CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id eb5f
authors Al-Sallal, Khaled A. and Degelman, Larry 0.
year 1994
title A Hypermedia Model for Supporting Energy Design in Buildings
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 39-49
summary Several studies have discussed the limitations of the available CAAD tools and have proposed solutions [Brown and Novitski 1987, Brown 1990, Degelman and Kim 1988, Schuman et al 1988]. The lack of integration between the different tasks that these programs address and the design process is a major problem. Schuman et al [1988] argued that in architectural design many issues must be considered simultaneously before the synthesis of a final product can take place. Studies by Brown and Novitski [1987] and Brown [1990] discussed the difficulties involved with integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural process. One aspect of the problem is the neglect of technical factors during the initial phase of the design that, as the authors argued, results from changing the work environment and the laborious nature of the design process. Many of the current programs require the user to input a great deal of numerical values that are needed for the energy analysis. Although there are some programs that attempt to assist the user by setting default values, these programs distract the user with their extensive arrays of data. The appropriate design tool is the one that helps the user to easily view the principal components of the building design and specify their behaviors and interactions. Data abstraction and information parsimony are the key concepts in developing a successful design tool. Three different approaches for developing an appropriate CAAD tool were found in the literature. Although there are several similarities among them, each is unique in solving certain aspects of the problem. Brown and Novitski [1987] emphasize the learning factor of the tool as well as its highly graphical user interface. Degelman and Kim [1988] emphasize knowledge acquisition and the provision of simulation modules. The Windows and Daylighting Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) emphasizes the dynamic structuring of information, the intelligent linking of data, the integrity of the different issues of design and the design process, and the extensive use of images [Schuman et al 19881, these attributes incidentally define the word hypermedia. The LBL model, which uses hypermedia, seems to be the more promising direction for this type of research. However, there is still a need to establish a new model that integrates all aspects of the problem. The areas in which the present research departs from the LBL model can be listed as follows: it acknowledges the necessity of regarding the user as the center of the CAAD tool design, it develops a model that is based on one of the high level theories of human-computer interaction, and it develops a prototype tool that conforms to the model.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 4d0d
authors Angelil, Mark
year 1990
title Experiments as Modus Operandi
source Journal of Architectural Education. November, 1990. Vol. 44: pp. 37-48 : 9 p. of ill
summary Architecture has for too long focused on the presentation of pristine objects and the presentation in drawing form. A critical understanding of the field, however, necessitates a reevaluation of the roles of the process involved in the production of building. Rather than emphasizing surface appearances, an architecture rooted in process aims ultimately at revealing the fundamental and deep structures inherent within the making of architecture. One of the primary tasks of the process is to provoke intuition and ingenuity - and the awareness that both are founded on knowledge - and that knowledge must be applied with imagination. The experiment presented here developed sequentially with a defined structure to the process of design, moving gradually from the abstract into the concrete, thereby attempting and understanding of what Roland Barthes identified as 'concrete abstraction.'
keywords design process, architecture, knowledge, experimentation
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 64b2
authors Brown, G. Z.
year 1990
title Desirable Interface Characteristics of Knowledge-Based Energy Software Used by Architects
source March, 1990. 14 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper describes ongoing research projects on the development of user interfaces for energy software to be used by architects. The paper takes the position that the goal of knowledge-based design software should be to help the architect to visualize the unimagined. In order to approach this goal the unique characteristics of the architectural design process must be understood and used in the creation of software. The two characteristics discussed are: the architectural design process emphasizes synthesis rather than analysis, and the symbols used to transmit knowledge are primarily graphic abstractions rather than alpha-numeric abstractions
keywords user interface, architecture, design process, knowledge base, software, energy
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8927
authors Brown, G.Z., McDonald, M. and Meacham, M.
year 1990
title A Review of Computer Use in Industrialized Housing
source October, 1990. 72 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The U.S. housing industry is becoming increasingly industrialized. In the process, housing production is becoming more standardized and rationalized, which have the potential to make computerization of the production process easier. This report reviews, assess and documents the extent of computer use in marketing, design, engineering and manufacturing of industrialized housing. Compares and contrasts the state of the art in U.S. vs. Japan and Western Europe. It assess and documents the needs of the domestic industry in this field, and establishes design criteria for new computerized energy tools unique to industrialized housing
keywords prefabrication, housing, CAD, practice, building, energy, management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 48fc
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1990
title Knowledge Assistant in the Process of Architectural Design
source Building and Environment. 1990. 39 p. includes bibliography
summary The article illustrates a methodological approach for the realization of a knowledge-based assistant for building and architectural design. The system is based on the concepts of constraint propagation, and uses the formal method of frames. The aim of the system is to cooperate 'interactively' with the designer in the various phases of this work
keywords knowledge base, architecture, CAD, building, design, frames
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 91c4
authors Checkland, P.
year 1981
title Systems Thinking, Systems Practice
source John Wiley & Sons, Chichester
summary Whether by design, accident or merely synchronicity, Checkland appears to have developed a habit of writing seminal publications near the start of each decade which establish the basis and framework for systems methodology research for that decade."" Hamish Rennie, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 1992 Thirty years ago Peter Checkland set out to test whether the Systems Engineering (SE) approach, highly successful in technical problems, could be used by managers coping with the unfolding complexities of organizational life. The straightforward transfer of SE to the broader situations of management was not possible, but by insisting on a combination of systems thinking strongly linked to real-world practice Checkland and his collaborators developed an alternative approach - Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) - which enables managers of all kinds and at any level to deal with the subtleties and confusions of the situations they face. This work established the now accepted distinction between hard systems thinking, in which parts of the world are taken to be systems which can be engineered, and soft systems thinking in which the focus is on making sure the process of inquiry into real-world complexity is itself a system for learning. Systems Thinking, Systems Practice (1981) and Soft Systems Methodology in Action (1990) together with an earlier paper Towards a Systems-based Methodology for Real-World Problem Solving (1972) have long been recognized as classics in the field. Now Peter Checkland has looked back over the three decades of SSM development, brought the account of it up to date, and reflected on the whole evolutionary process which has produced a mature SSM. SSM: A 30-Year Retrospective, here included with Systems Thinking, Systems Practice closes a chapter on what is undoubtedly the most significant single research programme on the use of systems ideas in problem solving. Now retired from full-time university work, Peter Checkland continues his research as a Leverhulme Emeritus Fellow. "
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id f9e5
authors Cherneff, Jonathan Martin
year 1990
title Knowledge Based Interpretation of Architectural Drawings
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Cambridge, MA
summary Architectural schematic drawings have been used to communicate building designs for centuries. The symbolic language used in these drawings efficiently represents much of the intricacy of the building process (e.g. implied business relationships, common building practice, and properties of construction materials). The drawing language is an accepted standard representation for building design, something that modern data languages have failed to achieve. In fact, the lack of an accepted standard electronic representation has hampered efforts at computer intergration and perhaps worsened industry fragmentation. In general, drawings must be interpreted, by a professional, and then reentered in order to transfer them from one CAD system to another. This work develops a method for machine interpretation of architectural (or other) schematic drawings. The central problem is to build an efficient drawing parser (i.e. a program that identifies the semantic entitites, characteristics, and relationships that are represented in the drawing). The parser is built from specifications of the drawing grammar and an underlying spatial model. The grammar describes what to look for, and the spatial model enables the parser to find it quickly. Coupled with existing optical recognition technology, this technique enables the use of drawings directly as: (1) a database to drive various AEC applications, (2) a communication protocol to integrate CAD systems, (3) a traditional user interface.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id caadria2006_597
id caadria2006_597
year 2006
title NEW MEDIA IN DIGITAL DESIGN PROCESS: Towards a standardize procedure of CAD/CAM fabrication
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 597-599
summary In 1990, due to the traditional architecture design and construction method difficult to build the complicated and non-geometry free-form Fish Structure in Barcelona, architect Frank Gehry started learn from the field of aerospace to utilize CAD/CAM technology in design and manufacture process. He created the free-form fish model in CAD system and exported the digital CAD model data to CAM machine (RP and CNC) to fabricate the design components, and finally assembled on the site. Gehry pioneered in the new digital design process in using CAD/CAM technology or so-called digital fabrication. It becomes an important issue recently as the CAD/CAM technology progressively act as the new digital design media in architectural design and construction process (Ryder et al., 2002; Kolarevic, 2003). Furthermore, in the field of architecture professional, some commercial computer systems had been developed on purpose of standardizes the digital design process in using CAD/CAM fabrication such as Gehry Technologies formed by Gehry Partners; SmartGeometry Group in Europe and Objectile proposed by Bernard Cache. Researchers in the research field like Mark Burry, Larry Sass, Branko Kolarevic, Schodek and others are enthusiastic about the exploration of the role of CAD/CAM fabrication as new design media in design process (Burry, 2002; Schodek et al., 2005; Lee, 2005).
series CAADRIA
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id 8775
authors Cigolle, Mark and Coleman, Kim
year 1990
title Computer Integrated Design: Transformation as Process
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures 89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 333-346
summary To bring together poetry, magic and science, to explore beyond preconceptions, to invent spaces and forms which re-form and inform man's experience, these are the possibilities of architecture. Computer integrated design offers a means for extending the search, one which integrates both conceptual and perceptual issues in the making of architecture. The computer may assist in generating constructs which would not have been created by conventional methods. The application of computer techniques to design has to date been focused primarily on production aspects, an area which is already highly organizable and communicable. In conceptual and perceptual aspects of design, computer techniques remain underdeveloped. Since the impetus for- the development of computer applications has come from the immediate economics of practice rather than a theoretically based strategy, computer-aided design is currently biased toward the replication of conventional techniques rather than the exploration of new potentials. Over the last two years we have been involved in experimentation with methodologies which engage the computer in formative explorations of the design idea. Work produced from investigations by 4th and 5th year undergraduate students in computer integrated design studios that we have been teaching at the University of Southern California demonstrates the potential for the use of the computer as a principal tool in the exploration of syntax and perception, space and program. The challenge is to approach the making of architecture as an innovative act, one which does not rely on preconceived notions of design.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id a33f
authors Cote, Pierre, Hartkopf , Volker and Loftness, Vivian (et al)
year 1990
title Vector Field Representation for the Evaluation of Multiple Performance Variables
source 1990. 6, [7] p., [3] p. of ill. includes bibliography
summary A vector field representation is proposed to simulate the spatial distribution of four building system performance variables: light, sound, radiant heat, and air flow. From this simulation, a measure of the impact of adding, deleting, or modifying an object in the field is computed. This measure serves as a passive evaluation of the user/designer's decision to modify the location or dimensions of the object in a space. This process of simulation-evaluation is performed by a performance module (PM), which is viewed as a component of a CAAD System (Computer Architectural Aided Design). This paper describes the motivation, objectives, methodology and preliminary results of the approach
keywords simulation, CAD, computation, evaluation, building, performance, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c4fe
authors Coyne, Richard D.
year 1990
title Design Reasoning Without Explanations
source AI Magazine. 1990. vol. 11: pp. 72-80
summary This paper proposes 'connectionism' as an alternative to 'classical cognitivism' in understanding design. In the process the author considers the difficulties encountered within a particular view of the role of explanations and typologies. Connectionism provides an alternative model that does not depend on the articulation of explanations and typologies
keywords design process, reasoning
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id 45b4
authors Coyne, Richard D.
year 1990
title Logic of Design Actions
source Knowledge Based Systems. 1990. vol. 3: pp. 242-257
summary The way in which knowledge about design can be incorporated into knowledge-based design systems is discussed and demonstrated within the framework of an overall logical/ linguistic model of the design process. The technique of hierarchical planning is discussed within this framework. The domain under consideration is that of spatial layout in buildings
keywords space allocation, logic, design process, knowledge base, planning
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id 3207
authors Emmerik, Maarten J.G.M. van
year 1990
title Interactive design of parameterized 3D models by direct manipulation
source Delft University of Technology
summary The practical applicability of a computer-aided design system is strongly influenced by both the user interface and the internal model representation. A well designed user interface facilitates the communication with the system by offering an intuitive environment for for specification and representation of model information. An internal model representation, capable of storing geometric, topological and hierarchical dependencies between components in a model, increases the efficiency of the system by facilitating modification and elaboration of the model during the different stages of the design process. The subject of this thesis is the integration of a high level parameterized model representation with direct manipulation interface techniques for the design of three-dimensional objects. A direct manipulation interface enables the user to specify a model by interaction on a graphical representation, as an alternative for an abstract and error-prone apha-numerical dialogue style. A high level model representation is obtained by using a procedural modeling language with general purpose control structures, including arithmetic and logical expressions, repetition, conditionals, functions and procedures, and dedicated data types such as coordinate systems, geometric primitives and geometric constraints. The language interpreter is interconnected with a graphical interface, an incremental constraint solver and a geometrical modeler, using visual programming techniques. The developed techniques are implemented in a modeling system called GeoNode. The system incorporates paradigms of object-oriented design, with respect to both the user interface and to the system implementation. The applicability of the presented techniques is illustrated by examples in application domains such as solid modeling, kinematic analysis, feature modeling and top-down design.
keywords CAD/CAM
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 63c7
authors Fox, C. William
year 1990
title Integrating Computing into an Architectural Undergraduate Program
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures 89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 377-386
summary This paper will discuss the process of integrating computing into the undergraduate architectural program at Temple University. It will address the selection and use of hardware and software consistent with the issues and concerns of introducing a new tool to expand the repertoire of skills available to students for use in the design process.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e496
authors Gero, John S. and Maher, Mary Lou
year 1990
title Theoretical Requirements for Creative Design by Analogy
source Formal Methods in Engineering Design, Manufacturing and Assembly, International Workshop (1st. : 1990 : Fort Collins, Colorado). editor. P Fitzhorn. pp. 19-27. CADLINE has abstract only.
summary This paper adopts the conceptual schema 'prototypes' as its base for representing function-behavior-structure relationships. Within this representation design by a transformational analogy is presented as a selection process on either function or structure which then transforms the structure or function respectively
keywords prototypes, creativity, design process
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ea98
authors Gero, John S.
year 1990
title Design Prototypes : A Knowledge Representation Schema for Design
source AI Magazine. 1990, vol. 11: pp. 26-36
summary This article commences with an elaboration of models of design as a process. It then introduces and describes a knowledge representation schema for design called design prototypes. This schema supports the initiation and continuation of the act of designing. Design prototypes are shown to provide a suitable framework to distinguish routine, innovative and creative design
keywords prototypes, knowledge, representation, design process
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 242f
authors Goldman, Glenn and Zdepski, M. Stephen
year 1990
title Image Sampling
source From Research to Practice [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, pp. 21-28
summary Analogous to music sampling, in which sounds from the environment are recorded, distorted and used in unique ways to create music, "image sampling" is the visual equivalent of a sound bite used to create new visual forms, textures, patterns and types of architecture. Through the use of image sam ling, a designer can accurately record and digitize images from the existing visual world: rom the physical (built or natural) context of the site, from history (a specific building " or a significant architectural monument) or from previous work produced by the designer. The digital scanning process makes design information equal and uniform, as it converts all images to dot patterns of varying color. As a result the image can be transformed through numeric operations (even when the algorithms are transparent to the end user). The recorded images can therefore be fragmented, combined, distorted, duplicated, tweened, or subjected to random automated operations. Because computer images are digital, they facilitate modification and transformation, unlike their analog counterparts. Merging video and image processing capabilities with three-dimensional modeling permits the designer to collage visual information into new and readily editable architectural proposals. Combining image samples into new architectural concepts expands the scope of potentials available to the architect and also raises fundamental questions about issues of originality, creativity, authenticity, and the nature of the design process itself. What is original work, created by the designer, and what is merely re-used? The discussion of new digital imaging eventually leads to questions about design theory and ethics, in addition to those associated with computer technology and architectural form. As one works in any new medium, including the digital environment, many questions are raised about its impacts on design. Much of what is presented in this paper are early speculations on the implications of the digital technology and its influence on architecture.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/04/17 13:24

_id 04aa
authors Harfmann, Anton C. and Chen, Stuart S.
year 1990
title Building Representation within a Component Based Paradigm
source From Research to Practice [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, pp. 117-127
summary This paper questions the use of a 2-dimensional medium to convey 3-dimensional information about design intent and proposes a computer-aided paradigm that could radically alter the way in which buildings are designed and built. The paradigm is centered about the accurate and rational representation (Rush, 86) of each individual component that makes up a building in a single, shared, computer based model. The single model approach couples the accurate physical representation of components with the accurate representation of technical information and knowledge about the assemblies of building components. It is anticipated that implementation of this approach will result in fewer communication problems that currently plague the fragmented process of practicing in the professions of architecture and engineering. The paper introduces the basic concepts within the paradigm and focuses on the development of intuitive, reasoning about the component-based design suitable for incorporation in a computer-aided setting.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 8e10
authors Hosny, Samir S., Sanvido, Victor E. and Kalisperis, Loukas N.
year 1990
title A Framework for an Integrated Computer-Aided Architectural Design Decision Support System
source Pennsylvania State University, January, 1990. 33 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper presents the 'ICAAD.DSS' conceptual model, which provides a framework for an integrated computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) decision support system. The model is based on a unified approach to computing in architecture which in turn is based on a holistic view of the architectural design process. The proposed model shifts the focus from product to process, and views the design problem as a goal-oriented, problem solving activity that allows a design team to identify strategies and methodologies in the search for design solutions. This paper introduces a new environment for the use and integration of computers in the architectural design process
keywords CAD, integration, design methods, architecture, design process, decision making, problem solving
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 39e0
id 39e0
authors Jablonski, Allen D.
year 1991
title Integrated Component-based Computer Design Modeling System: The Implications of Control Parameters on the Design Process
source New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ Graduate Thesis - Master's Program College of Architecture
summary The design process is dependent on a clear order of integrating and managing all of the control parameters that impact on a building's design. All component elements of a building must be defined by their: Physical and functional relations; Quantitative and calculable properties; Component and/or system functions. This requires a means of representation to depict a model of a building that can be viewed and interpreted by a variety of interested parties. These parties need different types of representation to address their individual control parameters, as each component instance has specific implications on all of the control parameters.

Representations are prepared for periodic design review either manually through hand-drawn graphics and handcrafted models; or with the aid of computer aided design programs. Computer programs can profoundly increase the speed and accuracy of the process', as well as provide a level of integration, graphic representation and simulation, untenable through a manual process.

By maintaining a single control model in an Integrated Component-based Computer Design Modeling System (ICCDMS), interested parties could access the design model at any point during the process. Each party could either: 1. Analyze individual components, or constraints of the model, for interferences against parameters within that party's control; or 2. Explore design alternatives to modify the model, and verify the integration of the components or functions, within the design model, as allowable in relation to other control parameters.

keywords Architectural Design; Data Processing
series thesis:MSc
type extended abstract
last changed 2006/09/25 07:04

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