CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 2f1a
authors Dabney, M.K., Wright, J.C. and Sanders, D.H.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality and the Future of Publishing Archaeological Excavations: the multimedia publication of the prehistoric settlement on Tsoungiza at Ancient Nemea
source New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
summary The Nemea Valley Archaeological Project is a study of settlement and land use in a regional valley system in Greece extending from the Upper Paleolithic until the present. Active field research was conducted by four teams between 1981 and 1990. The first component was a regional archaeological survey. Second, and closely related to the first, was a social anthropological study of modern settlement and land use. Next was a team assigned to excavate the succession of prehistoric settlements of Ancient Nemea on Tsoungiza. Last, historical ecologists, a palynologist, and a geologist formed the environmental component of the research. As a result of advances in electronic publishing, plans for the final publication of the Nemea Valley Archaeological Project have evolved. Complete publication of the excavation of the prehistoric settlements of Ancient Nemea on Tsoungiza will appear in an interactive multimedia format on CD/DVD in Fall 2000. This project is planned to be the first electronic publication of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. We have chosen to publish in electronic format because it will meet the needs and interests of a wider audience, including avocational archaeologists, advanced high school and college students, graduate students, and professional archaeologists. The multimedia format on CD/DVD will permit the inclusion of text, databases, color and black-and-white images, two and three-dimensional graphics, and videos. This publication is being developed in cooperation with Learning Sites, Inc., which specializes in interactive three-dimensional reconstructions of ancient worlds The Nemea Valley Archaeological Project is particularly well prepared for the shift towards electronic publishing because the project's field records were designed for and entered in computer databases from the inception of the project. Attention to recording precise locational information for all excavated objects enables us to place reconstructions of objects in their reconstructed architectural settings. Three-dimensional images of architectural remains and associated features will appear both as excavated and as reconstructed. Viewers will be able to navigate these images through the use of virtual reality. Viewers will also be able to reference all original drawings, photographs, and descriptions of the reconstructed architecture and objects. In this way a large audience will be able to view architectural remains, artifacts, and information that are otherwise inaccessible.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 1955
authors Hoffmann, C.M. and Vanecek, G.
year 1990
title Fundamental techniques for geometric and solid modeling
source Manufacturing and Automation Systems: Techniques and Technologies, no. 48, pp. 347-356
summary nD skeletons as the discontinuities of the graph of the distance map in (n+1)D space. Cyclographic map of Descriptive Geometry (generates the ruled & developable surface); its discontinuities form the skeleton. Relation with the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The shocks of this PDE correspond to the skeleton.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 0711
authors Kunnath, S.K., Reinhorn, A.M. and Abel, J.F.
year 1990
title A Computational Tool for Evaluation of Seismic Performance of RC Buildings
source February, 1990. [1] 15 p. : ill. graphs, tables. includes bibliography: p. 10-11
summary Recent events have demonstrated the damaging power of earthquakes on structural assemblages resulting in immense loss of life and property (Mexico City, 1985; Armenia, 1988; San Francisco, 1989). While the present state-of-the-art in inelastic seismic response analysis of structures is capable of estimating response quantities in terms of deformations, stresses, etc., it has not established a physical qualification of these end-results into measures of damage sustained by the structure wherein system vulnerability is ascertained in terms of serviceability, repairability, and/or collapse. An enhanced computational tool is presented in this paper for evaluation of reinforced concrete structures (such as buildings and bridges) subjected to seismic loading. The program performs a series of tasks to enable a complete evaluation of the structural system: (a) elastic collapse- mode analysis to determine the base shear capacity of the system; (b) step-by-step time history analysis using a macromodel approach in which the inelastic behavior of RC structural components is incorporated; (c) reduction of the response quantities to damage indices so that a physical interpretation of the response is possible. The program is built around two graphical interfaces: one for preprocessing of structural and loading data; and the other for visualization of structural damage following the seismic analysis. This program can serve as an invaluable tool in estimating the seismic performance of existing RC buildings and for designing new structures within acceptable levels of damage
keywords seismic, structures, applications, evaluation, civil engineering, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id d9fa
authors Salomon, Gavriel
year 1990
title Effects with and of Computers and the Study of Computer-based Learning Environments
source Chapter in Computer-Based Learning Environments and Problem Solving, ed. E. De Corte, M. C. Linn, H. Mandl, and L. Verschaffel. New York: Springer-Verlag
summary Several factors have contributed to the developments in computer-based learning environments. Improvements and advances in hardware capabilities have afforded greater computing power. Advances in cognitive and instructional science have moved thinking beyond the limits of behavioural psychology. The new systems of computer-based learning environments are being designed with a view to facilitating complex problem-solving through integrating wholes of knowledge (Dijkstra, Krammer & Merriënboer, 1992). Thus, many see in the computer a means to enhance students' cognitive skills and general problem-solving ability. This is in spite of the fact that studies have failed to conclusively confirm the hypothesis that computer-based learning environments facilitate the acquisition and transfer of higher-order thinking and learning skills (Dijkstra, Krammer & Merriënboer, 1992). Salomon (1992) argues that computers make possible student involvement in higher-order thinking skills by performing many of the lower-level cognitive tasks, by providing memory support and by juggling interrelated variables. Through a partnership with the computer, the user may also benefit from the effect of cognitive residue resulting in improvement or mastery of a skill or strategy. Salomon explains: The intellectual partnership with computer tools creates a zone of proximal development whereby learners are capable of carrying out tasks they could not possible carry out without the help and support provided by the computer. This partnership can both offer guidance that might be internalized to become self-guidance and stimulate the development of yet underdeveloped skills, resulting in a higher level of skill mastery (p.252).
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id fbeb
authors Witkin, A., Kass, M., Terzopoulos, D. and Barr, A.
year 1990
title Linking perception and graphics: modeling with dynamic constraints
source Barlow, H., Blackemore, C. and Weston-Smith, M. (eds), Images and understanding, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 213-226
summary Images and Understanding Thoughts about Images: Ideas about Understanding How do you paint a picture of infinity? How do you dance about death? How do you draw a diagram explaining entropy? Images and Understanding explores the human problem of moving facts and ideas from one mind to another - the problems of how we see and communicate using images expressed in pictures, diagrams, words, music and dance. For artists as well as scientists discussion of this topic is timely; electronic and computing technology is expanding the means of generating and communicating images, while physiology and psychology are revealing the neural mechanisms of coding, perceiving and understanding them. The book is divided into six sections, each with an explanatory introduction followed by comprehensively illustrated contributions from internationally distinguished figures from fields as diverse as art history, choreography, psychology, computer science, and philosophy. Images and Understanding is unique in viewing the problems of imagery through the eyes of both science and art; it gives new insight into images and new ideas about understanding. Contributors
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id afa0
authors Aziz, N.M., Bata, R. and Sudarshan, B.
year 1990
title Bezier Surface : Surface Intersection
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. January, 1990. vol. 10: pp. 50-58
summary In this article the authors explain the computational requirement and accuracy of two methods for finding the intersection of Bezier surfaces. In both methods, the existence of an intersection curve is confirmed by using the convex hull property of such surfaces. The first method evaluates the intersection by recursive subdivision of two patches with overlapping hulls. The second method detects a point on the intersection curve, then incrementally traces the intersection in the parametric spaces of the two surfaces. With both methods the intersection of a pair of first-order planar patches must be solved analytically. The intersection is approximated by first-order Bezier patches in the first case, and by planar triangles in the second. Overall, the method of incremental tracing gives more accurate results than the method of recursive subdivision
keywords recursion, curves, convex hull, curved surfaces, intersection, Bezier, triangulation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id 4ac0
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1990
title Knowledge Engineering and Multicriteria Optimization
source Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1990. pp. 115-147. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Many aspects of optimization, including problem formulation, algorithm selection and the interpretation of results require human judgment and experience, and are traditionally carried out by humans. Recently developed knowledge-based system methodologies now allow us to incorporate different forms of knowledge required to carry out such non-numeric tasks. The role and effectiveness of knowledge-based methodologies in multicriteria optimization are described and illustrated with examples
keywords design, multicriteria, optimization, knowledge base
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 044f
authors Balachandran, M.B. and Gero, John S.
year 1990
title Role of Prototypes in Integrating Expert Systems and CAD Systems
source Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1990. v: Design: pp. 195-211
summary This paper describes concepts which allow the development of integrated systems that combine the two technologies of expert systems and computer-aided drafting systems. It demonstrates how an expert system can be used for evaluating and criticizing designs described using traditional CAD packages. The notion of 'prototypes' has been used to play the central role in such an integration. The development, implementation and operation issues of an integrated system, called IPEXCAD, are described
keywords expert systems, prototypes, design, CAD, integration, drafting
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 29d2
authors Barsky, Brian A. and DeRose,Tony D.
year 1989
title Geometric Continuity of Parametric Curves: Three Equivalent Characterizations
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. November, 1989. vol. 9: pp. 60-68 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Geometric continuity of curves has received a good deal of research attention in recent years. The purpose of this article is to distill some of the important basic results into a self-contained presentation. The January 1990 issue of CG&M presents a paper that continues the discussion by offering applications of the theoretical background provided here
keywords continuity, parametrization, curves, computational geometry, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8927
authors Brown, G.Z., McDonald, M. and Meacham, M.
year 1990
title A Review of Computer Use in Industrialized Housing
source October, 1990. 72 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The U.S. housing industry is becoming increasingly industrialized. In the process, housing production is becoming more standardized and rationalized, which have the potential to make computerization of the production process easier. This report reviews, assess and documents the extent of computer use in marketing, design, engineering and manufacturing of industrialized housing. Compares and contrasts the state of the art in U.S. vs. Japan and Western Europe. It assess and documents the needs of the domestic industry in this field, and establishes design criteria for new computerized energy tools unique to industrialized housing
keywords prefabrication, housing, CAD, practice, building, energy, management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e5e2
authors Coyne, R.D., Rosenman, M.A. and Radford, A.D. (
year 1990
title Knowledge Based Design Systems
source 576 p. : ill Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1990. includes bibliographies and index.
summary This book describes the bases, approaches, techniques, and implementations of knowledge-based design systems, and advocates and develops new directions in design systems generally. A formal model of design coupled with the notion of prototypes provides a coherent framework for all that follows and is a platform on which a comprehension of knowledge-based design rests. The book is divided into three parts. Part I, Design, examines and describes design and design processes, providing the context for the remainder of the book. Part II, Representation and Reasoning, explores the kinds of knowledge involved in design and the tools and techniques available for representing and controlling this knowledge. It examines the attributes of design that must be described and the ways in which knowledge-based methods are capable of describing and controlling them. Part III, Knowledge-Based Design, presents in detail the fundamentals of the interpretation of design, including the role of expert systems in interpreting existing designs, before describing how to produce designs within a knowledge-based environment. This part includes a detailed examination of design processes from the perspective of how to control these processes. Within each of these processes, the place and role of knowledge is presented and examples of knowledge-based design systems given. Finally, the authors examine central areas of human design and demonstrate what current knowledge-based design systems are capable of doing now and in the future
keywords knowledge base, design process, representation, CAD, AI, prototypes, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id 0642
authors Eastman, Charles M.
year 1989
title Why Are We Here and Where We are Going: The Evolution of CAD
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 9-26
summary This paper reviews architectural CAD in terms of its current use, development and status within the U.S. The characteristics of a new generation of architectural CAD system, called building modeling, are outlined. Criteria are developed for the evaluation of CAD systems that support building modeling. Some of the opportunities for universities growing out of building modeling are reviewed, including pedagogical implications and opportunities for research.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/20 15:48

_id 8b27
authors Eastman, Charles M.
year 1990
title Vector Versus Raster : A Functional Comparison of Drawing Technologies
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. September, 1990. vol. 10: pp. 68-80 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Raster drawing systems have emerged as an alternative to more traditional vector-based CAD drafting systems. With engineering drawing in mind, the author compares the functional capabilities of these two technologies and explores means for integrating the best features of both. The characteristics examined are not those of any particular raster or vector implementation but are derived from the underlying technologies
keywords CAD, drawings, systems, technology, scanning, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 3207
authors Emmerik, Maarten J.G.M. van
year 1990
title Interactive design of parameterized 3D models by direct manipulation
source Delft University of Technology
summary The practical applicability of a computer-aided design system is strongly influenced by both the user interface and the internal model representation. A well designed user interface facilitates the communication with the system by offering an intuitive environment for for specification and representation of model information. An internal model representation, capable of storing geometric, topological and hierarchical dependencies between components in a model, increases the efficiency of the system by facilitating modification and elaboration of the model during the different stages of the design process. The subject of this thesis is the integration of a high level parameterized model representation with direct manipulation interface techniques for the design of three-dimensional objects. A direct manipulation interface enables the user to specify a model by interaction on a graphical representation, as an alternative for an abstract and error-prone apha-numerical dialogue style. A high level model representation is obtained by using a procedural modeling language with general purpose control structures, including arithmetic and logical expressions, repetition, conditionals, functions and procedures, and dedicated data types such as coordinate systems, geometric primitives and geometric constraints. The language interpreter is interconnected with a graphical interface, an incremental constraint solver and a geometrical modeler, using visual programming techniques. The developed techniques are implemented in a modeling system called GeoNode. The system incorporates paradigms of object-oriented design, with respect to both the user interface and to the system implementation. The applicability of the presented techniques is illustrated by examples in application domains such as solid modeling, kinematic analysis, feature modeling and top-down design.
keywords CAD/CAM
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 0f73
authors Ervin, Stephen M.
year 1990
title Designing with Diagrams: A Role for Computing in Design Education and Exploration
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 107-122
summary Environmental designers, design educators and design students using computers are a constituency with a set of requirements for database structure and flexibility, for knowledge representation and inference mechanisms, and for both graphical and non-graphical operations, that are now articulatable and to-date largely unmet. This is especially so in the area called 'preliminary' or 'schematic' design, where our requirements are related to, but different from, those of our colleagues in mechanical and electrical engineering, whose needs have dominated the notable developments in this area. One manifestation of these needs is in the peculiar form of graphics called diagrams , and the ways in which environmental designers (architects, landscape architects., urban designers) use them. Our diagrams are both similar to and different from structural, circuit, or logical diagrams in important ways. These similarities and differences yield basic insights into designing and design knowledge, and provide guidance for some necessary steps in the development of the next generation of CAD systems. Diagrams as a form of knowledge representation have received little scrutiny in the literature of graphic representation and computer graphics. In the following sections I present an overview of the theoretical basis for distinguishing and using diagrams; examine some of the computational requirements for a system of computer-aided diagramming; describe a prototype implementation called CBD (Constraint Based Diagrammer) and illustrate one example of its use; and speculate on the implications and potential applications of these ideas in computer-aided design education.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id ga0202
id ga0202
authors Frazer, Jh., Frazer, J., Liu X., Tang M. and Janssen, P.
year 2002
title Generative and Evolutionary Techniques for Building Envelope Design
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The authors have been involved in the use of generative techniques for building envelope design since 1968 and the use of genetic algorithms since 1990. Recent work has focused on incorporating optimisation functions into form generating processes in order for new forms responding to varied design environments to be created and determined. This paper will summarise the authors’ previous work in this field and explain the theory behind this approach, and illustrate recent developments. While the initial implementation of a new building envelope design system is reported in more details in a related paper at this conference, this paper outlines its main features and points out the direction at which it is to be fully developed and further improved.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 6c14
authors Fujimoto, Richard M.
year 1990
title Parallel Discrete Event Simulation
source Communications of the ACM. October, 1990. vol. 33: pp. 31-53. includes bibliography
summary Parallel discrete event simulation (PDES), sometimes called distributed simulation, refers to the execution of a single discrete event simulation program on a parallel computer. This article deals with the execution of a simulation program on a parallel computer by decomposing the simulation application into a set of concurrently executing process. It Surveys existing approaches, analyzed the merits and drawbacks of various techniques
keywords algorithms, simulation, theory, parallel processing
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id f586
authors Gabriel, G. and Maher, M.L.
year 2000
title Analysis of design communication with and without computer mediation
source Proceedings of Co-designing 2000, pp. 329-337
summary With recent developments in CAD and communication technologies, the way we visualise and communicate design representations is changing. A matter of great interest to architects, practitioners and researchers alike, is how computer technology might affect the way they think and work. The concern is not about the notion of 'support' alone, but about ensuring that computers do not disrupt the design process and collaborative activity already going on (Bannon and Schmidt, 1991). Designing new collaborative tools will then have to be guided by a better understanding of how collaborative work is accomplished and by understanding what resources the collaborators use and what hindrances they encounter in their work (Finholt et al., 1990). Designing, as a more abstract notion, is different than having a business meeting using video conferencing. In design it is more important to 'see' what is being discussed rather than 'watch' the other person(s) involved in the discussion. In other words the data being conveyed might be of more importance than the method with which it is communicated (See Kvan, 1994). Similarly, we believe that by using text instead of audio as a medium for verbal communication, verbal representations can then be recorded alongside graphical representations for later retrieval and use. In this paper we present the results of a study on collaborative design in three different environments: face-to-face (FTF), computer-mediated using video conferencing (CMCD-a), and computer-mediated using "talk by typing" (CMCD-b). The underlying aim is to establish a clearer notion of the collaborative needs of architects using computer-mediation. In turn this has the potential in assisting developers when designing new collaborative tools and in assisting designers when selecting an environment for a collaborative session.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 242f
authors Goldman, Glenn and Zdepski, M. Stephen
year 1990
title Image Sampling
source From Research to Practice [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, pp. 21-28
summary Analogous to music sampling, in which sounds from the environment are recorded, distorted and used in unique ways to create music, "image sampling" is the visual equivalent of a sound bite used to create new visual forms, textures, patterns and types of architecture. Through the use of image sam ling, a designer can accurately record and digitize images from the existing visual world: rom the physical (built or natural) context of the site, from history (a specific building " or a significant architectural monument) or from previous work produced by the designer. The digital scanning process makes design information equal and uniform, as it converts all images to dot patterns of varying color. As a result the image can be transformed through numeric operations (even when the algorithms are transparent to the end user). The recorded images can therefore be fragmented, combined, distorted, duplicated, tweened, or subjected to random automated operations. Because computer images are digital, they facilitate modification and transformation, unlike their analog counterparts. Merging video and image processing capabilities with three-dimensional modeling permits the designer to collage visual information into new and readily editable architectural proposals. Combining image samples into new architectural concepts expands the scope of potentials available to the architect and also raises fundamental questions about issues of originality, creativity, authenticity, and the nature of the design process itself. What is original work, created by the designer, and what is merely re-used? The discussion of new digital imaging eventually leads to questions about design theory and ethics, in addition to those associated with computer technology and architectural form. As one works in any new medium, including the digital environment, many questions are raised about its impacts on design. Much of what is presented in this paper are early speculations on the implications of the digital technology and its influence on architecture.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/04/17 13:24

_id sigradi2007_af13
id sigradi2007_af13
authors Granero, Adriana Edith; Alicia Barrón; María Teresa Urruti
year 2007
title Transformations in the educational system, Influence of the Digital Graph [Transformaciones en el sistema educacional, influencia de la Gráfica Digital]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 182-186
summary The educative proposal was based on the summary attained through experiences piled up during the 2 last semester courses, 2/2006-1/2007. This proposal corresponds to a mix of methodology (by personal attendance / by internet). Founding on the Theory of the Game (Eric Berne 1960) and on different theories such as: Multiple intelligences (Haward Gardner 1983), Emotional Intelligence (Peter Salowey and John Mayer 1990, Goleman 1998), Social Intelligence (Goleman 2006), the Triarchy of Intelligence (Stemberg, R.J. 1985, 1997), “the hand of the human power”, it´s established that the power of the voice, that of the imagination, the reward, the commitment and association produce a significant increase of the productivity (Rosabeth Moss Kanter 2000), aside from the constructive processes of the knowledge (new pedagogical concepts constructivista of Ormrod J.E. 2003 and Tim O´Reilly 2004).
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

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