CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id caadria2011_061
id caadria2011_061
authors Celani, Gabriela; José P. Duarte and Carlos V. Vaz
year 2011
title The gardens revisited: The link between technology, meaning and logic?
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 643-652
summary The objective of this paper is to compare the computational concepts present in three books published by Mitchell between 1987 and 1990: The art of computer-graphics programming (1987), which has Robin Liggett and Thomas Kvan as co-authors, The logic of architecture (1990), probably his most influential work, and The poetics of gardens (1988), which has Charles Moore and William Turnbull as coauthors. By looking at the concepts that are presented in the three books and establishing a comparison between them, we expect to show that The poetics of Gardens should not be seen as a detour from Mitchell´s line of research, but rather as a key piece for understanding the relationship between technology, meaning and logic in his very coherent body of work.
keywords Computational design concepts; technology; meaning; logic
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id 242f
authors Goldman, Glenn and Zdepski, M. Stephen
year 1990
title Image Sampling
source From Research to Practice [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, pp. 21-28
summary Analogous to music sampling, in which sounds from the environment are recorded, distorted and used in unique ways to create music, "image sampling" is the visual equivalent of a sound bite used to create new visual forms, textures, patterns and types of architecture. Through the use of image sam ling, a designer can accurately record and digitize images from the existing visual world: rom the physical (built or natural) context of the site, from history (a specific building " or a significant architectural monument) or from previous work produced by the designer. The digital scanning process makes design information equal and uniform, as it converts all images to dot patterns of varying color. As a result the image can be transformed through numeric operations (even when the algorithms are transparent to the end user). The recorded images can therefore be fragmented, combined, distorted, duplicated, tweened, or subjected to random automated operations. Because computer images are digital, they facilitate modification and transformation, unlike their analog counterparts. Merging video and image processing capabilities with three-dimensional modeling permits the designer to collage visual information into new and readily editable architectural proposals. Combining image samples into new architectural concepts expands the scope of potentials available to the architect and also raises fundamental questions about issues of originality, creativity, authenticity, and the nature of the design process itself. What is original work, created by the designer, and what is merely re-used? The discussion of new digital imaging eventually leads to questions about design theory and ethics, in addition to those associated with computer technology and architectural form. As one works in any new medium, including the digital environment, many questions are raised about its impacts on design. Much of what is presented in this paper are early speculations on the implications of the digital technology and its influence on architecture.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/04/17 13:24

_id 4c3d
authors Johnson, Robert
year 1990
title The Economics of Building : A Practical Guide for the Design Professional
source xvii, 209 p. : ill. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990. includes bibliography
summary This book is both an introduction to economic principles and theories as they relate to building design decisions, and a practical reference guide on how to use economic principles when making decisions. It unites a variety of specialized topics relating to building economics, such as cost estimating, life-cycle costing, cost indexes, capital budgeting, decision analysis, and real estate feasibility analysis, developing them within the framework of an integrated approach to making building design and management decisions. This integrated approach is developed by adapting basic approaches of decision theory to economic evaluation. This book attempts to achieve a sensible balance between the need to simplify relatively complex economic and decision theory principles and practices without sacrificing the intellectual content of the material
keywords economics, practice, education, construction, architecture, theory, building process, evaluation, prediction, management, decision making
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id a23f
authors Jordan, J. Peter (Ed.)
year 1990
title From Research to Practice [Conference Proceedings]
source ACADIA Conference Proceedings / Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, 231 p.
summary For the tenth time in as many years, the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) has invited architectural educators and professionals to discuss their activities and interests related to computer-aided architectural design. This annual meeting has grown from a small group representing a handful of schools to a conference with international participation. For the fifth time, the papers presented at this annual conference have been collected and published in a bound volume as the conference proceedings. In organizing these meetings, ACADIA must be viewed has having firmly established itself as a valuable forum for those who are interested and active in this area. Moreover, the proceedings of these conferences have become an important record for documenting the progress of ideas and activities in this field. This organization and its annual conferences have been a critical influence on my own professional development. The first conference I attended, ACADIA '86, confirmed a nagging suspicion that courses in computer-aided design (CAD) offered at the university level should be more than vendor training. Papers and conversations at subsequent conferences have reinforced this conviction and strengthened my commitment to CAD education which does more than convey electronic drawing technology. At the same time, I have been frustrated at the apparent lack of communication between those involved in these activities in architectural education and the average professional practice. With some notable exceptions, architects are only beginning to make basic computer-aided drafting pay for itself. In many small offices, "The CAD Computer" remains more decoration and status symbol than useful tool. While it can be argued that the economics of computer-aided drafting have only recently become attractive, it must be admitted that many members of ACADIA are actively involved in the development and use of computer applications which are significantly more challenging. In the short run, most of these activities will go largely unnoticed by the community of practicing architects. This situation raises a number of questions on the value of the work produced by members of ACADIA. One can (and many do) challenge the worth of "design" research produced by academia to those in professional practice. However, it is a fundamental mistake to insist that such work be of immediate and direct relevance to the profession. In fact, some presentations at the ACADIA conferences have focused solely on the pedagogical environment (which may be of some intellectual interest) but do not even attempt to address professional design issues. Other work may serve as the basis for further activities which may result in useful applications at some future point in time. Such work is strategic in nature and should not be expected to bear fruit for many years. These are the *natural" products of a university environment and, indeed, may be what the university does best. Still, design professionals remain indifferent (if not somewhat hostile) to these endeavors. The central dilemma resides in the ongoing debate about the fundamental goals of professional education. A number of design professionals believe that architectural education should follow more of a “trade school” model where a professional degree program becomes solely a process of acquiring (and practicing) a set of skills which are directly and immediately useful upon graduation. Today these people stiR closely examine the drafting skill of any recent graduate, but they are also likely to demanding expertise on AutoCAD. It is my view that this position tends to deprecate the image of architects and depreciate the economic status of the profession. On the other hand, there is a similar minority in architectural academia who teach because they are unable or unwilling to deal with the very real complexities and challenges of professional practice. These instructors tend to focus on obscure theory and academic credentials while discounting the importance of professional development. For most who participate in this discussion, it is becoming increasingly clear that professional competency must be founded on an effective marriage of intellectual theory and practical expertise. This must lead to the conclusion that CAD research must recognize and give serious consideration to the professional agenda in a substantive manner without abandoning those activities which deal with strategic and pedagogical issues.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 5509
authors Koutamanis, Alexandros
year 1990
title Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans
source Delft University of Technology
summary The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of architectural plans. This investigation can be summarized as an introduction of computer vision to the computerization of architectural representations: chap represents an attempt to automate recognition of the most essential among conventional architectural drawings, floor plans. The system accepts as input digitized images of architectural plans and recognizes their spatial primitives (locations) and their spatial articulation on a variety of abstraction levels. The final output of chap is a description of the plan in terms of the grouping formations detected in its spatial articulation. The overall structure of the description is based on an analysis of its conformity to the formal rules of its “stylistic” context (which in the initial version of chap is classical architecture). Chapter 1 suggests that the poor performance of computerized architectural drawing and design systems is among others evidence of the necessity to computerize visual / spatial architectural representations. A recognition system such as chap offers comprehensive means for the investigation of a methodology for the development and use of such representations. Chapter 2 describes a fundamental task of chap: recognition of the position and shape of locations, the atomic parts of the description of an architectural plan in chap. This operation represents the final and most significant part of the first stage in processing an image input in machine environment. Chapter 3 moves to the next significant problem, recognition of the spatial arrangement of locations in an architectural plan, that is, recognition of grouping relationships that determine the subdivision of a plan into parts. In the absence of systematic and exhaustive typologic studies of classical architecture that would allow us to define a repertory of the location group types possible in classical architectural plans, Chapter 3 follows a bottom-up approach based on grouping relationships derived from elementary architectural knowledge and formalized with assistance from Gestalt theory and its antecedents. The grouping process described in Chapter 3 corresponds both in purpose and in structure to the derivation of a description of an image in computer vision [Marr 1982]. Chapter 4 investigates the well-formedness of the description of a classical architectural plan in an analytical manner: each relevant level (or sublevel) of the classical canon according to Tzonis & Lefaivre [1986] is transformed into a single group of criteria of well-formedness which is investigated independently. The hierarchical structure of the classical canon determines the coordination of these criteria into a sequence of cognitive filters which progressively analyses the correspondence of the descriptions derived as in Chapter 3 to the constraints of the canon. The methodology and techniques presented in the dissertation are primarily considered with respect to chap, a specific recognition system. The resulting specification of chap gives a measure of the use of such a system within the context of a computerized collection of architectural precedents and also presents several extensions to other areas of architecture. Although these extensions are not considered as verifiable claims, Chapter 5 describes some of their implications, including on the role of architectural drawing in computerized design systems, on architectural typologies, and on the nature and structure of generative systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ed07
authors Love, James
year 1990
title A Case Study in Knowledge-Based System Development : Envelope Design for Reduction of Traffic Noise Transmission
source February, 1990. 19 p. : some ill. and table. includes a bibliography
summary Researchers have demonstrated the value of replication of research and explicit testing of concepts in artificial intelligence (Ritchie and Hanna 1989). In this study, a rule- based system was implemented as an exercise in the application of the theory and practice of knowledge-based systems development to architectural design analysis. The test domain was the selection of wall and window assemblies to provide adequate noise reduction given a set of traffic and building site conditions. This domain was chosen for two reasons: (1) considerable detailed heuristic information was available; and (2) it avoided large solutions spaces, 'errorful' and time-dependent data, and unreliable knowledge. Development of the system in conjunction with an extensive literature review revealed that publications on construction and performance of rule-based systems provided insufficient detail on key aspects of system architecture. Topics suffering from neglect or insufficiently rigorous treatment included algorithms used in automated inference, methods for selection of inference procedures, the integration of numerical and symbolic processing, the formulation of explanation mechanisms to deal with integrated numerical and symbolic processing, testing methods, and software standardization. Improving the quality and scope of knowledge in these areas is essential if expert systems are to be applied effectively in architectural design
keywords CAD, expert systems, acoustics, applications, knowledge base, design, architecture, AI, analysis
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 8bf3
authors McCullough, M., Mitchell, W.J. and Purcell, P. (Eds.)
year 1990
title The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [Conference Proceedings]
source International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design 1989/ ISBN 0-262-13254-0] (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, 505 p.
summary Design is the computation of shape information that is needed to guide fabrication or construction of artifacts. But it is not so straightforward as, say, the computation of numerical information required to balance a checkbook. This is partly because algebras of shapes are not as well understood and precisely formalized as algebras of numbers, partly because the rules for carrying out shape computations tend to be fluid and ill defined and partly because the predicates that must be satisfied to achieve successful termination are often complex and difficult to specify. For centuries architects have carried out shape computations by hand, using informal procedures and the simplest of tools. Over the last two decades though, they have made increasing use of more formal procedures executed by computers. It is still too early to be sure of the gains and losses that follow from this development, but there is no doubt that it raises some challenging questions of architectural theory and some perplexing issues for those concerned with the future of architectural education. This book frames those issues and provides a diversity of perspectives on them. Its contents were initially presented at the CAAD Futures 89 Conference-an international gathering of researchers and teachers in the field of computer-aided architectural design which was jointly sponsored by the Harvard Graduate School of Design and the MIT Department of Architecture and held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in July 1989. There are four major sections: Theoretical Foundations, Knowledge-Based Design Tools, Information Delivery Systems, and Case Studies: Electronic Media in the Design Studio. In a representative collection of current views, over thirty extensively illustrated papers discuss the experiences of universities in the USA, Europe, Japan, Israel, Canada, and Australia, articulate present theoretical and practical concerns, provide criticism of media and methods, and suggest directions for the future. Architectural educators and architects concerned with the effect of computer technology on the design process will find here an indispensable reference and a rich source of ideas. This book was itself prepared in an electronic design studio. Composition and typography, most image collection and placement, and such editing as was practical within this publishing format, were all performed digitally using Macintosh computers at the Harvard Graduate School of Design during a period of a few weeks in 1989.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id f507
authors Mitchell, W.
year 1990
title The Logic of Architecture: Design, Computation and Cognition
source The MIT Press, Cambridge
summary The Logic of Architecture is the first comprehensive, systematic, and modern treatment of the logical foundations of design thinking. It provides a detailed discussion of languages of architectural form, their specification by means of formal grammars, their interpretation, and their role in structuring design thinking. Supplemented by more than 200 original illustrations, The Logic of Architecture reexamines central issues of design theory in the light of recent advances in artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and the theory of computation. The richness of this approach permits sympathetic and constructive analysis of positions developed by a wide range of theorists and philosophers from Socrates to the present. Mitchell first considers how buildings may be described in words and shows how such descriptions may be formalized by the notation of first order predicate calculus. This leads to the idea of a critical language for speaking about the qualities of buildings. Turning to the question of representation by drawings and scale models, Mitchell then develops the notion of design worlds that provide graphic tokens which can be manipulated according to certain grammatical rules. In particular, he shows how domains of graphic compositions possible in a design world may be specified by formal shape grammars. Design worlds and critical languages are connected by showing how such languages may be interpreted in design worlds. Design processes are then viewed as computations in a design world with the objective of satisfying predicates of form and function stated in a critical language.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id diss_anders
id diss_anders
authors Anders, P.
year 2003
title A Procedural Model for Integrating Physical and Cyberspaces in Architecture
source Doctoral dissertation, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, U.K
summary This dissertation articulates opportunities offered by architectural computation, in particular the digital simulation of space known as virtual reality (VR) and its networked, social variant cyberspace. Research suggests that environments that hybridize technologies call for a conception of space as information, i.e. space is both a product of and tool for cognition. The thesis proposes a model whereby architecture can employ this concept of space in creating hybrids that integrate physical and cyberspaces.The dissertation presents important developments in architectural computation that disclose concepts and values that contrast with orthodox practice. Virtual reality and cyberspace, the foci of this inquiry, are seen to embody the more problematic aspects of these developments. They also raise a question of redundancy: If a simulation is good enough, do we still need to build? This question, raised early in the 1990's, is explored through a thought experiment - the Library Paradox - which is assessed and critiqued for its idealistic premises. Still, as technology matures and simulations become more realistic the challenge posed by VR/cyberspace to architecture only becomes more pressing. If the case for virtual idealism seems only to be strengthened by technological and cultural trends, it would seem that a virtual architecture should have been well established in the decade since its introduction.Yet a history of the virtual idealist argument discloses the many difficulties faced by virtual architects. These include differences between idealist and professional practitioners, the failure of technology to achieve its proponents' claims, and confusion over the meaning of virtual architecture among both architects and clients. However, the dissertation also cites the success of virtual architecture in other fields - Human Computer Interface design, digital games, and Computer Supported Collaborative Work - and notes that their adoption of space derives from practice within each discipline. It then proposes that the matter of VR/cyberspace be addressed from within the practice of architecture, a strategy meant to balance the theoretical/academic inclination of previous efforts in this field.The dissertation pursues an assessment that reveals latent, accepted virtualities in design methodologies, instrumentation, and the notations of architectural practices. Of special importance is a spatial database that now pervades the design and construction processes. The unity of this database, effectively a project's cyberspace, and its material counterpart is the subject of the remainder of the dissertation. Such compositions of physical and cyberspaces are herein called cybrids. The dissertation examines current technologies that cybridize architecture and information technology, and proposes their integration within cybrid wholes. The concept of cybrids is articulated in seven principles that are applied in a case study for the design for the Planetary Collegium. The project is presented and critiqued on the basis of these seven principles. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of possible effects of cybrids upon architecture and contemporary culture.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id 4d0d
authors Angelil, Mark
year 1990
title Experiments as Modus Operandi
source Journal of Architectural Education. November, 1990. Vol. 44: pp. 37-48 : 9 p. of ill
summary Architecture has for too long focused on the presentation of pristine objects and the presentation in drawing form. A critical understanding of the field, however, necessitates a reevaluation of the roles of the process involved in the production of building. Rather than emphasizing surface appearances, an architecture rooted in process aims ultimately at revealing the fundamental and deep structures inherent within the making of architecture. One of the primary tasks of the process is to provoke intuition and ingenuity - and the awareness that both are founded on knowledge - and that knowledge must be applied with imagination. The experiment presented here developed sequentially with a defined structure to the process of design, moving gradually from the abstract into the concrete, thereby attempting and understanding of what Roland Barthes identified as 'concrete abstraction.'
keywords design process, architecture, knowledge, experimentation
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id ddss9219
id ddss9219
authors Bourdakis, V. and Fellows, R.F.
year 1993
title A model appraising the performance of structural systems used in sports hall and swimming pool buildings in greece
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The selection of the best performing structural system (among steel, timber laminated, concrete, fabric tents) for medium span (30-50m) sports halls and swimming pools in Greece formed the impetus for this research. Decision-making concerning selection of the structural system is difficult in this sector of construction, as was explained in the "Long Span Structures" conference (November 1990, Athens. Greece). From the literature it has been found that most building appraisals end up at the level of data analysis and draw conclusions on the individual aspects they investigate. These approaches usually focus on a fraction of the problem, examining it very deeply and theoretically. Their drawback is loss of comprehensiveness and ability to draw conclusions on an overall level and consequently being applicable to the existing conditions. Research on an inclusive level is sparse. In this particular research project, an inclusive appraisal approach was adopted, leading to the identification of three main variables: resources, human-user-satisfaction, and technical. Consequently, this led to a combination of purely quantitative and qualitative data. Case studies were conducted on existing buildings in order to assess the actual performance of the various alternative structural systems. This paper presents the procedure followed for the identification of the research variables and the focus on the development of the model of quantification. The latter is of vital importance if the problem of incompatibility of data is to be solved, overall relation of findings is to be achieved and holistic conclusions are to be drawn.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 64b2
authors Brown, G. Z.
year 1990
title Desirable Interface Characteristics of Knowledge-Based Energy Software Used by Architects
source March, 1990. 14 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper describes ongoing research projects on the development of user interfaces for energy software to be used by architects. The paper takes the position that the goal of knowledge-based design software should be to help the architect to visualize the unimagined. In order to approach this goal the unique characteristics of the architectural design process must be understood and used in the creation of software. The two characteristics discussed are: the architectural design process emphasizes synthesis rather than analysis, and the symbols used to transmit knowledge are primarily graphic abstractions rather than alpha-numeric abstractions
keywords user interface, architecture, design process, knowledge base, software, energy
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 48fc
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1990
title Knowledge Assistant in the Process of Architectural Design
source Building and Environment. 1990. 39 p. includes bibliography
summary The article illustrates a methodological approach for the realization of a knowledge-based assistant for building and architectural design. The system is based on the concepts of constraint propagation, and uses the formal method of frames. The aim of the system is to cooperate 'interactively' with the designer in the various phases of this work
keywords knowledge base, architecture, CAD, building, design, frames
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id caadria2006_597
id caadria2006_597
year 2006
title NEW MEDIA IN DIGITAL DESIGN PROCESS: Towards a standardize procedure of CAD/CAM fabrication
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 597-599
summary In 1990, due to the traditional architecture design and construction method difficult to build the complicated and non-geometry free-form Fish Structure in Barcelona, architect Frank Gehry started learn from the field of aerospace to utilize CAD/CAM technology in design and manufacture process. He created the free-form fish model in CAD system and exported the digital CAD model data to CAM machine (RP and CNC) to fabricate the design components, and finally assembled on the site. Gehry pioneered in the new digital design process in using CAD/CAM technology or so-called digital fabrication. It becomes an important issue recently as the CAD/CAM technology progressively act as the new digital design media in architectural design and construction process (Ryder et al., 2002; Kolarevic, 2003). Furthermore, in the field of architecture professional, some commercial computer systems had been developed on purpose of standardizes the digital design process in using CAD/CAM fabrication such as Gehry Technologies formed by Gehry Partners; SmartGeometry Group in Europe and Objectile proposed by Bernard Cache. Researchers in the research field like Mark Burry, Larry Sass, Branko Kolarevic, Schodek and others are enthusiastic about the exploration of the role of CAD/CAM fabrication as new design media in design process (Burry, 2002; Schodek et al., 2005; Lee, 2005).
series CAADRIA
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id e73e
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1990
title State of the Art of Computer Use in Practical Architectural Design in Sweden
source A/E/C Systems Japan. September, 1990. [4] p. English and Japanese
summary A status report on Computer Aided Design in Sweden, since 1986
keywords CAD, architecture, practice
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 8775
authors Cigolle, Mark and Coleman, Kim
year 1990
title Computer Integrated Design: Transformation as Process
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 333-346
summary To bring together poetry, magic and science, to explore beyond preconceptions, to invent spaces and forms which re-form and inform man's experience, these are the possibilities of architecture. Computer integrated design offers a means for extending the search, one which integrates both conceptual and perceptual issues in the making of architecture. The computer may assist in generating constructs which would not have been created by conventional methods. The application of computer techniques to design has to date been focused primarily on production aspects, an area which is already highly organizable and communicable. In conceptual and perceptual aspects of design, computer techniques remain underdeveloped. Since the impetus for- the development of computer applications has come from the immediate economics of practice rather than a theoretically based strategy, computer-aided design is currently biased toward the replication of conventional techniques rather than the exploration of new potentials. Over the last two years we have been involved in experimentation with methodologies which engage the computer in formative explorations of the design idea. Work produced from investigations by 4th and 5th year undergraduate students in computer integrated design studios that we have been teaching at the University of Southern California demonstrates the potential for the use of the computer as a principal tool in the exploration of syntax and perception, space and program. The challenge is to approach the making of architecture as an innovative act, one which does not rely on preconceived notions of design.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 417a
authors Cipriani, R., Lagomarsino, A.D., Stagnaro, A., Valenti, E. and Sambolino, T.
year 1990
title Some Years' Experience Teaching CAAD
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 347-361
summary In the conventional way of teaching architecture, it is common to think of design as the final synthesis of an intellectual process (composizione in Italian) integrating different elements from different curriculum subjects: history, structural analysis., technology, regional and urban planning, and so on. These elements, being comprehensive of their specific domains, together build the project. This process is supported by a long traditional that cannot easily be modified; however, we must not consider it to be the only one. Architectural practice should be much more. The Scuole di Architettura has walked a long and difficult road in the last thirty years., with a significant widening of interest in social, political, and economic issues. There have been recurring attempts at epistemological reformulation in some areas. There has been an acknowledgment of a crisis in contemporary town planning and a dimming of several certitudes that had developed with the birth and growth of the modernist school. And there has been a weakening of the promises that had given life to the vigorous discussion about town and regional planning. All of this leads to a reconsideration of the meaning and the deeper assumptions that the project implies, a question mark at the center of the human sciences that architectural practice involves. The old tradition., which assigned composition a central role in the project, is no longer sufficient because it is related to a reductive reading of epistemology that views human sciences as defining segments of physical knowledge of the actual world. Contemporary reflection on the difference between understanding and unfolding, together with the attention given to interpreting a moment as compared to purely describing one, gives to the project the task of inquiry instead of solution.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id sigradi2006_e183a
id sigradi2006_e183a
authors Costa Couceiro, Mauro
year 2006
title La Arquitectura como Extensión Fenotípica Humana - Un Acercamiento Basado en Análisis Computacionales [Architecture as human phenotypic extension – An approach based on computational explorations]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 56-60
summary The study describes some of the aspects tackled within a current Ph.D. research where architectural applications of constructive, structural and organization processes existing in biological systems are considered. The present information processing capacity of computers and the specific software development have allowed creating a bridge between two holistic nature disciplines: architecture and biology. The crossover between those disciplines entails a methodological paradigm change towards a new one based on the dynamical aspects of forms and compositions. Recent studies about artificial-natural intelligence (Hawkins, 2004) and developmental-evolutionary biology (Maturana, 2004) have added fundamental knowledge about the role of the analogy in the creative process and the relationship between forms and functions. The dimensions and restrictions of the Evo-Devo concepts are analyzed, developed and tested by software that combines parametric geometries, L-systems (Lindenmayer, 1990), shape-grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1971) and evolutionary algorithms (Holland, 1975) as a way of testing new architectural solutions within computable environments. It is pondered Lamarck´s (1744-1829) and Weismann (1834-1914) theoretical approaches to evolution where can be found significant opposing views. Lamarck´s theory assumes that an individual effort towards a specific evolutionary goal can cause change to descendents. On the other hand, Weismann defended that the germ cells are not affected by anything the body learns or any ability it acquires during its life, and cannot pass this information on to the next generation; this is called the Weismann barrier. Lamarck’s widely rejected theory has recently found a new place in artificial and natural intelligence researches as a valid explanation to some aspects of the human knowledge evolution phenomena, that is, the deliberate change of paradigms in the intentional research of solutions. As well as the analogy between genetics and architecture (Estévez and Shu, 2000) is useful in order to understand and program emergent complexity phenomena (Hopfield, 1982) for architectural solutions, also the consideration of architecture as a product of a human extended phenotype can help us to understand better its cultural dimension.
keywords evolutionary computation; genetic architectures; artificial/natural intelligence
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id a33f
authors Cote, Pierre, Hartkopf , Volker and Loftness, Vivian (et al)
year 1990
title Vector Field Representation for the Evaluation of Multiple Performance Variables
source 1990. 6, [7] p., [3] p. of ill. includes bibliography
summary A vector field representation is proposed to simulate the spatial distribution of four building system performance variables: light, sound, radiant heat, and air flow. From this simulation, a measure of the impact of adding, deleting, or modifying an object in the field is computed. This measure serves as a passive evaluation of the user/designer's decision to modify the location or dimensions of the object in a space. This process of simulation-evaluation is performed by a performance module (PM), which is viewed as a component of a CAAD System (Computer Architectural Aided Design). This paper describes the motivation, objectives, methodology and preliminary results of the approach
keywords simulation, CAD, computation, evaluation, building, performance, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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