Digital Design Media
source Ciudad de Bits. Space, Place and the Infobahn
summary In Digital Design Media, Second Edition, architects and related design professionals will find a complete conceptual guide to the multidimensional world of computer-aided design. In contrast to the many books that describe how to use particular programs (and which therefore go out of date very quickly), Digital Design Media constructs a lasting theoretical framework, which will make it easier to understand a great number of programs-existing and future-as a whole. Clear structure, numerous historical references, and hundreds of illustrations make this framework both accessible to the nontechnical professional and broadening for the experienced computer-aided designer. The book will be especially valuable to anyone who is ready to expand their work in CAD beyond production drafting systems. The new second edition adds chapters one merging technologies, such as the Internet, but the book's original content is as valid as ever. Thousands of design students and practitioners have made this book a standard.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 3824
authors Mitchell, William J.
year 1989
title A New Agenda for Computer-Aided Architectural Design
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 27-43
summary The essential theoretical foundations for today's practical computer-aided design systems were laid more than two decades ago. They have served us well, but they are now sorely in need of revision. This paper suggests some directions that this revision might take. In particular, I focus on the roles of ambiguity and discontinuity in shape interpretation, instability in rules for carrying out shape computations, and nonmonotonicity in critical reasoning. I suggest that the challenge before us is to build a new generation of CAD systems that respond in sophisticated ways to these issues.
series ACADIA
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

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