CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id f9e5
authors Cherneff, Jonathan Martin
year 1990
title Knowledge Based Interpretation of Architectural Drawings
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Cambridge, MA
summary Architectural schematic drawings have been used to communicate building designs for centuries. The symbolic language used in these drawings efficiently represents much of the intricacy of the building process (e.g. implied business relationships, common building practice, and properties of construction materials). The drawing language is an accepted standard representation for building design, something that modern data languages have failed to achieve. In fact, the lack of an accepted standard electronic representation has hampered efforts at computer intergration and perhaps worsened industry fragmentation. In general, drawings must be interpreted, by a professional, and then reentered in order to transfer them from one CAD system to another. This work develops a method for machine interpretation of architectural (or other) schematic drawings. The central problem is to build an efficient drawing parser (i.e. a program that identifies the semantic entitites, characteristics, and relationships that are represented in the drawing). The parser is built from specifications of the drawing grammar and an underlying spatial model. The grammar describes what to look for, and the spatial model enables the parser to find it quickly. Coupled with existing optical recognition technology, this technique enables the use of drawings directly as: (1) a database to drive various AEC applications, (2) a communication protocol to integrate CAD systems, (3) a traditional user interface.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 6ee1
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1990
title Background Agents to Enhance Access and Growth of Loosely Coupled Models for Building Design
source System Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, International Conference -- ICSRIC-90. (5th. : 1990 : Baden-Baden, Germany). 6 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The paper describes and exemplifies how modern information technology may impact the properties of future building information systems. Examples have been picked from ongoing research under the heading KBS-MEDIA LAB, Knowledge based systems media lab
keywords AI, user interface, knowledge, representation, hypermedia,
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id e5e2
authors Coyne, R.D., Rosenman, M.A. and Radford, A.D. (et.al.)
year 1990
title Knowledge Based Design Systems
source 576 p. : ill Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1990. includes bibliographies and index.
summary This book describes the bases, approaches, techniques, and implementations of knowledge-based design systems, and advocates and develops new directions in design systems generally. A formal model of design coupled with the notion of prototypes provides a coherent framework for all that follows and is a platform on which a comprehension of knowledge-based design rests. The book is divided into three parts. Part I, Design, examines and describes design and design processes, providing the context for the remainder of the book. Part II, Representation and Reasoning, explores the kinds of knowledge involved in design and the tools and techniques available for representing and controlling this knowledge. It examines the attributes of design that must be described and the ways in which knowledge-based methods are capable of describing and controlling them. Part III, Knowledge-Based Design, presents in detail the fundamentals of the interpretation of design, including the role of expert systems in interpreting existing designs, before describing how to produce designs within a knowledge-based environment. This part includes a detailed examination of design processes from the perspective of how to control these processes. Within each of these processes, the place and role of knowledge is presented and examples of knowledge-based design systems given. Finally, the authors examine central areas of human design and demonstrate what current knowledge-based design systems are capable of doing now and in the future
keywords knowledge base, design process, representation, CAD, AI, prototypes, expert systems
series CADline
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id 411f
authors Coyne, Richard D. and Postmus, A.G.
year 1990
title Spatial Applications of Neural Networks in Computer-Aided Design
source Artificial Intelligence in Engineering. 1990. vol. 5: pp. 9-22. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Neural networks of PDP (parallel distributed processing), models of computation are based on mathematical models of neural processes. The authors explore the application of PDP to simple spatial reasoning in computer-aided design. Knowledge that provides a mapping from performances to design descriptions can be encoded into PDP systems in the form of learned patterns. The implementation of a simple PDP pattern associator is described. The system is shown to facilitate a rudimentary kind of associative or analogical reasoning. It also facilitates reasoning where only incomplete information is available. There are important concerns in design reasoning
keywords CAD, neural networks, design, representation, knowledge, reasoning
series CADline
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id 45b4
authors Coyne, Richard D.
year 1990
title Logic of Design Actions
source Knowledge Based Systems. 1990. vol. 3: pp. 242-257
summary The way in which knowledge about design can be incorporated into knowledge-based design systems is discussed and demonstrated within the framework of an overall logical/ linguistic model of the design process. The technique of hierarchical planning is discussed within this framework. The domain under consideration is that of spatial layout in buildings
keywords space allocation, logic, design process, knowledge base, planning
series CADline
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id 0f73
authors Ervin, Stephen M.
year 1990
title Designing with Diagrams: A Role for Computing in Design Education and Exploration
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 107-122
summary Environmental designers, design educators and design students using computers are a constituency with a set of requirements for database structure and flexibility, for knowledge representation and inference mechanisms, and for both graphical and non-graphical operations, that are now articulatable and to-date largely unmet. This is especially so in the area called 'preliminary' or 'schematic' design, where our requirements are related to, but different from, those of our colleagues in mechanical and electrical engineering, whose needs have dominated the notable developments in this area. One manifestation of these needs is in the peculiar form of graphics called diagrams , and the ways in which environmental designers (architects, landscape architects., urban designers) use them. Our diagrams are both similar to and different from structural, circuit, or logical diagrams in important ways. These similarities and differences yield basic insights into designing and design knowledge, and provide guidance for some necessary steps in the development of the next generation of CAD systems. Diagrams as a form of knowledge representation have received little scrutiny in the literature of graphic representation and computer graphics. In the following sections I present an overview of the theoretical basis for distinguishing and using diagrams; examine some of the computational requirements for a system of computer-aided diagramming; describe a prototype implementation called CBD (Constraint Based Diagrammer) and illustrate one example of its use; and speculate on the implications and potential applications of these ideas in computer-aided design education.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id a21e
authors Gero, John S.
year 1990
title A Locus for Knowledge-Based Systems in CAAD Education
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 49-60
summary This paper outlines a possible locus for knowledge- based systems in computer-aided architectural design education. It commences with a review of computer-aided architectural design and knowledge-based systems. It then proposes their use at various stages in CAAD education.
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ab63
authors Gross, Mark D.
year 1990
title Relational Modeling: A Basis for Computer-Assisted Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 123-136
summary Today's computer assisted design (CAD) systems automate traditional ways of working with tracing paper and pencil, but they cannot represent the rules and relationships of a design. As hardware becomes faster and memory less expensive, more sophisticated fundamental software technologies will be adopted. This shift in the basis of CAD will provide powerful capabilities and offer new ways to think about designing. Recently parametric design, a technique for describing a large class of designs with a small description in code, has become a focus of attention in architectural computing. In parametric CAD systems, design features are identified and keyed to a number of input variables. Changes in the input values result in variations of the basic design. Based on conventional software technologies, parametric design has been successfully applied in many design domains including architecture and is supported by several commercial CAD packages. A weakness of parametric techniques is the need to predetermine which properties are input parameters to be varied and which are to be derived. Relational modeling is a simple and powerful extension of parametric design that overcomes this weakness. By viewing relations as reversible rather than one-way, any set of properties can be chosen as input parameters. For example, a relational model that calculates the shadow length of a given building can also be used to calculate the building height given a desired shadow length. In exercising a relational model the designer is not limited to a pre-selected set of input variables but can explore and experiment freely with changes in all parts of the model. Co is a relational modeling environment under development on the Macintosh-II computer, and Co-Draw, a prototype CAD program based on Co. Co's relationaI engine and object-oriented database provide a powerful basis for modeling design relations. Co-Draw's interactive graphics offer a flexible medium for design exploration. Co provides tools for viewing and editing design models in various representations, including spreadsheet cards, tree and graph structures, as well as plan and elevation graphics. Co's concepts and architecture are described and the implications for design education are discussed.
series CAAD Futures
email mdgross@u.washington.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 5509
authors Koutamanis, Alexandros
year 1990
title Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans
source Delft University of Technology
summary The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of architectural plans. This investigation can be summarized as an introduction of computer vision to the computerization of architectural representations: chap represents an attempt to automate recognition of the most essential among conventional architectural drawings, floor plans. The system accepts as input digitized images of architectural plans and recognizes their spatial primitives (locations) and their spatial articulation on a variety of abstraction levels. The final output of chap is a description of the plan in terms of the grouping formations detected in its spatial articulation. The overall structure of the description is based on an analysis of its conformity to the formal rules of its “stylistic” context (which in the initial version of chap is classical architecture). Chapter 1 suggests that the poor performance of computerized architectural drawing and design systems is among others evidence of the necessity to computerize visual / spatial architectural representations. A recognition system such as chap offers comprehensive means for the investigation of a methodology for the development and use of such representations. Chapter 2 describes a fundamental task of chap: recognition of the position and shape of locations, the atomic parts of the description of an architectural plan in chap. This operation represents the final and most significant part of the first stage in processing an image input in machine environment. Chapter 3 moves to the next significant problem, recognition of the spatial arrangement of locations in an architectural plan, that is, recognition of grouping relationships that determine the subdivision of a plan into parts. In the absence of systematic and exhaustive typologic studies of classical architecture that would allow us to define a repertory of the location group types possible in classical architectural plans, Chapter 3 follows a bottom-up approach based on grouping relationships derived from elementary architectural knowledge and formalized with assistance from Gestalt theory and its antecedents. The grouping process described in Chapter 3 corresponds both in purpose and in structure to the derivation of a description of an image in computer vision [Marr 1982]. Chapter 4 investigates the well-formedness of the description of a classical architectural plan in an analytical manner: each relevant level (or sublevel) of the classical canon according to Tzonis & Lefaivre [1986] is transformed into a single group of criteria of well-formedness which is investigated independently. The hierarchical structure of the classical canon determines the coordination of these criteria into a sequence of cognitive filters which progressively analyses the correspondence of the descriptions derived as in Chapter 3 to the constraints of the canon. The methodology and techniques presented in the dissertation are primarily considered with respect to chap, a specific recognition system. The resulting specification of chap gives a measure of the use of such a system within the context of a computerized collection of architectural precedents and also presents several extensions to other areas of architecture. Although these extensions are not considered as verifiable claims, Chapter 5 describes some of their implications, including on the role of architectural drawing in computerized design systems, on architectural typologies, and on the nature and structure of generative systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ed07
authors Love, James
year 1990
title A Case Study in Knowledge-Based System Development : Envelope Design for Reduction of Traffic Noise Transmission
source February, 1990. 19 p. : some ill. and table. includes a bibliography
summary Researchers have demonstrated the value of replication of research and explicit testing of concepts in artificial intelligence (Ritchie and Hanna 1989). In this study, a rule- based system was implemented as an exercise in the application of the theory and practice of knowledge-based systems development to architectural design analysis. The test domain was the selection of wall and window assemblies to provide adequate noise reduction given a set of traffic and building site conditions. This domain was chosen for two reasons: (1) considerable detailed heuristic information was available; and (2) it avoided large solutions spaces, 'errorful' and time-dependent data, and unreliable knowledge. Development of the system in conjunction with an extensive literature review revealed that publications on construction and performance of rule-based systems provided insufficient detail on key aspects of system architecture. Topics suffering from neglect or insufficiently rigorous treatment included algorithms used in automated inference, methods for selection of inference procedures, the integration of numerical and symbolic processing, the formulation of explanation mechanisms to deal with integrated numerical and symbolic processing, testing methods, and software standardization. Improving the quality and scope of knowledge in these areas is essential if expert systems are to be applied effectively in architectural design
keywords CAD, expert systems, acoustics, applications, knowledge base, design, architecture, AI, analysis
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 0b62
authors Maher, Mary Lou
year 1990
title Process Models for Design Synthesis
source AI Magazine. 1990. vol. 11: pp. 49-58
summary Models of design processes provide guidance in the development of knowledge-based systems for design. The basis for such models comes from both research in design theory and methodology as well as problem solving in artificial intelligence. Three models are presented: decomposition, case-based reasoning, and transformation. Each model provides a formalism for representing design knowledge and experience in distinct and complementary forms
keywords design process, knowledge base, systems, theory, decomposition, representation, reasoning
series CADline
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:19

_id 8bf3
authors McCullough, M., Mitchell, W.J. and Purcell, P. (Eds.)
year 1990
title The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [Conference Proceedings]
source International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design 1989/ ISBN 0-262-13254-0] (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, 505 p.
summary Design is the computation of shape information that is needed to guide fabrication or construction of artifacts. But it is not so straightforward as, say, the computation of numerical information required to balance a checkbook. This is partly because algebras of shapes are not as well understood and precisely formalized as algebras of numbers, partly because the rules for carrying out shape computations tend to be fluid and ill defined and partly because the predicates that must be satisfied to achieve successful termination are often complex and difficult to specify. For centuries architects have carried out shape computations by hand, using informal procedures and the simplest of tools. Over the last two decades though, they have made increasing use of more formal procedures executed by computers. It is still too early to be sure of the gains and losses that follow from this development, but there is no doubt that it raises some challenging questions of architectural theory and some perplexing issues for those concerned with the future of architectural education. This book frames those issues and provides a diversity of perspectives on them. Its contents were initially presented at the CAAD Futures 89 Conference-an international gathering of researchers and teachers in the field of computer-aided architectural design which was jointly sponsored by the Harvard Graduate School of Design and the MIT Department of Architecture and held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in July 1989. There are four major sections: Theoretical Foundations, Knowledge-Based Design Tools, Information Delivery Systems, and Case Studies: Electronic Media in the Design Studio. In a representative collection of current views, over thirty extensively illustrated papers discuss the experiences of universities in the USA, Europe, Japan, Israel, Canada, and Australia, articulate present theoretical and practical concerns, provide criticism of media and methods, and suggest directions for the future. Architectural educators and architects concerned with the effect of computer technology on the design process will find here an indispensable reference and a rich source of ideas. This book was itself prepared in an electronic design studio. Composition and typography, most image collection and placement, and such editing as was practical within this publishing format, were all performed digitally using Macintosh computers at the Harvard Graduate School of Design during a period of a few weeks in 1989.
series CAAD Futures
email mmmc@umich.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id e91f
authors Mitchell, W.J., Liggett, R.S. and Tan, M.
year 1990
title Top-Down Knowledge-Based Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 137-148
summary Traditional computer drafting systems and three- dimensional geometric modeling systems work in bottom-up fashion. They provide a range of graphic primitives, such as vectors, arcs, and splines, together with operators for inserting, deleting, combining, and transforming instances of these. Thus they are conceptually very similar to word processors, with the difference that they operate on two- dimensional or three-dimensional patterns of graphic primitives rather than one-dimensional strings of characters. This sort of system is effective for input and editing of drawings or models that represent existing designs, but provides little more help than a pencil when you want to construct from scratch a drawing of some complex object such as a human figure, an automobile, or a classical column: you must depend on your own knowledge of what the pieces are and how to shape them and put them together. If you already know how to draw something then a computer drafting system will help you to do so efficiently, but if you do not know how to begin, or how to develop and refine the drawing, then the efficiency that you gain is of little practical consequence. And accelerated performance, flashier color graphics, or futuristic three-dimensional modes of interaction will not help with this problem at all. By contrast, experienced expert graphic artists and designers usually work in top-down fashion-beginning with a very schematic sketch of the whole object, then refining this, in step-by-step fashion, till the requisite level of precision and completeness is reached. For example, a figure drawing might begin as a "stick figure" schema showing lengths and angles of limbs, then be developed to show the general blocking of masses, and finally be resolved down to the finest details of contour and surface. Similarly, an architectural drawing might begin as a parti showing just a skeleton of construction lines, then be developed into a single-line floor plan, then a plan showing accurate wall thicknesses and openings, and finally a fully developed and detailed drawing.
series CAAD Futures
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id effd
authors Morozumi, M., Nakamura, H. and Kijima, Y.
year 1990
title A Primitive-Instancing Interactive 3-D Modeling System for Spatial Design Studies
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 457-468
summary The authors have developed a basic, interactive, primitive-instancing 3-D modeling system (CAADF), which is based on a high-speed 3-D color graphic workstation, and have tested its potential ability to support spatial design studies in an architectural design studio. After- a review of work performed by a student with the system, this paper concludes that this system provides an attractive environment for spatial design studies which conventional CAD systems have not achieved. The interactive process of 3-D modeling in perspective or isometric view images and the dynamic viewing utility are the most successful features of the system. In contrast to those advantages, the resolution of color graphic display is a limitation of the system. The authors conclude that if sufficiently many appropriate 3-D geometric primitives are supported by a CAD system, a primitive instancing method can significantly reduce the work entailed in object modeling.
series CAAD Futures
email moro@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 22de
authors Oxman, Rivka E.
year 1990
title The Role of Knowledge-Based Systems in Design and Design Education
source Int. J. Appl. Enging, Ed England: Pergamon Press, 1990. vol. 6: pp. 255-264 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This paper investigates the role of Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Based Design in the emergence of a 'general design science' common to all engineering design. The advantages of the design shell's approach is demonstrated relative to the utilization of expert systems for design. The design shell is proposed as a medium to accommodate the characteristics of design knowledge. The significance of this concept is discussed with respect to formalization of knowledge, implementation, application and operation in knowledge based systems. GRPS - a generative prototype refinement design shell is defined and elaborated. A system applying this concept in a significant structure of generic knowledge in architectural design is demonstrated. It utilizes a method for representing structured knowledge by exploiting the characteristics of both rules and frames, and integrates them in a prototype based design system. Finally, the significance of such an approach in research and design teaching is discussed
keywords design, education, knowledge base, expert systems, frames, architecture
series CADline
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8c2b
authors Peleg, Uriel J. and Shaviv, Edna
year 1990
title A Knowledge Based Computer- Aided Solar Design System
source ASHRAE Transactions (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). Atlanta, GA: 1990. v.st.-96-2: [5] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary A knowledge based computer-aided architectural design system (KB-CAAD) for the schematic design and evaluation of passive solar buildings is presented. The presented tool is based on the integration of knowledge based and procedural simulation methods with any available CAAD system for building representation. The knowledge base contains the heuristic rules for the design of passive solar buildings. Whenever possible, the knowledge base guides the designer through the decision making process. However, if 'rules of thumb' are not acceptable for the particular design problem, the KB-CAAD tool guides the architect towards the optimal solution, by using a procedural simulation model. It is demonstrated, through a case study, that the proposed knowledge based design system not only leads to the design of better solar buildings, but that it takes less time and man-power to introduce the geometrical data that would be needed for a regular non-solar building representation
keywords CAD, knowledge base, energy, design, systems, evaluation, analysis
series CADline
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 2a8b
authors Purcell, Patrick and Applebaum Dan
year 1990
title Light Table: An Interface To Visual Information Systems
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 229-238
summary A primary aim of the Light Table project was to see if a combination of the optical laser disc, local area networks, and interactive videographic workstation technology could bring a major visual collection, (such as the Rotch Visual Collections of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology), to a campuswide population of undergraduate users. VIS (Visual Information System) is the name being given to the new genre of information technology. Much research and development effort is currently being applied to areas where the image has a special significance, for example in architecture and planning, in graphic and fine arts, in biology, in medicine, and in photography. One particular advance in the technology of VIS has been the facility to access visual information across a distributed computer system via LAN (Local Area Networks) and video delivery systems, (such as campus TV cable). This advance allows users to retrieve images from both local and remote sources, dispatching the image search through the LAN, and receiving the images back at their workstation via dedicated channels on the campus TV cable. Light Table is the title of a system that acts as a computer-based interactive videographic interface to a variety of visual information systems described in the body of this paper. It takes its name from the traditional, back- lit, translucent light table that lecturers use to assemble and view collections of slides for talks and seminars. The component of Light Table which is being reported in greatest detail here, a software outcome called Galatea, is a versatile and robust system capable of controlling video devices in a networked environment.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 4317
authors Rosenman, Michael A.
year 1990
title Application of Expert Systems to Building Design Analysis and Evaluation
source Building and Environment. 1990. vol.25: pp. 221-233
summary This paper demonstrates the applicability of expert systems to design analysis and evaluation. Design is a field in which a large part of the processes involved is knowledge-based rather than computation-based. Much of this knowledge is experiential and as such lends itself to be encapsulated in an expert system. An analogy is made between analysis and interpretation and between evaluation and comparison of interpretations. Three examples of expert systems carrying out design analysis and evaluation in different domains are described. It is argued that a graphical interface and a model of the elements within the domain are essential parts of any design system
keywords analysis, design, knowledge base, evaluation, expert systems, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ce34
authors Rutherford, James H.
year 1990
title An intelligent design support environment : the application of intelligent knowledge-based systems and advanced HCI techniques to building design
source University of Strathclyde, Department of Architecture, Glasgow, UK
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id cd2d
authors Tham, K.W., H.S. Lee and Gero, John S.
year 1990
title Building Envelope Design Using Design Prototypes
source St Louis, Missouri: 1990
summary CADLINE has abstract only. A knowledge-based system for the design of building envelopes using design prototypes is described. The notion of design prototypes and the architecture of a design system utilizing design prototypes for routine design are presented. Design prototypes are schemas for representing design knowledge comprehensively, providing descriptions of structure, behavior and function, and how these are interrelated to facilitate design. The authors identify the processes associated with such a model of design. The approach is object-centered. Examples are drawn from the building envelope design domain, demonstrating how design prototypes are structured and utilized in routine design. Considerations are given to energy, lighting and acoustic performance
keywords building, envelope, knowledge base, systems, prototypes, automation, applications, energy, lighting, acoustics
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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