CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 2613
authors Frew, Robert S.
year 1990
title The Organization of CAD Teaching in Design Schools
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 387-392
summary This paper is the result of a survey of European CAD teaching that was conducted in 1987 and 1988. It makes comparisons with teaching at the Yale School of Architecture, and goes on to analyze the issues that should be addressed in a CAD program in a school of architecture.
series CAAD Futures
email frewr1@southernct.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 2f1a
authors Dabney, M.K., Wright, J.C. and Sanders, D.H.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality and the Future of Publishing Archaeological Excavations: the multimedia publication of the prehistoric settlement on Tsoungiza at Ancient Nemea
source New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
summary The Nemea Valley Archaeological Project is a study of settlement and land use in a regional valley system in Greece extending from the Upper Paleolithic until the present. Active field research was conducted by four teams between 1981 and 1990. The first component was a regional archaeological survey. Second, and closely related to the first, was a social anthropological study of modern settlement and land use. Next was a team assigned to excavate the succession of prehistoric settlements of Ancient Nemea on Tsoungiza. Last, historical ecologists, a palynologist, and a geologist formed the environmental component of the research. As a result of advances in electronic publishing, plans for the final publication of the Nemea Valley Archaeological Project have evolved. Complete publication of the excavation of the prehistoric settlements of Ancient Nemea on Tsoungiza will appear in an interactive multimedia format on CD/DVD in Fall 2000. This project is planned to be the first electronic publication of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. We have chosen to publish in electronic format because it will meet the needs and interests of a wider audience, including avocational archaeologists, advanced high school and college students, graduate students, and professional archaeologists. The multimedia format on CD/DVD will permit the inclusion of text, databases, color and black-and-white images, two and three-dimensional graphics, and videos. This publication is being developed in cooperation with Learning Sites, Inc., which specializes in interactive three-dimensional reconstructions of ancient worlds http://www.learningsites.com. The Nemea Valley Archaeological Project is particularly well prepared for the shift towards electronic publishing because the project's field records were designed for and entered in computer databases from the inception of the project. Attention to recording precise locational information for all excavated objects enables us to place reconstructions of objects in their reconstructed architectural settings. Three-dimensional images of architectural remains and associated features will appear both as excavated and as reconstructed. Viewers will be able to navigate these images through the use of virtual reality. Viewers will also be able to reference all original drawings, photographs, and descriptions of the reconstructed architecture and objects. In this way a large audience will be able to view architectural remains, artifacts, and information that are otherwise inaccessible.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id a85f
authors Gilleard, J.D., Myers, J. and Olatidoye, O.A.
year 1990
title Computer Applications in Architectural Conservation
source From Research to Practice [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, pp. 187-199
summary The Center for Architectural Conservation, College of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology, is considered to be one of the leading exponents of computer-aided databases for the management of buildings of historical merit in the U.S. Through their involvement with the National Parks Service and other clients in North America, the Center has developed considerable expertise in the creation of computerized fabric and condition survey methods, and in the compilation of databases for components and materials used in the rehabilitation and conservation arena. In addition, exploratory research is currently being undertaken in the development of "expert systems" in the area of building diagnostics. This paper gives a brief historical background of the Center for Architectural Conservation, comments on the early establishment of the Center, and reviews the application of an expert system in the area of window diagnostic.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:27

_id 8775
authors Cigolle, Mark and Coleman, Kim
year 1990
title Computer Integrated Design: Transformation as Process
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 333-346
summary To bring together poetry, magic and science, to explore beyond preconceptions, to invent spaces and forms which re-form and inform man's experience, these are the possibilities of architecture. Computer integrated design offers a means for extending the search, one which integrates both conceptual and perceptual issues in the making of architecture. The computer may assist in generating constructs which would not have been created by conventional methods. The application of computer techniques to design has to date been focused primarily on production aspects, an area which is already highly organizable and communicable. In conceptual and perceptual aspects of design, computer techniques remain underdeveloped. Since the impetus for- the development of computer applications has come from the immediate economics of practice rather than a theoretically based strategy, computer-aided design is currently biased toward the replication of conventional techniques rather than the exploration of new potentials. Over the last two years we have been involved in experimentation with methodologies which engage the computer in formative explorations of the design idea. Work produced from investigations by 4th and 5th year undergraduate students in computer integrated design studios that we have been teaching at the University of Southern California demonstrates the potential for the use of the computer as a principal tool in the exploration of syntax and perception, space and program. The challenge is to approach the making of architecture as an innovative act, one which does not rely on preconceived notions of design.
series CAAD Futures
email kcoleman@usc.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 8869
authors Ataman, Osman
year 2002
title Historical Analysis of Building - (Re)Construction in Olivette Park, USA
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 63-66
summary From 1959 to 1990, East St. Louis, Illinois deteriorated from an “All-American City” to a national symbol of urban blight. Located on the Mississippi River, the East St. Louis of today faces severe economic, social, and environmental problems. Nearly onequarter of the city’s work force is unemployed and about 40 percent of families are living below the poverty level. But East St. Louis was not always a distressed community. With strong ties to St. Louis and the surrounding region, East St. Louis onceflourished as the country’s second busiest railroad hub. Powerful economic and socio-political forces, as well as unfortunate historical circumstance, propelled the city into a downward spiral that drastically decreased the quality of life in East St. Louis. This paper presents the digital re-construction of the buildings and the analyses of the historical aspects of the housing construction and types in this area. Furthermore, it reports the survey and assessment of the quality of building stocks based on therevitalization plan that will provide some guidelines and suggestions for improvement, stability, and future needs.
series SIGRADI
email oataman@uiuc.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 06e1
authors Keul, Alexander
year 1996
title LOST IN SPACE? ARCHITECTURAL PSYCHOLOGY - PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary A methodological review by Kaminski (1995) summed up five perspectives in environmental psychology - patterns of spatial distribution, everyday “jigsaw puzzles”, functional everyday action systems, sociocultural change and evolution of competence. Architectural psychology (named so at the Strathclyde conference 1969; Canter, 1973) as psychology of built environments is one leg of environmental psychology, the second one being psychology of environmental protection. Architectural psychology has come of age and passed its 25th birthday. Thus, a triangulation of its position, especially in Central Europe, seems interesting and necessary. A recent survey mainly on university projects in German-speaking countries (Kruse & Trimpin, 1995) found a marked decrease of studies in psychology of built environments. 1994, 25% of all projects were reported in this category, which in 1975 had made up 40% (Kruse, 1975). Guenther, in an unpublished survey of BDP (association of professional German psychologists) members, encountered only a handful active in architectural psychology - mostly part-time, not full-time. 1996, Austria has two full-time university specialists. The discrepancy between the general interest displayed by planners and a still low institutionalization is noticeable.

How is the research situation? Using several standard research data banks, the author collected articles and book(chapter)s on architectural psychology in German- and English-language countries from 1990 to 1996. Studies on main architecture-psychology interface problems such as user needs, housing quality evaluations, participatory planning and spatial simulation / virtual reality did not outline an “old, settled” discipline, but rather the sketchy, random surface of a field “always starting anew”. E.g., discussions at the 1995 EAEA-Conference showed that several architectural simulation studies since 1973 caused no major impact on planner's opinions (Keul&Martens, 1996). “Re-inventions of the wheel” are caused by a lack of meetings (except this one!) and of interdisciplinary infrastructure in German-language countries (contrary to Sweden or the United States). Social pressures building up on architecture nowadays by inter-European competition, budget cuts and citizen activities for informed consent in most urban projects are a new challenge for planners to cooperate efficiently with social scientists. At Salzburg, the author currently manages the Corporate Design-process for the Chamber of Architecture, Division for Upper Austria and Salzburg. A “working group for architectural psychology” (Keul-Martens-Maderthaner) has been active since 1994.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
email alexander.keul@sbg.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 28c7
authors Woo, A., Poulin, P. and Fournier, A.
year 1990
title A Survey of Shadow Algorithms
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. November, 1990. vol. 10: pp. 13-32 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This survey characterizes the various types of shadows. It also describes most existing shadow algorithms and discusses their complexities, advantages, and shortcomings. The authors examine hard shadows, soft shadows, shadows of transparent objects, and shadows for complex modeling primitives. For each type, they examine shadow algorithms within various rendering techniques. This survey attempts to provide readers with enough background and insight on the various methods to allow them to choose the algorithm best suited to their needs, and to help identify areas that need more research and point to possible solutions
keywords shadowing, algorithms, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 1e3d
authors Bernard, Rusty
year 1989
title USL/State Facility Planning and Control Automation Pilot Project
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 179-192
summary State supported Universities often lend a helping hand to their state by providing services which may be difficult or impossible to acquire otherwise. This presentation reviews the process of computer aided facility management with special reference to a recently completed joint venture project to fully automate Louisiana's Facility Planning and Control services.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id 235d
authors Catalano, Fernando
year 1990
title The Computerized Design Firm
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 317-332
summary This paper is not just about the future of computerized design practice. It is about what to do today in contemplation of tomorrow-the issues of computercentered practice and the courses of action open to us can be discerned by the careful observer. The realities of computerized design practice are different from the issues on which design education still fixes its attention. To educators, the present paper recommends further clinical research on computerized design firms and suggests that case studies on the matter be developed and utilized as teaching material. Research conducted by the author of this paper indicates that a new form of design firm is emerging-the computerized design firm-totally supported and augmented by the new information technology. The present paper proceeds by introducing an abridged case study of an actual totally electronic, computerized design practice. Then, the paper concentrates on modelling the computerized design firm as an intelligent system, indicating non-trivial changes in its structure and strategy brought about by the introduction of the new information technology into its operations - among other considerations, different strategies and diverse conceptions of management and workgroup roles are highlighted. In particular, this paper points out that these structural and strategic changes reflect back on the technology of information with pressures to redirect present emphasis on the individual designer, working alone in an isolated workstation, to a more realistic conception of the designer as a member of an electronic workgroup. Finally, the paper underlines that this non-trivial conception demands that new hardware and software be developed to meet the needs of the electronic workgroup - which raises issues of human-machine interface. Further, it raises the key issues of how to represent and expose knowledge to users in intelligent information - sharing systems, designed to include not only good user interfaces for supporting problem-solving activities of individuals, but also good organizational interfaces for supporting the problem-solving activities of groups. The paper closes by charting promising directions for further research and with a few remarks about the computerized design firm's (near) future.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e1c9
authors Danahy, John and Wright, Robert
year 1989
title Computing and Design in the Canadian Schools of Architecture and Landscape Architecture: A Proposed Research Agenda for Integrated CAD & GIS in the 1990's
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 227-244
summary Conventional computer systems currently used by architecture and landscape architecture are not addressing complex decision making, system interface, dynamic manipulation and real time visualization of data. This paper identifies a strategy by which Canadian Schools could form a supportive network, incorporate and expand their research development. Within this larger framework schools would have better tools, a larger research base and access to funding as a group. The following discussion is an idea of what we at the Canadian Schools need to do differently over the next five years in our research and teaching in order to make a unique contribution to our fields.
series ACADIA
email jwdanahy@rogers.com
last changed 2003/04/26 19:42

_id e33a
authors De Cola, S., De Cola, B. and Pentasuglia, Francesco
year 1990
title Messina 1908: The Invisible City
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 239-246
summary The initial purposes of this work were to build a 3D model of the old city of Messina and to reconstruct a walk through it; to understand the "Ghost city," the parts that form it, and the rules of its plan, which are explicit in some cases but hidden most of the time; to measure its space, appreciate the similarities to and differences from modern city plans, and use the information to improve the plans of tomorrow. It might seem a useless study of a nonexistent city, and yet during the months of detailed work, of patient reconstruction from the surveys and photographs of the city destroyed in 1908, we began to consider how it was still possible to obtain spatial values of and to project behaviors in the lost city, in other words, to practice tests on memory that are very interesting for people working in a context in which memory no longer exists. The work presented here is the first stage of a more complex research project still to be carried out on Messina as it was at the end of the nineteenth century. Here we constructed a 3D model of some parts of the city prior to the earthquake of 1908 and made a five-minute video, using cartoon techniques, of an "impossible" walk through the city. The fragments of the city were reconstructed from available documentary sources, primarily photographic images, which tended to be of the most important places in the city.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id b66a
authors Dvorak, Robert W.
year 1989
title CAD Tools for Systems Theory and Bottom Up Design
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 209-226
summary The use of CAD is investigated in the teaching of systems theory to a fourth year group of design students. A comparison is made between the CAD group using MacArchitrion and a non-CAD group using traditional design methods. The paper includes a discussion of the meaning of systems design theories, relates the CAD and non-CAD student design methods and illustrates the results. It also includes recommendations for improvements so the computer can become more effective in this type of design teaching. Finally, it concludes with recommendations from the students at the end of the semester project. The basic premise for the CAD design group is that computers should encourage students to understand and use systems design theory.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:27

_id 68c8
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R. and Fenves, S. (et al.)
year 1994
title SEED: A Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design
source Proceeding of IKM '94, Weimar, Germany, pp. 5-10
summary The SEED project intends to develop a software environment that supports the early phases in building design (Flemming et al., 1993). The goal is to provide support, in principle, for the preliminary design of buildings in all aspects that can gain from computer support. This includes using the computer not only for analysis and evaluation, but also more actively for the generation of designs, or more accurately, for the rapid generation of design representations. A major motivation for the development of SEED is to bring the results of two multi-generational research efforts focusing on `generative' design systems closer to practice: 1. LOOS/ABLOOS, a generative system for the synthesis of layouts of rectangles (Flemming et al., 1988; Flemming, 1989; Coyne and Flemming, 1990; Coyne, 1991); 2. GENESIS, a rule-based system that supports the generation of assemblies of 3-dimensional solids (Heisserman, 1991; Heisserman and Woodbury, 1993). The rapid generation of design representations can take advantage of special opportunities when it deals with a recurring building type, that is, a building type dealt with frequently by the users of the system. Design firms - from housing manufacturers to government agencies - accumulate considerable experience with recurring building types. But current CAD systems capture this experience and support its reuse only marginally. SEED intends to provide systematic support for the storing and retrieval of past solutions and their adaptation to similar problem situations. This motivation aligns aspects of SEED closely with current work in Artificial Intelligence that focuses on case-based design (see, for example, Kolodner, 1991; Domeshek and Kolodner, 1992; Hua et al., 1992).
series other
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id a21e
authors Gero, John S.
year 1990
title A Locus for Knowledge-Based Systems in CAAD Education
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 49-60
summary This paper outlines a possible locus for knowledge- based systems in computer-aided architectural design education. It commences with a review of computer-aided architectural design and knowledge-based systems. It then proposes their use at various stages in CAAD education.
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ab63
authors Gross, Mark D.
year 1990
title Relational Modeling: A Basis for Computer-Assisted Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 123-136
summary Today's computer assisted design (CAD) systems automate traditional ways of working with tracing paper and pencil, but they cannot represent the rules and relationships of a design. As hardware becomes faster and memory less expensive, more sophisticated fundamental software technologies will be adopted. This shift in the basis of CAD will provide powerful capabilities and offer new ways to think about designing. Recently parametric design, a technique for describing a large class of designs with a small description in code, has become a focus of attention in architectural computing. In parametric CAD systems, design features are identified and keyed to a number of input variables. Changes in the input values result in variations of the basic design. Based on conventional software technologies, parametric design has been successfully applied in many design domains including architecture and is supported by several commercial CAD packages. A weakness of parametric techniques is the need to predetermine which properties are input parameters to be varied and which are to be derived. Relational modeling is a simple and powerful extension of parametric design that overcomes this weakness. By viewing relations as reversible rather than one-way, any set of properties can be chosen as input parameters. For example, a relational model that calculates the shadow length of a given building can also be used to calculate the building height given a desired shadow length. In exercising a relational model the designer is not limited to a pre-selected set of input variables but can explore and experiment freely with changes in all parts of the model. Co is a relational modeling environment under development on the Macintosh-II computer, and Co-Draw, a prototype CAD program based on Co. Co's relationaI engine and object-oriented database provide a powerful basis for modeling design relations. Co-Draw's interactive graphics offer a flexible medium for design exploration. Co provides tools for viewing and editing design models in various representations, including spreadsheet cards, tree and graph structures, as well as plan and elevation graphics. Co's concepts and architecture are described and the implications for design education are discussed.
series CAAD Futures
email mdgross@u.washington.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id c0a3
authors Harfmann, Anton C. and Chen, Stuart S.
year 1989
title Component Based Computer Aided Learning for Students of Architecture and Civil Engineering
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 193-208
summary The paper describes the methodology and the current efforts to develop an interdisciplinary computer aided learning system for architects and civil engineers. The system being developed incorporates a component oriented relational database with an existing interactive 3-dimensional modeling system developed in the School of Architecture and Planning at SUNY Buffalo. The software will be used in existing courses in architecture and civil engineering as a teaching aid to help students understand the complex 3-dimensional interrelationships of structural components. Initial implementation has focused on the modeling of the components and assemblies for a lowrise steel frame structure. Current implementation efforts are focusing on the capability to view connections in various ways including the ability to "explode" a connection to better understand the sequence of construction and load paths. Appropriate codes, limit states of failure and specific data will be linked to each specific component in an expert system shell so that the system can offer feedback about a student generated connection and perhaps offer other possible connections a library of standard connections. Future expansion of the system will include adding other "systems" of a building, such as mechanical, electrical, plumbing, enclosure etc., to help students visualize the integration of the various parts.
series ACADIA
email HARFMAAC@UCMAIL.UC.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 4cf3
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1989
title Modeling Objects and Environments
source xix, 402 p. : ill. New York: Wiley, 1989. includes a short bibliography and index. Part of the Principles of Computer Aided Design series. --- See also review by Patricia G
summary McIntosh, in ACADIA Newsletter Vol. 9 No. 3 pp 20-23, June 1990. This book introduces the concept of modeling objects in the computer's memory so it can be used to aide the process of their design. Modeling is defined as an hierarchical abstraction of data and operators to manipulate it, subject to semantic integrity constraints that guarantee the realizability of the designed artifact in the real world. Starting with general concepts of modeling, the book moves on to discuss the modeling of shapes (form) in two and in three dimensions. The discussion covers both topology and geometry. Next the book introduces the concept of shape transformations (translation, scaling, rotation, etc.), both in absolute and in relative terms. The book then introduces the concept of assembly modeling, and adds non-graphical attributes to the representation. It concludes with a discussion on user interface and parametrization. The book includes many examples written in Pascal that complement the theory, and can be used as a basis for building a geometric modeling engine. It also includes exercises, so it can be used as a text book for a two-semester advance course in geometric modeling
keywords CAD, data structures, solid modeling, abstraction, polygons, solids, boolean operations, transforms, computer graphics, user interface, parametrization, B-rep, polyhedra, objects, PASCAL
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 67a9
authors Lawson, Stephen
year 1989
title In the Eye of the Beholder: A Proposal to Further the Critical Framework of Computer Graphics in Architectural Design
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 147-157
summary This paper speculates on some of the inherent differences between computer graphics and conventional media when used in architectural design. It suggests that a lot of work and thought has gone into developing computer graphics as a medium for the development and expression of architectural ideas and examines some of the reasons that the fruits of this labor have been slow to fmd their way into the mainstream of the profession. This slowness to embrace rapidly developing technologies seems to be resulting in an ever widening gap between potential and the mainstream practice.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id 8ca2
authors Miller, Frank C.
year 1990
title Form Processing Workshop: Architectural Design and Solid Modeling at MIT
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 441-455
summary Computing impacts the preliminary architectural design process as a tool for observation and analysis, as a formal prototyping tool, and as a vehicle to generate variations of objects and assemblies. Through the use of both traditional and computing tools, the Form Processing Workshop examines the relationship between design decisions and design tools. The Workshop utilizes several software applications, with emphasis on the use of a solid modeler. This curriculum was developed with the support of MIT's Project Athena.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e91f
authors Mitchell, W.J., Liggett, R.S. and Tan, M.
year 1990
title Top-Down Knowledge-Based Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 137-148
summary Traditional computer drafting systems and three- dimensional geometric modeling systems work in bottom-up fashion. They provide a range of graphic primitives, such as vectors, arcs, and splines, together with operators for inserting, deleting, combining, and transforming instances of these. Thus they are conceptually very similar to word processors, with the difference that they operate on two- dimensional or three-dimensional patterns of graphic primitives rather than one-dimensional strings of characters. This sort of system is effective for input and editing of drawings or models that represent existing designs, but provides little more help than a pencil when you want to construct from scratch a drawing of some complex object such as a human figure, an automobile, or a classical column: you must depend on your own knowledge of what the pieces are and how to shape them and put them together. If you already know how to draw something then a computer drafting system will help you to do so efficiently, but if you do not know how to begin, or how to develop and refine the drawing, then the efficiency that you gain is of little practical consequence. And accelerated performance, flashier color graphics, or futuristic three-dimensional modes of interaction will not help with this problem at all. By contrast, experienced expert graphic artists and designers usually work in top-down fashion-beginning with a very schematic sketch of the whole object, then refining this, in step-by-step fashion, till the requisite level of precision and completeness is reached. For example, a figure drawing might begin as a "stick figure" schema showing lengths and angles of limbs, then be developed to show the general blocking of masses, and finally be resolved down to the finest details of contour and surface. Similarly, an architectural drawing might begin as a parti showing just a skeleton of construction lines, then be developed into a single-line floor plan, then a plan showing accurate wall thicknesses and openings, and finally a fully developed and detailed drawing.
series CAAD Futures
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

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