CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 3105
authors Novak, T.P., Hoffman, D.L., and Yung, Y.-F.
year 1996
title Modeling the structure of the flow experience
source INFORMS Marketing Science and the Internet Mini-Conference, MIT
summary The flow construct (Csikszentmihalyi 1977) has recently been proposed by Hoffman and Novak (1996) as essential to understanding consumer navigation behavior in online environments such as the World Wide Web. Previous researchers (e.g. Csikszentmihalyi 1990; Ghani, Supnick and Rooney 1991; Trevino and Webster 1992; Webster, Trevino and Ryan 1993) have noted that flow is a useful construct for describing more general human-computer interactions. Hoffman and Novak define flow as the state occurring during network navigation which is: 1) characterized by a seamless sequence of responses facilitated by machine interactivity, 2) intrinsically enjoyable, 3) accompanied by a loss of self-consciousness, and 4) selfreinforcing." To experience flow while engaged in an activity, consumers must perceive a balance between their skills and the challenges of the activity, and both their skills and challenges must be above a critical threshold. Hoffman and Novak (1996) propose that flow has a number of positive consequences from a marketing perspective, including increased consumer learning, exploratory behavior, and positive affect."
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a9db
authors Benjamin, Andrew
year 1990
title Building Experience
source 1990. 30 p
summary What is the experience of a building? What is the relationship between the building as an event and the event as an experience? These two questions provide a frame within which building experience can come to be formulated
keywords philosophy, architecture, psychology, perception
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id a33f
authors Cote, Pierre, Hartkopf , Volker and Loftness, Vivian (et al)
year 1990
title Vector Field Representation for the Evaluation of Multiple Performance Variables
source 1990. 6, [7] p., [3] p. of ill. includes bibliography
summary A vector field representation is proposed to simulate the spatial distribution of four building system performance variables: light, sound, radiant heat, and air flow. From this simulation, a measure of the impact of adding, deleting, or modifying an object in the field is computed. This measure serves as a passive evaluation of the user/designer's decision to modify the location or dimensions of the object in a space. This process of simulation-evaluation is performed by a performance module (PM), which is viewed as a component of a CAAD System (Computer Architectural Aided Design). This paper describes the motivation, objectives, methodology and preliminary results of the approach
keywords simulation, CAD, computation, evaluation, building, performance, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 450c
authors Akin, Ömer
year 1990
title Computational Design Instruction: Toward a Pedagogy
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 302-316
summary The computer offers enormous potential both in and out of the classroom that is realized only in limited ways through the applications available to us today. In the early days of the computer it was generally argued that it would replace the architect. When this idea became obsolete, the prevailing opinion of proponents and opponents alike shifted to the notion of the computer as merely adding to present design capabilities. This idea is so ingrained in our thinking that we still speak of "aiding" design with computers. It is clear to those who grasp the real potential of this still new technology - as in the case of many other major technological innovations - that it continues to change the way we design, rather than to merely augment or replace human designers. In the classroom the computer has the potential to radically change three fundamental ingredients: student, instruction, and instructor. It is obvious that changes of this kind spell out a commensurate change in design pedagogy. If the computer is going to be more than a passive instrument in the design studio, then design pedagogy will have to be changed, fundamentally. While the practice of computing in the studio continues to be a significant I aspect of architectural education, articulation of viable pedagogy for use in the design studio is truly rare. In this paper the question of pedagogy in the CAD studio will be considered first. Then one particular design studio taught during Fall 1988 at Carnegie Mellon University will be presented. Finally, we shall return to issues of change in the student, instruction, and instructor, as highlighted by this particular experience.
series CAAD Futures
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 4ac0
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1990
title Knowledge Engineering and Multicriteria Optimization
source Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1990. pp. 115-147. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Many aspects of optimization, including problem formulation, algorithm selection and the interpretation of results require human judgment and experience, and are traditionally carried out by humans. Recently developed knowledge-based system methodologies now allow us to incorporate different forms of knowledge required to carry out such non-numeric tasks. The role and effectiveness of knowledge-based methodologies in multicriteria optimization are described and illustrated with examples
keywords design, multicriteria, optimization, knowledge base
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8775
authors Cigolle, Mark and Coleman, Kim
year 1990
title Computer Integrated Design: Transformation as Process
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 333-346
summary To bring together poetry, magic and science, to explore beyond preconceptions, to invent spaces and forms which re-form and inform man's experience, these are the possibilities of architecture. Computer integrated design offers a means for extending the search, one which integrates both conceptual and perceptual issues in the making of architecture. The computer may assist in generating constructs which would not have been created by conventional methods. The application of computer techniques to design has to date been focused primarily on production aspects, an area which is already highly organizable and communicable. In conceptual and perceptual aspects of design, computer techniques remain underdeveloped. Since the impetus for- the development of computer applications has come from the immediate economics of practice rather than a theoretically based strategy, computer-aided design is currently biased toward the replication of conventional techniques rather than the exploration of new potentials. Over the last two years we have been involved in experimentation with methodologies which engage the computer in formative explorations of the design idea. Work produced from investigations by 4th and 5th year undergraduate students in computer integrated design studios that we have been teaching at the University of Southern California demonstrates the potential for the use of the computer as a principal tool in the exploration of syntax and perception, space and program. The challenge is to approach the making of architecture as an innovative act, one which does not rely on preconceived notions of design.
series CAAD Futures
email kcoleman@usc.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 417a
authors Cipriani, R., Lagomarsino, A.D., Stagnaro, A., Valenti, E. and Sambolino, T.
year 1990
title Some Years' Experience Teaching CAAD
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 347-361
summary In the conventional way of teaching architecture, it is common to think of design as the final synthesis of an intellectual process (composizione in Italian) integrating different elements from different curriculum subjects: history, structural analysis., technology, regional and urban planning, and so on. These elements, being comprehensive of their specific domains, together build the project. This process is supported by a long traditional that cannot easily be modified; however, we must not consider it to be the only one. Architectural practice should be much more. The Scuole di Architettura has walked a long and difficult road in the last thirty years., with a significant widening of interest in social, political, and economic issues. There have been recurring attempts at epistemological reformulation in some areas. There has been an acknowledgment of a crisis in contemporary town planning and a dimming of several certitudes that had developed with the birth and growth of the modernist school. And there has been a weakening of the promises that had given life to the vigorous discussion about town and regional planning. All of this leads to a reconsideration of the meaning and the deeper assumptions that the project implies, a question mark at the center of the human sciences that architectural practice involves. The old tradition., which assigned composition a central role in the project, is no longer sufficient because it is related to a reductive reading of epistemology that views human sciences as defining segments of physical knowledge of the actual world. Contemporary reflection on the difference between understanding and unfolding, together with the attention given to interpreting a moment as compared to purely describing one, gives to the project the task of inquiry instead of solution.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 68c8
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R. and Fenves, S. (et al.)
year 1994
title SEED: A Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design
source Proceeding of IKM '94, Weimar, Germany, pp. 5-10
summary The SEED project intends to develop a software environment that supports the early phases in building design (Flemming et al., 1993). The goal is to provide support, in principle, for the preliminary design of buildings in all aspects that can gain from computer support. This includes using the computer not only for analysis and evaluation, but also more actively for the generation of designs, or more accurately, for the rapid generation of design representations. A major motivation for the development of SEED is to bring the results of two multi-generational research efforts focusing on `generative' design systems closer to practice: 1. LOOS/ABLOOS, a generative system for the synthesis of layouts of rectangles (Flemming et al., 1988; Flemming, 1989; Coyne and Flemming, 1990; Coyne, 1991); 2. GENESIS, a rule-based system that supports the generation of assemblies of 3-dimensional solids (Heisserman, 1991; Heisserman and Woodbury, 1993). The rapid generation of design representations can take advantage of special opportunities when it deals with a recurring building type, that is, a building type dealt with frequently by the users of the system. Design firms - from housing manufacturers to government agencies - accumulate considerable experience with recurring building types. But current CAD systems capture this experience and support its reuse only marginally. SEED intends to provide systematic support for the storing and retrieval of past solutions and their adaptation to similar problem situations. This motivation aligns aspects of SEED closely with current work in Artificial Intelligence that focuses on case-based design (see, for example, Kolodner, 1991; Domeshek and Kolodner, 1992; Hua et al., 1992).
series other
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id eee2
authors Gero, John S. and Rosenman, Michael A.
year 1989
title A Conceptual Framework for Knowledge-Based Design Research at Sydney University's Design Computing Unit
source Southampton/Berlin: CMP/Springer- verlag, 1989. pp. 363-382. Published also in Artificial Intelligence in Engineering 5(2):363-383, 1990
summary This paper presents the conceptual framework behind the Design Computing Unit's knowledge-based design research. It commences with a brief overview before introducing the role of experience in design. The conceptual schema 'prototypes' is introduced and described within a framework of design as transforming required or expected functions to structure descriptions. Current projects related to this conceptual framework are briefly described
keywords CAD, knowledge base, design, prototypes, representation
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 68c0
authors Gero, John S. and Rosenman, Michael A.
year 1990
title Design Decision Making Using Pareto-Optimal Dynamic Programming
source Berlin: Springer- Verlag, 1990. pp. 376-396
summary When designing using the systems approach, the given system is decomposed into a number of subsystems, and for each subsystem a set of feasible alternatives is selected by the designer. A building design example is presented in which it is demonstrated that sufficient relevant solutions are generated in one pass of the dynamic programming procedure to give a good approximation to the Pareto set, thus offering designers sufficient choice in making a final selection. The relevant information is displayed in an intelligent manner so that designers can either make a final decision or else perceive what extra information they require
keywords optimization, decision making, design process, architecture, multicriteria, evaluation, decomposition, dynamic programming
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 6259
authors Kalay, Yehuda E. and Majkowski, Bruce R.
year 1990
title CAD Technology Transfer: A Case Study
source From Research to Practice [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, pp. 133-143
summary Transferring innovative university-based research results to the industry or practice that will ultimately use them is an arduous, time-consuming effort. One way to effect this technology transfer is to develop a demonstrable prototype product and then find or form a corporation that can expand the prototype into a full product and market it to the profession. Another way, which can shorten the transfer process, is to "sell" the idea, rather than the product, to a corporation that has the vision, the resources and the technical competency to support its development, with the intent to eventually market it. In this paper, we describe a case study of this latter approach, based on our seven year experience of researching, developing and transferring innovative architectural CAD technology. We describe the birth, growth, and maturity of Worldview, a computer-aided design and modeling system for use by architects. The project was initiated in 1983, and went through five software versions, numerous grants and grant extensions, two granting corporations, and extensive field testing. The software has developed into a mature system, with sufficient functionality appropriate for commercial distribution. The paper describes not only the factual chronology of the project, but also highlights the advantages and drawbacks of market-oriented university research. We conclude with suggestions as to how the process may be improved, and how problems and obstacles can be minimized.
series ACADIA
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 26cb
authors Kalay, Yehuda E. and Steinfeld, Edward
year 1990
title The Impact of Computer-Aided Design on Representation in Architecture
source 1990. 24 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary Representation can be defined as a process of abstraction and communication. Through some symbolic language, characteristics of a real or hypothetical object or experience are conveyed by one person to another. During the process of design there are two basic uses of representation: internal and external. Internal representation is used by the designer to create and transform the design in process. It is a conversation with oneself. External representations are used to communicate the evolving design to others, including others in the design team, so that it can be evaluated and criticized. Computers are used today in architecture primarily as a tool to carry on the practice of architecture as it has evolved during the recent past. The new technology has heretofore been adapted to conform to our habitual forms of representation. This paper explores how computer technology can support new methods of representation in architecture. Issues discussed include the form and content of internal computer-aided representations, loss of information due to abstraction, communication between internal and external representations, and the form and process of external representation
keywords CAD, architecture, representation
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 06e1
authors Keul, Alexander
year 1996
title LOST IN SPACE? ARCHITECTURAL PSYCHOLOGY - PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary A methodological review by Kaminski (1995) summed up five perspectives in environmental psychology - patterns of spatial distribution, everyday “jigsaw puzzles”, functional everyday action systems, sociocultural change and evolution of competence. Architectural psychology (named so at the Strathclyde conference 1969; Canter, 1973) as psychology of built environments is one leg of environmental psychology, the second one being psychology of environmental protection. Architectural psychology has come of age and passed its 25th birthday. Thus, a triangulation of its position, especially in Central Europe, seems interesting and necessary. A recent survey mainly on university projects in German-speaking countries (Kruse & Trimpin, 1995) found a marked decrease of studies in psychology of built environments. 1994, 25% of all projects were reported in this category, which in 1975 had made up 40% (Kruse, 1975). Guenther, in an unpublished survey of BDP (association of professional German psychologists) members, encountered only a handful active in architectural psychology - mostly part-time, not full-time. 1996, Austria has two full-time university specialists. The discrepancy between the general interest displayed by planners and a still low institutionalization is noticeable.

How is the research situation? Using several standard research data banks, the author collected articles and book(chapter)s on architectural psychology in German- and English-language countries from 1990 to 1996. Studies on main architecture-psychology interface problems such as user needs, housing quality evaluations, participatory planning and spatial simulation / virtual reality did not outline an “old, settled” discipline, but rather the sketchy, random surface of a field “always starting anew”. E.g., discussions at the 1995 EAEA-Conference showed that several architectural simulation studies since 1973 caused no major impact on planner's opinions (Keul&Martens, 1996). “Re-inventions of the wheel” are caused by a lack of meetings (except this one!) and of interdisciplinary infrastructure in German-language countries (contrary to Sweden or the United States). Social pressures building up on architecture nowadays by inter-European competition, budget cuts and citizen activities for informed consent in most urban projects are a new challenge for planners to cooperate efficiently with social scientists. At Salzburg, the author currently manages the Corporate Design-process for the Chamber of Architecture, Division for Upper Austria and Salzburg. A “working group for architectural psychology” (Keul-Martens-Maderthaner) has been active since 1994.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
email alexander.keul@sbg.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id aea2
authors Laurel, B. (ed.)
year 1990
title The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design
source New York: Addison-Wesley.
summary Human-computer interface design is a new discipline. So new in fact, that Alan Kay of Apple Computer quipped that people "are not sure whether they should order it by the yard or the ton"! Irrespective of the measure, interface design is gradually emerging as a much-needed and timely approach to reducing the awkwardness and inconveniences of human-computer interaction. "Increased cognitive load", "bewildered and tired users" - these are the byproducts of the "plethora of options and the interface conventions" faced by computer users. Originally, computers were "designed by engineers, for engineers". Little or no attention was, or needed to be, paid to the interface. However, the pervasive use of the personal computer and the increasing number and variety of applications and programs has given rise to a need to focus on the "cognitive locus of human-computer interaction" i.e. the interface. What is the interface? Laurel defines the interface as a "contact surface" that "reflects the physical properties of the interactors, the functions to be performed, and the balance of power and control." (p.xiii) Incorporated into her definition are the "cognitive and emotional aspects of the user's experience". In a very basic sense, the interface is "the place where contact between two entities occurs." (p.xii) Doorknobs, steering wheels, spacesuits-these are all interfaces. The greater the difference between the two entities, the greater the need for a well-designed interface. In this case, the two very different entities are computers and humans. Human-conputer interface design looks at how we can lessen the effects of these differences. This means, for Laurel, empowering users by providing them with ease of use. "How can we think about it so that the interfaces we design will empower users?" "What does the user want to do?" These are the questions Laurel believes must be asked by designers. These are the questions addressed directly and indirectly by the approximately 50 contributors to The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design. In spite of the large number of contributors to the book and the wide range of fields with which they are associated, there is a broad consensus on how interfaces can be designed for empowerment and ease of use. User testing, user contexts, user tasks, user needs, user control: these terms appear throughout the book and suggest ways in which design might focus less on the technology and more on the user. With this perspective in mind, contributor D. Norman argues that computer interfaces should be designed so that the user interacts more with the task and less with the machine. Such interfaces "blend with the task", and "make tools invisible" so that "the technology is subervient to that goal". Sellen and Nicol insist on the need for interfaces that are 'simple', 'self-explanatory', 'adaptive' and 'supportive'. Contributors Vertelney and Grudin are interested in interfaces that support the contexts in which many users work. They consider ways in which group-oriented tasks and collaborative efforts can be supported and aided by the particular design of the interface. Mountford equates ease of use with understating the interface: "The art and science of interface design depends largely on making the transaction with the computer as transparent as possible in order to minimize the burden on the user".(p.248) Mountford also believes in "making computers more powerful extensions of our natural capabilities and goals" by offering the user a "richer sensory environment". One way this can be achieved according to Saloman is through creative use of colour. Saloman notes that colour can not only impart information but that it can be a useful mnemonic device to create associations. A richer sensory environment can also be achieved through use of sound, natural speech recognition, graphics, gesture input devices, animation, video, optical media and through what Blake refers to as "hybrid systems". These systems include additional interface features to control components such as optical disks, videotape, speech digitizers and a range of devices that support "whole user tasks". Rich sensory environments are often characteristic of game interfaces which rely heavily on sound and graphics. Crawford believes we have a lot to learn from the design of games and that they incorporate "sound concepts of user interface design". He argues that "games operate in a more demanding user-interface universe than other applications" since they must be both "fun" and "functional".
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e7fb
authors Leclercq, Pierre
year 1991
title Students in Efficient Energy Management
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary The LEMA presents Strategy II, the new version of his CAL software in thermal design of building. Based on his latest experiences using the first prototypes, the present programme provides an complete human interface and interesting tools for decision taking. A first educational experience with this software is described. Strategy II has been studied in 1990 by two twin teams: one is the LEMA (Laboratoire d'Etudes Méthodologiques Architecturales) and the other one is the CTE (Centre des Technologies de l'Education), parts of the University of Liège, in Belgium.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/23 07:44

_id ba3b
authors Madrazo, L.
year 1999
title Types and Instances: a paradigm for teaching design with computers
source Design Studies 20 (2) (1999) pp. 177-193
summary Types and Instances is the conceptual paradigm of this course for teaching design with computers to architecture students which was devised at the ETH Zurich. The course was initiated in the academic year 1990/91. Since then, it has been offered each following Winter semester up to the academic year 1995/1996. This paper discusses the essential concepts of the course and describes the tools that were created specifically for it. A reflection based on the experience of teaching the course is also included in the conclusions.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 0b62
authors Maher, Mary Lou
year 1990
title Process Models for Design Synthesis
source AI Magazine. 1990. vol. 11: pp. 49-58
summary Models of design processes provide guidance in the development of knowledge-based systems for design. The basis for such models comes from both research in design theory and methodology as well as problem solving in artificial intelligence. Three models are presented: decomposition, case-based reasoning, and transformation. Each model provides a formalism for representing design knowledge and experience in distinct and complementary forms
keywords design process, knowledge base, systems, theory, decomposition, representation, reasoning
series CADline
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:19

_id c903
authors Mark, Earl
year 1990
title Case Studies in Moviemaking and Computer-Aided Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 393-412
summary A movie which is developed from site location video, sync sound, and computer graphics animation can provide a highly convincing simulation of reality. A movie that conveys a sense of the space, materials and juxtaposition of objects of a proposed architectural design provides a special kind of realism, where the representation may be of a proposed building that exists only within the mind of an architect. For an experienced architect, however, the movie may not provide a good surrogate experience for what it feels like to actually be within the architectural space. In these case studies, a few projects that combine moviemaking and computer-aided design technologies are examined. These projects were completed using a combination of resources at the MIT School of Architecture and Planning and the Harvard Graduate School of Design. The integrated use of these media is presented as conceptualized with the Electronic Design Studio, a research project that has been supported over the past five years by Project Athena at MIT. The impact of movies and computer-aided design on the perception of architectural space is also reported- based on a pilot study of twenty architectural students.
series CAAD Futures
email ejmark@virginia.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id b0f7
authors Martens, Bob
year 1992
title A FINISHING TOUCH TO THE FULL-SCALE LABORATORY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY IN VIENNA
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part A, pp. 7-14
summary The development planning of the full-scale laboratory at the Vienna University of Technology was already presented to the third E.F.A. Conference in Lund (1990). Exchange of experience has greatly encouraged us to take all measures necessary for an immediate provisional operation. Working experience was of considerable significance regarding reconstruction work having repeatedly been postponed ever since 1988. This paper deals with the Vienna full-scale laboratory in its ultimate form and all the equipment designed therefore. Summarizingly, the further measures for operation are being considered.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:30

_id maver_097
id maver_097
authors Maver, Thomas W.
year 1994
title Information Technology in Design: A Perspective
source Journal of Housing, Building and Planning, vol 1, 0218-6536
summary In October 1990 a small group of people met at Ross Priory on the shores of Loch Lomond in Scotland to celebrate 21 years of computer aided building design. The calloboration- called CAAD Comes of Age - took the form of a seminar with papers presented by academics and design practitioners whose experience of this subject spanned these formative years during which the subject has grown from the minority time interest of a few eccentric academics into a multi- billion dollar business A number of the papers and much of the discussion focused on what had transpired over the 21 year period and how the evolution of the subject corresponded to the predictions which had been made at various times in the past This paper gathers together some of the perceptions which emerged from the event.
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/09/03 13:01

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