CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id bc8d
authors Mitchell, W.
year 1990
title Digital Design Media
source Ciudad de Bits. Space, Place and the Infobahn
summary In Digital Design Media, Second Edition, architects and related design professionals will find a complete conceptual guide to the multidimensional world of computer-aided design. In contrast to the many books that describe how to use particular programs (and which therefore go out of date very quickly), Digital Design Media constructs a lasting theoretical framework, which will make it easier to understand a great number of programs-existing and future-as a whole. Clear structure, numerous historical references, and hundreds of illustrations make this framework both accessible to the nontechnical professional and broadening for the experienced computer-aided designer. The book will be especially valuable to anyone who is ready to expand their work in CAD beyond production drafting systems. The new second edition adds chapters one merging technologies, such as the Internet, but the book's original content is as valid as ever. Thousands of design students and practitioners have made this book a standard.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 29c2
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1991
title An Intelligent Simulation Approach in Simulating Dynamic Processes in Architectural Environments
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 177-190
summary The implications of object-oriented data models and rule-based reasoning systems is being researched in a wide variety of application areas ranging from VLSI circuit design (Afsannanesh et al 1990) to architectural environments (Coyne et al 1990). The potential of this approach in the development of discrete event simulations is also being scrutinized (Birtwistle et al 1986). Such computer models are usually called "expert simulations" or "intelligent simulations". Typically rule-basing in such models allows the definition of intelligent-objects that can reason about the simulated dynamic processes through an inferencing system. The major advantage of this approach over traditional simulation languages is its ability to provide direct reference to real world objects and processes. The simulation of dynamic processes in architectural environments poses an additional Problem of resolving the interaction of architectural objects with other objects such as humans, water, smoke etc., depending on the process simulated. Object-oriented approach promises potential in solving this specific problem. The first part of this paper addresses expert simulation approach within the context of architectural settings, then the second part summarizes work done in the application of such an approach to an emergency egress simulation.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 235d
authors Catalano, Fernando
year 1990
title The Computerized Design Firm
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 317-332
summary This paper is not just about the future of computerized design practice. It is about what to do today in contemplation of tomorrow-the issues of computercentered practice and the courses of action open to us can be discerned by the careful observer. The realities of computerized design practice are different from the issues on which design education still fixes its attention. To educators, the present paper recommends further clinical research on computerized design firms and suggests that case studies on the matter be developed and utilized as teaching material. Research conducted by the author of this paper indicates that a new form of design firm is emerging-the computerized design firm-totally supported and augmented by the new information technology. The present paper proceeds by introducing an abridged case study of an actual totally electronic, computerized design practice. Then, the paper concentrates on modelling the computerized design firm as an intelligent system, indicating non-trivial changes in its structure and strategy brought about by the introduction of the new information technology into its operations - among other considerations, different strategies and diverse conceptions of management and workgroup roles are highlighted. In particular, this paper points out that these structural and strategic changes reflect back on the technology of information with pressures to redirect present emphasis on the individual designer, working alone in an isolated workstation, to a more realistic conception of the designer as a member of an electronic workgroup. Finally, the paper underlines that this non-trivial conception demands that new hardware and software be developed to meet the needs of the electronic workgroup - which raises issues of human-machine interface. Further, it raises the key issues of how to represent and expose knowledge to users in intelligent information - sharing systems, designed to include not only good user interfaces for supporting problem-solving activities of individuals, but also good organizational interfaces for supporting the problem-solving activities of groups. The paper closes by charting promising directions for further research and with a few remarks about the computerized design firm's (near) future.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 5509
authors Koutamanis, Alexandros
year 1990
title Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans
source Delft University of Technology
summary The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of architectural plans. This investigation can be summarized as an introduction of computer vision to the computerization of architectural representations: chap represents an attempt to automate recognition of the most essential among conventional architectural drawings, floor plans. The system accepts as input digitized images of architectural plans and recognizes their spatial primitives (locations) and their spatial articulation on a variety of abstraction levels. The final output of chap is a description of the plan in terms of the grouping formations detected in its spatial articulation. The overall structure of the description is based on an analysis of its conformity to the formal rules of its “stylistic” context (which in the initial version of chap is classical architecture). Chapter 1 suggests that the poor performance of computerized architectural drawing and design systems is among others evidence of the necessity to computerize visual / spatial architectural representations. A recognition system such as chap offers comprehensive means for the investigation of a methodology for the development and use of such representations. Chapter 2 describes a fundamental task of chap: recognition of the position and shape of locations, the atomic parts of the description of an architectural plan in chap. This operation represents the final and most significant part of the first stage in processing an image input in machine environment. Chapter 3 moves to the next significant problem, recognition of the spatial arrangement of locations in an architectural plan, that is, recognition of grouping relationships that determine the subdivision of a plan into parts. In the absence of systematic and exhaustive typologic studies of classical architecture that would allow us to define a repertory of the location group types possible in classical architectural plans, Chapter 3 follows a bottom-up approach based on grouping relationships derived from elementary architectural knowledge and formalized with assistance from Gestalt theory and its antecedents. The grouping process described in Chapter 3 corresponds both in purpose and in structure to the derivation of a description of an image in computer vision [Marr 1982]. Chapter 4 investigates the well-formedness of the description of a classical architectural plan in an analytical manner: each relevant level (or sublevel) of the classical canon according to Tzonis & Lefaivre [1986] is transformed into a single group of criteria of well-formedness which is investigated independently. The hierarchical structure of the classical canon determines the coordination of these criteria into a sequence of cognitive filters which progressively analyses the correspondence of the descriptions derived as in Chapter 3 to the constraints of the canon. The methodology and techniques presented in the dissertation are primarily considered with respect to chap, a specific recognition system. The resulting specification of chap gives a measure of the use of such a system within the context of a computerized collection of architectural precedents and also presents several extensions to other areas of architecture. Although these extensions are not considered as verifiable claims, Chapter 5 describes some of their implications, including on the role of architectural drawing in computerized design systems, on architectural typologies, and on the nature and structure of generative systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id c12b
authors Sakr, Yasser H. and Johnson, Robert E.
year 1991
title Computer-Aided Architectural Design Strategies: One Size Does Not Fit All
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 15-31
summary The practice of architecture is in the midst of significant change and an increasingly uncertain future. Socio-economic factors external to the profession are forcing firms to develop new strategies for delivering design services. Overlaying these external changes is the uncertainty resulting from the inevitable introduction of information technology, which is only beginning to have an impact on the profession. Some advocates see the emergence of a new form of design firm -the computerized design firm - as an intelligent organization structured around electronic work groups with powerful computation and communications tools (Catalano 1990). On the other hand, many practitioners still see CADD as an expensive technology whose primary result leads to an increase in overhead costs. But some practitioners and researchers (Coyne, 1991) recognize both the potential and, problems that computer-aided design presents to the profession. This research presents a framework for understanding how changing information technology might be appropriately integrated into the design firm. It argues that design is an increasingly diverse enterprise, and that this diversity must be understood in order to effectively integrate information technology. The study is divided into three sections. The first section develops an overview of major social, economic, and structural changes within the profession. The second section discusses two alternative approaches that have been utilized to integrate information technology into firms. The third part presents a framework for understanding how information technology may have an impact on strategies for structuring and organizing architectural firms.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:27

_id 044f
authors Balachandran, M.B. and Gero, John S.
year 1990
title Role of Prototypes in Integrating Expert Systems and CAD Systems
source Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1990. v: Design: pp. 195-211
summary This paper describes concepts which allow the development of integrated systems that combine the two technologies of expert systems and computer-aided drafting systems. It demonstrates how an expert system can be used for evaluating and criticizing designs described using traditional CAD packages. The notion of 'prototypes' has been used to play the central role in such an integration. The development, implementation and operation issues of an integrated system, called IPEXCAD, are described
keywords expert systems, prototypes, design, CAD, integration, drafting
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 067e
authors Banz, George
year 1990
title Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence in Real Estate Development Planning
source CIB W55/W66 Joint Symposium. 1990. 7 p. : ill. includes bibliography. -- Abstracts in English and French
summary Expert systems and artificial intelligence can contribute substantially to the quality of real-estate development analysis. 'A. I. coaches' help correlate input and check the validity of schedules. Expert systems enhance life cycle cost analysis. Property value indicators become viable when used in conjunction with remote sensing and life style mapping
keywords economics, life cycle, expert systems, analysis
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id e5e2
authors Coyne, R.D., Rosenman, M.A. and Radford, A.D. (
year 1990
title Knowledge Based Design Systems
source 576 p. : ill Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1990. includes bibliographies and index.
summary This book describes the bases, approaches, techniques, and implementations of knowledge-based design systems, and advocates and develops new directions in design systems generally. A formal model of design coupled with the notion of prototypes provides a coherent framework for all that follows and is a platform on which a comprehension of knowledge-based design rests. The book is divided into three parts. Part I, Design, examines and describes design and design processes, providing the context for the remainder of the book. Part II, Representation and Reasoning, explores the kinds of knowledge involved in design and the tools and techniques available for representing and controlling this knowledge. It examines the attributes of design that must be described and the ways in which knowledge-based methods are capable of describing and controlling them. Part III, Knowledge-Based Design, presents in detail the fundamentals of the interpretation of design, including the role of expert systems in interpreting existing designs, before describing how to produce designs within a knowledge-based environment. This part includes a detailed examination of design processes from the perspective of how to control these processes. Within each of these processes, the place and role of knowledge is presented and examples of knowledge-based design systems given. Finally, the authors examine central areas of human design and demonstrate what current knowledge-based design systems are capable of doing now and in the future
keywords knowledge base, design process, representation, CAD, AI, prototypes, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id 4b48
authors Dourish, P.
year 1999
title Where the Footprints Lead: Tracking down other roles for social navigation
source Social Navigation of Information Space, eds. A. Munro, K. H. and D Benyon. London: Springer-Verlag, pp 15-34
summary Collaborative Filtering was proposed in the early 1990's as a means of managing access to large information spaces by capturing and exploiting aspects of the experiences of previous users of the same information. Social navigation is a more general form of this style of interaction, and with the widening scope of the Internet as an information provider, systems of this sort have rapidly moved from early research prototypes to deployed services in everyday use. On the other hand, to most of the HCI community, the term social navigation" is largely synonymous with "recommendation systems": systems that match your interests to those of others and, on that basis, provide recommendations about such things as music, books, articles and films that you might enjoy. The challenge for social navigation, as an area of research and development endeavour, is to move beyond this rather limited view of the role of social navigation; and to do this, we must try to take a broader view of both our remit and our opportunities. This chapter will revisit the original motivations, and chart something of the path that recent developments have taken. Based on reflections on the original concerns that motivated research into social navigation, it will explore some new avenues of research. In particular, it will focus on two. The first is social navigation within the framework of "awareness" provisions in collaborative systems generally; and the second is the relationship of social navigation systems to spatial models and the ideas of "space" and "place" in collaborative settings. By exploring these two ideas, two related goals can be achieved. The first is to draw attention to ways in which current research into social navigation can be made relevant to other areas of research endeavour; and the second is to re-motivate the idea of "social navigation" as a fundamental model for collaboration in information-seeking."
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id a85f
authors Gilleard, J.D., Myers, J. and Olatidoye, O.A.
year 1990
title Computer Applications in Architectural Conservation
source From Research to Practice [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, pp. 187-199
summary The Center for Architectural Conservation, College of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology, is considered to be one of the leading exponents of computer-aided databases for the management of buildings of historical merit in the U.S. Through their involvement with the National Parks Service and other clients in North America, the Center has developed considerable expertise in the creation of computerized fabric and condition survey methods, and in the compilation of databases for components and materials used in the rehabilitation and conservation arena. In addition, exploratory research is currently being undertaken in the development of "expert systems" in the area of building diagnostics. This paper gives a brief historical background of the Center for Architectural Conservation, comments on the early establishment of the Center, and reviews the application of an expert system in the area of window diagnostic.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:27

_id c0a3
authors Harfmann, Anton C. and Chen, Stuart S.
year 1989
title Component Based Computer Aided Learning for Students of Architecture and Civil Engineering
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 193-208
summary The paper describes the methodology and the current efforts to develop an interdisciplinary computer aided learning system for architects and civil engineers. The system being developed incorporates a component oriented relational database with an existing interactive 3-dimensional modeling system developed in the School of Architecture and Planning at SUNY Buffalo. The software will be used in existing courses in architecture and civil engineering as a teaching aid to help students understand the complex 3-dimensional interrelationships of structural components. Initial implementation has focused on the modeling of the components and assemblies for a lowrise steel frame structure. Current implementation efforts are focusing on the capability to view connections in various ways including the ability to "explode" a connection to better understand the sequence of construction and load paths. Appropriate codes, limit states of failure and specific data will be linked to each specific component in an expert system shell so that the system can offer feedback about a student generated connection and perhaps offer other possible connections a library of standard connections. Future expansion of the system will include adding other "systems" of a building, such as mechanical, electrical, plumbing, enclosure etc., to help students visualize the integration of the various parts.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 8833
authors Kalay, Yehuda E., Swerdloff, Lucien M. and Majkowski, Bruce R. (et al)
year 1990
title Process and Knowledge in Design Computation
source Journal of Architectural Education. February, 1990. includes bibliography
summary The challenge of understanding the many facets of design has been a central issue in attempting to computationally define design processes and knowledge. The historical progression of computers in design has been characterized by high aspirations repeatedly humbled by the complexity of design problems. Fundamental questions concerning the role and impact of computers in design should be re-examined in light of new developments in Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), and the progressive understanding of design itself. At the heart of these issues must lie a mutual understanding of the respective traits of design and computation, and the balance of interaction between them. In this paper two avenues, expressed in terms of mappings between design and computation, are explored with the intention of clarifying the relationship between the theories of design and computation. First, the relationship between models of the design process and computational search strategies is explored. Several paradigms (problem solving, puzzle making, and constraint satisfying), which demonstrate a breadth of approaches to modeling design, are presented along with their computational implications. Second, relationships between design knowledge and computational representation schemes are discussed. Emphasis is placed on drawing from cognitive and computational knowledge representation schemes to represent design knowledge. Finally, some thoughts on integrating these design models and knowledge representation schemes into computer systems to assist designers are discussed
keywords design process, knowledge, representation, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 06e1
authors Keul, Alexander
year 1996
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary A methodological review by Kaminski (1995) summed up five perspectives in environmental psychology - patterns of spatial distribution, everyday “jigsaw puzzles”, functional everyday action systems, sociocultural change and evolution of competence. Architectural psychology (named so at the Strathclyde conference 1969; Canter, 1973) as psychology of built environments is one leg of environmental psychology, the second one being psychology of environmental protection. Architectural psychology has come of age and passed its 25th birthday. Thus, a triangulation of its position, especially in Central Europe, seems interesting and necessary. A recent survey mainly on university projects in German-speaking countries (Kruse & Trimpin, 1995) found a marked decrease of studies in psychology of built environments. 1994, 25% of all projects were reported in this category, which in 1975 had made up 40% (Kruse, 1975). Guenther, in an unpublished survey of BDP (association of professional German psychologists) members, encountered only a handful active in architectural psychology - mostly part-time, not full-time. 1996, Austria has two full-time university specialists. The discrepancy between the general interest displayed by planners and a still low institutionalization is noticeable.

How is the research situation? Using several standard research data banks, the author collected articles and book(chapter)s on architectural psychology in German- and English-language countries from 1990 to 1996. Studies on main architecture-psychology interface problems such as user needs, housing quality evaluations, participatory planning and spatial simulation / virtual reality did not outline an “old, settled” discipline, but rather the sketchy, random surface of a field “always starting anew”. E.g., discussions at the 1995 EAEA-Conference showed that several architectural simulation studies since 1973 caused no major impact on planner's opinions (Keul&Martens, 1996). “Re-inventions of the wheel” are caused by a lack of meetings (except this one!) and of interdisciplinary infrastructure in German-language countries (contrary to Sweden or the United States). Social pressures building up on architecture nowadays by inter-European competition, budget cuts and citizen activities for informed consent in most urban projects are a new challenge for planners to cooperate efficiently with social scientists. At Salzburg, the author currently manages the Corporate Design-process for the Chamber of Architecture, Division for Upper Austria and Salzburg. A “working group for architectural psychology” (Keul-Martens-Maderthaner) has been active since 1994.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 6ab7
authors Korson, Tim and McGregor, John D.
year 1990
title Understanding Object- Oriented : A Unifying Paradigm
source Communications of the ACM September, 1990. vol. 33: pp. 40-60. includes bibliography.
summary The purpose of this paper is to introduce terminology, concepts and basic techniques surrounding the object-oriented paradigm. software / OOPS / programming. 63. Koskela, Lauri, Raija Hynynen and Martti Kallavuo, et al. 'Expert Systems in Construction - Initial Experiences.' CAD and Robotics in Architecture and Construction, Proceedings of the International Joint Conference = CAO et Robotique en Architecture et B.T.P. Actes des Journees Internationales. June, 1986. Paris: Hermes, pp. 167-176. includes bibliography and abstracts in French and English. This paper describes development of expert systems for construction applications in the Laboratory of Building Economics of the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Five small expert systems are described. Experiences gained in the development work are evaluated. The future significance of expert systems for the construction industry is discussed, and an approach towards expert systems to be adopted by organizations in the construction industry is suggested
keywords construction, applications, economics, expert systems, knowledge, evaluation, analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ed07
authors Love, James
year 1990
title A Case Study in Knowledge-Based System Development : Envelope Design for Reduction of Traffic Noise Transmission
source February, 1990. 19 p. : some ill. and table. includes a bibliography
summary Researchers have demonstrated the value of replication of research and explicit testing of concepts in artificial intelligence (Ritchie and Hanna 1989). In this study, a rule- based system was implemented as an exercise in the application of the theory and practice of knowledge-based systems development to architectural design analysis. The test domain was the selection of wall and window assemblies to provide adequate noise reduction given a set of traffic and building site conditions. This domain was chosen for two reasons: (1) considerable detailed heuristic information was available; and (2) it avoided large solutions spaces, 'errorful' and time-dependent data, and unreliable knowledge. Development of the system in conjunction with an extensive literature review revealed that publications on construction and performance of rule-based systems provided insufficient detail on key aspects of system architecture. Topics suffering from neglect or insufficiently rigorous treatment included algorithms used in automated inference, methods for selection of inference procedures, the integration of numerical and symbolic processing, the formulation of explanation mechanisms to deal with integrated numerical and symbolic processing, testing methods, and software standardization. Improving the quality and scope of knowledge in these areas is essential if expert systems are to be applied effectively in architectural design
keywords CAD, expert systems, acoustics, applications, knowledge base, design, architecture, AI, analysis
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id e7a7
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 1990
title The Integration of Computer Modeling in Architectural Design
source From Research to Practice [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, pp. 103-116
summary The integration of computers in architectural design is explored from the perspective of both architectural education and professional practice. The main part of this paper attempts to define the conditions necessary for an effective interaction between computers and architects in the process of design. In the second part, a specific example, developed by the author during the course of his practice, is used to illustrate the use of available systems in professional practice.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id e91f
authors Mitchell, W.J., Liggett, R.S. and Tan, M.
year 1990
title Top-Down Knowledge-Based Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 137-148
summary Traditional computer drafting systems and three- dimensional geometric modeling systems work in bottom-up fashion. They provide a range of graphic primitives, such as vectors, arcs, and splines, together with operators for inserting, deleting, combining, and transforming instances of these. Thus they are conceptually very similar to word processors, with the difference that they operate on two- dimensional or three-dimensional patterns of graphic primitives rather than one-dimensional strings of characters. This sort of system is effective for input and editing of drawings or models that represent existing designs, but provides little more help than a pencil when you want to construct from scratch a drawing of some complex object such as a human figure, an automobile, or a classical column: you must depend on your own knowledge of what the pieces are and how to shape them and put them together. If you already know how to draw something then a computer drafting system will help you to do so efficiently, but if you do not know how to begin, or how to develop and refine the drawing, then the efficiency that you gain is of little practical consequence. And accelerated performance, flashier color graphics, or futuristic three-dimensional modes of interaction will not help with this problem at all. By contrast, experienced expert graphic artists and designers usually work in top-down fashion-beginning with a very schematic sketch of the whole object, then refining this, in step-by-step fashion, till the requisite level of precision and completeness is reached. For example, a figure drawing might begin as a "stick figure" schema showing lengths and angles of limbs, then be developed to show the general blocking of masses, and finally be resolved down to the finest details of contour and surface. Similarly, an architectural drawing might begin as a parti showing just a skeleton of construction lines, then be developed into a single-line floor plan, then a plan showing accurate wall thicknesses and openings, and finally a fully developed and detailed drawing.
series CAAD Futures
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 22de
authors Oxman, Rivka E.
year 1990
title The Role of Knowledge-Based Systems in Design and Design Education
source Int. J. Appl. Enging, Ed England: Pergamon Press, 1990. vol. 6: pp. 255-264 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This paper investigates the role of Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Based Design in the emergence of a 'general design science' common to all engineering design. The advantages of the design shell's approach is demonstrated relative to the utilization of expert systems for design. The design shell is proposed as a medium to accommodate the characteristics of design knowledge. The significance of this concept is discussed with respect to formalization of knowledge, implementation, application and operation in knowledge based systems. GRPS - a generative prototype refinement design shell is defined and elaborated. A system applying this concept in a significant structure of generic knowledge in architectural design is demonstrated. It utilizes a method for representing structured knowledge by exploiting the characteristics of both rules and frames, and integrates them in a prototype based design system. Finally, the significance of such an approach in research and design teaching is discussed
keywords design, education, knowledge base, expert systems, frames, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 22a4
authors Rogers, D.F.
year 1990
title Mathematical elements for computer graphics
source McGraw Hill, USA
summary The second edition of this classic computer graphics book represents a major rewrite. The clear concise discussion, the detailed algorithms, worked examples and numerous illustrations make the book of special interest to students, programmers and computer graphics professionals. The numerous detailed worked examples make it especially suitable for self-study. The first edition of the book, published in 1976, was one of the earliest computer graphics books. That first edition is still a staple on the bookshelves of many of the pioneers in computer graphics. The book thoroughly covers two- and three-dimensional transformations including rotation, scaling, translation, reflection, rotation about arbitrary points and axes, reflection about arbitrary lines and through arbitrary planes and points at infinity. Plane and space curves including efficient methods for representing conic sections, cubic splines, parabolically blended, Bezier and rational and non-rational B-spline (NURBS) curves are discussed. The discussion of surfaces includes surfaces of revolution, sweep surfaces, ruled and developable surfaces, Coons surfaces, Bezier and rational and non-rational B-splines (NURBS) surfaces. As with all the topics in the book, the discussion of both rational and non-rational B-spline curves and surfaces is accompanied by numerous detailed worked examples. The appendices contain over 50 pseudocoded algorithms including over 25 algorithms for Bezier and B-spline curves and surfaces.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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