CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 181 to 200 of 258

_id a685
authors Oxman, Rivka E.
year 1990
title Prior Knowledge in Design : A Dynamic Knowledge-based Model of Design and Creativity
source Design Studies. January 1990. vol. 11: pp. 17-28 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The incorporation of precedents into a present design situation by adaptation, restructuring and reformulation depends upon processes of typification and generalization. The function of prototypes as a characteristic form of generalized and structured knowledge in design is described. A precedent-based design model employing memory-based reasoning is proposed. It is argued that typological concepts can serve as a matching level between situation types and solution types. In such an approach both the organization of structured knowledge and the mechanisms of matching to prior knowledge such as cross-indexing and analogy appear to be of seminal importance. A memory-based reasoning process in routine, innovative and creative design is postulated. This is based on concepts of dynamic and episodic memory. Relevant work in the fields of memory organization, machine learning and analogical reasoning is considered with respect to its significance to the field of knowledge-based design
keywords prototypes, reasoning, knowledge base, design
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 22de
authors Oxman, Rivka E.
year 1990
title The Role of Knowledge-Based Systems in Design and Design Education
source Int. J. Appl. Enging, Ed England: Pergamon Press, 1990. vol. 6: pp. 255-264 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This paper investigates the role of Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Based Design in the emergence of a 'general design science' common to all engineering design. The advantages of the design shell's approach is demonstrated relative to the utilization of expert systems for design. The design shell is proposed as a medium to accommodate the characteristics of design knowledge. The significance of this concept is discussed with respect to formalization of knowledge, implementation, application and operation in knowledge based systems. GRPS - a generative prototype refinement design shell is defined and elaborated. A system applying this concept in a significant structure of generic knowledge in architectural design is demonstrated. It utilizes a method for representing structured knowledge by exploiting the characteristics of both rules and frames, and integrates them in a prototype based design system. Finally, the significance of such an approach in research and design teaching is discussed
keywords design, education, knowledge base, expert systems, frames, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 29b6
authors Oxman, Rivka
year 1990
title Architectural Knowledge Structures as "Design Shells": A Knowledge-Based View of Design and CAAD Education
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 187-199
summary The concept of a knowledge based design shell is proposed as a basis for teaching design. The significance of the concept of design shell is discussed with respect to formalization, implementation, application and operation. GPRS-a generative prototype refinement design shell-is proposed, defined and elaborated. A plan type is introduced as one significant kind of structure of knowledge in architectural design is introduced. A method for representing syntactic and the semantic content to be used in design refinement is proposed. The method exploits the characteristics of both rules and frames, and integrates them in a prototype-based design system. This is demonstrated in a system called PRODS. Finally, the significance of such an approach in teaching is discussed.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 8c2b
authors Peleg, Uriel J. and Shaviv, Edna
year 1990
title A Knowledge Based Computer- Aided Solar Design System
source ASHRAE Transactions (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). Atlanta, GA: 1990. [5] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary A knowledge based computer-aided architectural design system (KB-CAAD) for the schematic design and evaluation of passive solar buildings is presented. The presented tool is based on the integration of knowledge based and procedural simulation methods with any available CAAD system for building representation. The knowledge base contains the heuristic rules for the design of passive solar buildings. Whenever possible, the knowledge base guides the designer through the decision making process. However, if 'rules of thumb' are not acceptable for the particular design problem, the KB-CAAD tool guides the architect towards the optimal solution, by using a procedural simulation model. It is demonstrated, through a case study, that the proposed knowledge based design system not only leads to the design of better solar buildings, but that it takes less time and man-power to introduce the geometrical data that would be needed for a regular non-solar building representation
keywords CAD, knowledge base, energy, design, systems, evaluation, analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 0ac1
authors Prins, M.
year 1990
title Flexibility of Buildings and Decision Making : A Financial Economical Design Decision Support System
source 1990. [12] : ill. includes bibliography
summary A building can be considered as a complex long term production means of dwelling services. The various parts which compile the building have different life spans determined in the first place by the use of the building and secondly by the construction and materials used. Because in most cases, some fluctuation in the demand of the building market might be expected, buildings must have some flexibility. A model is presented by which the flexibility of buildings can be optimized in a financial economical way
keywords optimization, evaluation, building, architecture, construction,design, economics, methodology, decision making, life cycle
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ebb2
authors Proctor, George
year 2000
title Reflections on the VDS, Pedagogy, Methods
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 15-16
summary After having conducted a Digital Media based design studio at Cal Poly for six years, we have developed a body of experience I feel is worth sharing. When the idea of conducting a studio with the exclusive use of digital tools was implemented at our college, it was still somewhat novel, and only 2 short years after the first VDS- Virtual Design Studio (UBC, UHK When we began, most of what we explored required a suspension of disbelief on the part of both the students and faculty reviewers of studio work. In a few short years the notions we examined have become ubiquitous in academic architectural discourse and are expanding into common use in practice. (For background, the digital media component of our curriculum owes much to my time at Harvard GSD [MAUD 1989-91] and the texts of: McCullough/Mitchell 1990, 1994; McCullough 1998; Mitchell 1990,1992,1996; Tufte 1990; Turkel 1995; and Wojtowicz 1993; and others.)
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/15 15:37

_id 2a8b
authors Purcell, Patrick and Applebaum Dan
year 1990
title Light Table: An Interface To Visual Information Systems
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 229-238
summary A primary aim of the Light Table project was to see if a combination of the optical laser disc, local area networks, and interactive videographic workstation technology could bring a major visual collection, (such as the Rotch Visual Collections of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology), to a campuswide population of undergraduate users. VIS (Visual Information System) is the name being given to the new genre of information technology. Much research and development effort is currently being applied to areas where the image has a special significance, for example in architecture and planning, in graphic and fine arts, in biology, in medicine, and in photography. One particular advance in the technology of VIS has been the facility to access visual information across a distributed computer system via LAN (Local Area Networks) and video delivery systems, (such as campus TV cable). This advance allows users to retrieve images from both local and remote sources, dispatching the image search through the LAN, and receiving the images back at their workstation via dedicated channels on the campus TV cable. Light Table is the title of a system that acts as a computer-based interactive videographic interface to a variety of visual information systems described in the body of this paper. It takes its name from the traditional, back- lit, translucent light table that lecturers use to assemble and view collections of slides for talks and seminars. The component of Light Table which is being reported in greatest detail here, a software outcome called Galatea, is a versatile and robust system capable of controlling video devices in a networked environment.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id c939
authors Rettig, Mark
year 1990
title Software Teams
source Communications of the ACM
summary October, 1990. vol. 33: pp. 23-27. includes a short bibliography. The author describes the development group organized as a 'structure open team.' The social organization of the software team, the different roles of the team members and the affect of it on the decision making and productivity of the team
keywords software, design, programming, management
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id c4e4
authors Robinson, Julia W.
year 1990
title Architectural Research : Incorporating Myth and Science
source Journal of Architectural Education November, 1990. vol. 44: pp. 20-32 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary Despite an apparently common assumption that science and myth are totally incompatible approaches to architecture, especially as related to architectural design, the author argues that science and myth are both explanations of phenomena, each different, but both valid. Positing the desirability of a research and design process that would take advantage of both approaches, it addresses the problems of existing conceptual categories and the possible productive relationship between myth and science for architecture. Anthropology is then proposed as a paradigm for an architectural research that could address both science and myth, and this is illustrated with examples of research and design studio instruction
keywords education, architecture, research, design process
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ga0222
id ga0222
authors Rocha, A. Medero and Danckwardt, Voltaire
year 2002
title Projeto Missões, Computação Gráfica Multimídia da Reconstituição Computadorizada da Redução de São Miguel Arcanjo no Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The Design Missions - Graphical Computation, recoups in a graphical and digital the pictures of the Church and the Reduction of São Miguel Arcanjo, RS, Brasil, allowing to the public a virtual stroll through the set at the time of its foundation in 1687. Initiate in 1990, the design refers the appropriation and implementation of the new computational technologies. The 3D model allows the dynamic visualization of the set, through aerial sights and walkthrough animations into the main streets and the inward of the central ship of the church. For the generation of the model, it was followed the principles of the architectural composition to decompose the parts, to be shaped, defining the architectural and composition elements. This COMPACT DISC, is one of the some medias of the Design Missions - Graphical Computation. In this proposal, the music was developed especially for the COMPACT DISC, looks for to reflect the poetical aspect of the interaction between light, shadow, of the inwards and exteriors, attenuating the technology of a virtual environment. In the integration between the art and the technology its recovered virtually, the poetical way, the memory of one of the icons of the identity of the Rio Grande do Sul, with the objective to keep alive, for the new generations, a patrimony that practically in ruins would have the souvenir of its lost real picture in the time.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 9a86
authors Romiszowski, A.J.
year 1990
title Designing Instructional Systems
source Kogan Page Ltd, London
summary Deals with the major areas of decision making that face the instructional designer at the beginning of a project; establishing the needs and developing the objectives of a curriculum, and producing detailed plans for the structure, methods and evaluation system to be used. The book establishes basic principles from an analysis of current theory and practice. The author complements this with practical advice, presenting useful techniques for analyzing problems, establishing needs and selecting from alternatives. This is a comprehensive handbook for decision making in course planning and instructional design.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4317
authors Rosenman, Michael A.
year 1990
title Application of Expert Systems to Building Design Analysis and Evaluation
source Building and Environment. 1990. vol.25: pp. 221-233
summary This paper demonstrates the applicability of expert systems to design analysis and evaluation. Design is a field in which a large part of the processes involved is knowledge-based rather than computation-based. Much of this knowledge is experiential and as such lends itself to be encapsulated in an expert system. An analogy is made between analysis and interpretation and between evaluation and comparison of interpretations. Three examples of expert systems carrying out design analysis and evaluation in different domains are described. It is argued that a graphical interface and a model of the elements within the domain are essential parts of any design system
keywords analysis, design, knowledge base, evaluation, expert systems, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 1c3b
authors Rubinger, Morton
year 1989
title Will CAD Survive Designers?
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 159-173
summary Discussion about the future of CAD often focuses on hardware and software. But that is the wrong emphasis. Future directions for CAD should be considered from the point of view of what is of value to architectural design. This paper is mainly concerned with the needs of architectural design education. For CAD to develop effectively, design education must first address some existing problems which threaten the future of CAD. These problems result mainly from conflicts between traditional design values and needs of using computers. For computers to aid design, software designers need a clearer picture of what design is. But there is no single acceptable meaning of design. Instead several different yet coherent meanings with historical roots are suggested. Each of these directions have different implications for the development of CAD.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id ce34
authors Rutherford, James H.
year 1990
title An intelligent design support environment : the application of intelligent knowledge-based systems and advanced HCI techniques to building design
source University of Strathclyde, Department of Architecture, Glasgow, UK
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 0278
authors Saalman, Howard
year 1990
title Goodness and Value in the Structure of Cognitive Processes
source Journal of Architectural Education Summer, 1990. vol. 43: pp. 3-7. includes bibliography.
summary This paper had its origins in a course entitled 'Basic Concepts in Architecture' which the author has been teaching for about ten years at Carnegie Mellon University. The course is designed to give architects a basis for understanding notions like process (including the architectural process), for developing functioning theories to determine the 'goodness' of things (including their own designs), in short, an approach to problems of cognition, of perception and of response to perceptions. They become aware, perhaps for the first time, of the precise significance of numbers in their design work, including the dreaded demons of 'nothing' and 'infinity.' They learn the meaning of time: it is the sum of perceptions involved in any process, including the process of getting to know things. Control over the design process is what architects must have so they can function effectively, and make the right decisions. Learning about these things is the goal of the course
keywords design process, architecture, education, cognition, perception, performance, control
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id c12b
authors Sakr, Yasser H. and Johnson, Robert E.
year 1991
title Computer-Aided Architectural Design Strategies: One Size Does Not Fit All
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 15-31
summary The practice of architecture is in the midst of significant change and an increasingly uncertain future. Socio-economic factors external to the profession are forcing firms to develop new strategies for delivering design services. Overlaying these external changes is the uncertainty resulting from the inevitable introduction of information technology, which is only beginning to have an impact on the profession. Some advocates see the emergence of a new form of design firm -the computerized design firm - as an intelligent organization structured around electronic work groups with powerful computation and communications tools (Catalano 1990). On the other hand, many practitioners still see CADD as an expensive technology whose primary result leads to an increase in overhead costs. But some practitioners and researchers (Coyne, 1991) recognize both the potential and, problems that computer-aided design presents to the profession. This research presents a framework for understanding how changing information technology might be appropriately integrated into the design firm. It argues that design is an increasingly diverse enterprise, and that this diversity must be understood in order to effectively integrate information technology. The study is divided into three sections. The first section develops an overview of major social, economic, and structural changes within the profession. The second section discusses two alternative approaches that have been utilized to integrate information technology into firms. The third part presents a framework for understanding how information technology may have an impact on strategies for structuring and organizing architectural firms.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:27

_id ea2d
authors Schmitt, Gerhard
year 1990
title Classes of Design-Classes of Tools
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 77-90
summary It is unrealistic to expect one computer-aided design tool to sufficiently support any one given design process. Yet it is necessary to define new CAD programs that give semantic support in design. To this end, the paper first differentiates phases and classes of design and then attempts to establish relations between the defined classes and appropriate computer-aided design tools. In three main sections it describes (i) routine, innovative and creative design, (ii) a set of corresponding prototype design tools, and (iii) two examples of routine and innovative design which use these tools. The purpose of the paper is to make a contribution to the definition of domain specific aspects of CAD and to propose a mapping between processes and tools.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ae95
authors Seebohm, Thomas
year 1990
title CAD and the Baroque
source From Research to Practice [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, pp. 79-97
summary After a review of various methods of teaching computer aided design in schools of architecture, including "the conventional wisdom of CAD", an approach is presented whereby the application of this "wisdom” is taught by creating very complex drawings of Baroque elevations. A description is given of how such drawings may be structured and of how a group of students may work on such drawings simultaneously to complete them expeditiously. An extension of this method of teaching architectural CAD is discussed wherein students would not only draw but would also design detailed elevations and plans of villas in the Palladian manner using recently developed computer aids to assist in the design.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id caadria2006_047
id caadria2006_047
year 2006
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 47-52
summary You and I were not born in the 1990’s thus our experience about the true modalities of circulation and communication that have substantially transformed the methods that form and inform us today, are not really “pure”. Why? Because we know how slow time was before the communication boom of this last decade and because some of us still believe that we must read to be inform and thus, visit a bookstore, library or friends house and get peeks inside a subject of matter. So experiencing life as we bypass the book _ that’s a story of a brand new era! Taking note of the enormous changes this era brings, is fundamental to our current pedagogic undertakings. We seek data about the differences that lie in the way individuals, which never knew a world before or between analogue and digital zones, process information. It signals a dramatic shift in cognitive realms that is deeply imbedded in our emerging socio-economic spheres. So, you say “hypothesizing that economic, technologic, and cultural fluxes fabricate new means to learn and think, is not a fresh idea”_ True. But, it led us to ask one fundamental question _What are the upcoming learning habits employed by the “post digital” society? We noted that the post digital generation is an avid cut, copy, paste society that is able to extract information from infinite resources and mix, remix in diversified modes, through time and in real-time. We think these abilities are strengths, which will permit students to multitask yet they strongly differ from the academic agendas that are concerned with meditative processes and qualitative interdisciplinary task. As aspiring academics interested in the reconfiguration of current pedagogic formats we seek a creative intervention for future design generations, one that can benefit both the upheavals of the cultural world and the integrity of the academic setting where a pedagogy that links extended fields of knowledge with shifting cognitive habits can emerge. In this arena where cognition plays an important role, our goals are challenging and difficult, especially in the beginning years when the foundations set forward leaves lasting impressions. Thus, letting go of familiar grounds and tuning to continual alterations of the immediate surroundings enables us to seek means that facilitate important readings for our current learning/teaching processes. Demystifying changes and embracing differences as design potentials for new interventions are basic programmatic elements that permit us to incorporate a rigorous research agenda in the design exercises. Our presentation will project the current state of our teaching modality and provide examples of current studio work. It will demonstrate how everyday rituals, journeys and research observations, are documented by a society that heralds a new academic setting.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2007/07/23 05:08

_id a949
authors Stiny, George
year 1989
title What is a Design?
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 137-146
summary Designs belong to relations.
series ACADIA
email stiny@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

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