CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 258

_id 450c
authors Akin, Φmer
year 1990
title Computational Design Instruction: Toward a Pedagogy
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 302-316
summary The computer offers enormous potential both in and out of the classroom that is realized only in limited ways through the applications available to us today. In the early days of the computer it was generally argued that it would replace the architect. When this idea became obsolete, the prevailing opinion of proponents and opponents alike shifted to the notion of the computer as merely adding to present design capabilities. This idea is so ingrained in our thinking that we still speak of "aiding" design with computers. It is clear to those who grasp the real potential of this still new technology - as in the case of many other major technological innovations - that it continues to change the way we design, rather than to merely augment or replace human designers. In the classroom the computer has the potential to radically change three fundamental ingredients: student, instruction, and instructor. It is obvious that changes of this kind spell out a commensurate change in design pedagogy. If the computer is going to be more than a passive instrument in the design studio, then design pedagogy will have to be changed, fundamentally. While the practice of computing in the studio continues to be a significant I aspect of architectural education, articulation of viable pedagogy for use in the design studio is truly rare. In this paper the question of pedagogy in the CAD studio will be considered first. Then one particular design studio taught during Fall 1988 at Carnegie Mellon University will be presented. Finally, we shall return to issues of change in the student, instruction, and instructor, as highlighted by this particular experience.
series CAAD Futures
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 235d
authors Catalano, Fernando
year 1990
title The Computerized Design Firm
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 317-332
summary This paper is not just about the future of computerized design practice. It is about what to do today in contemplation of tomorrow-the issues of computercentered practice and the courses of action open to us can be discerned by the careful observer. The realities of computerized design practice are different from the issues on which design education still fixes its attention. To educators, the present paper recommends further clinical research on computerized design firms and suggests that case studies on the matter be developed and utilized as teaching material. Research conducted by the author of this paper indicates that a new form of design firm is emerging-the computerized design firm-totally supported and augmented by the new information technology. The present paper proceeds by introducing an abridged case study of an actual totally electronic, computerized design practice. Then, the paper concentrates on modelling the computerized design firm as an intelligent system, indicating non-trivial changes in its structure and strategy brought about by the introduction of the new information technology into its operations - among other considerations, different strategies and diverse conceptions of management and workgroup roles are highlighted. In particular, this paper points out that these structural and strategic changes reflect back on the technology of information with pressures to redirect present emphasis on the individual designer, working alone in an isolated workstation, to a more realistic conception of the designer as a member of an electronic workgroup. Finally, the paper underlines that this non-trivial conception demands that new hardware and software be developed to meet the needs of the electronic workgroup - which raises issues of human-machine interface. Further, it raises the key issues of how to represent and expose knowledge to users in intelligent information - sharing systems, designed to include not only good user interfaces for supporting problem-solving activities of individuals, but also good organizational interfaces for supporting the problem-solving activities of groups. The paper closes by charting promising directions for further research and with a few remarks about the computerized design firm's (near) future.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 8775
authors Cigolle, Mark and Coleman, Kim
year 1990
title Computer Integrated Design: Transformation as Process
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 333-346
summary To bring together poetry, magic and science, to explore beyond preconceptions, to invent spaces and forms which re-form and inform man's experience, these are the possibilities of architecture. Computer integrated design offers a means for extending the search, one which integrates both conceptual and perceptual issues in the making of architecture. The computer may assist in generating constructs which would not have been created by conventional methods. The application of computer techniques to design has to date been focused primarily on production aspects, an area which is already highly organizable and communicable. In conceptual and perceptual aspects of design, computer techniques remain underdeveloped. Since the impetus for- the development of computer applications has come from the immediate economics of practice rather than a theoretically based strategy, computer-aided design is currently biased toward the replication of conventional techniques rather than the exploration of new potentials. Over the last two years we have been involved in experimentation with methodologies which engage the computer in formative explorations of the design idea. Work produced from investigations by 4th and 5th year undergraduate students in computer integrated design studios that we have been teaching at the University of Southern California demonstrates the potential for the use of the computer as a principal tool in the exploration of syntax and perception, space and program. The challenge is to approach the making of architecture as an innovative act, one which does not rely on preconceived notions of design.
series CAAD Futures
email kcoleman@usc.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 417a
authors Cipriani, R., Lagomarsino, A.D., Stagnaro, A., Valenti, E. and Sambolino, T.
year 1990
title Some Years' Experience Teaching CAAD
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 347-361
summary In the conventional way of teaching architecture, it is common to think of design as the final synthesis of an intellectual process (composizione in Italian) integrating different elements from different curriculum subjects: history, structural analysis., technology, regional and urban planning, and so on. These elements, being comprehensive of their specific domains, together build the project. This process is supported by a long traditional that cannot easily be modified; however, we must not consider it to be the only one. Architectural practice should be much more. The Scuole di Architettura has walked a long and difficult road in the last thirty years., with a significant widening of interest in social, political, and economic issues. There have been recurring attempts at epistemological reformulation in some areas. There has been an acknowledgment of a crisis in contemporary town planning and a dimming of several certitudes that had developed with the birth and growth of the modernist school. And there has been a weakening of the promises that had given life to the vigorous discussion about town and regional planning. All of this leads to a reconsideration of the meaning and the deeper assumptions that the project implies, a question mark at the center of the human sciences that architectural practice involves. The old tradition., which assigned composition a central role in the project, is no longer sufficient because it is related to a reductive reading of epistemology that views human sciences as defining segments of physical knowledge of the actual world. Contemporary reflection on the difference between understanding and unfolding, together with the attention given to interpreting a moment as compared to purely describing one, gives to the project the task of inquiry instead of solution.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 8435
authors Coyne, Richard D.
year 1990
title Tools for Exploring Associative Reasoning in Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 91-106
summary Two tools for storing and recalling information in computer systems are discussed and demonstrated in relation to design. The tools are hypermedia and neural networks. Each provides a valuable model for reasoning by the association of ideas.
series CAAD Futures
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id a235
authors Danahy, John W.
year 1990
title Irises in a Landscape: An Experiment in Dynamic Interaction and Teaching Design Studio
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 363-376
summary The capacity of most computer-aided design systems is inadequate to represent landscape architectural ideas and compute landscape scenes quickly. As part of our teaching agenda, we decided to write software for the Silicon Graphics Iris workstations to tackle this problem directly. This paper begins with a discussion of our concerns about the use of CAD tools in the representation of landscape architectural space. Secondly, we discuss the approach that Toronto takes to computing and teaching with particular emphasis on the use of computers to support an integrated representational work environment. Finally, a fourth-year design studio that used our software is reviewed. Static illustrations of the system are presented here, although there is a videotape that demonstrates the dynamic nature of the system.
series CAAD Futures
email jwdanahy@rogers.com
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 298e
authors Dave, Bharat and Woodbury, Robert
year 1990
title Computer Modeling: A First Course in Design Computing
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 61-76
summary Computation in design has long been a focus in our department. In recent years our faculty has paid particular attention to the use of computation in professional architectural education. The result is a shared vision of computers in the curriculum [Woodbury 1985] and a set of courses, some with considerable historyland others just now being initiated. We (Dave and Woodbury) have jointly developed and at various times over the last seven years have taught Computer Modeling, the most introductory of these courses. This is a required course for all the incoming freshmen students in the department. In this paper we describe Computer Modeling: its context, the issues and topics it addresses, the tasks it requires of students, and the questions and opportunities that it raises. Computer Modeling is a course about concepts, about ways of explicitly understanding design and its relation to computation. Procedural skills and algorithmic problem solving techniques are given only secondary emphasis. In essential terms, the course is about models, of design processes, of designed objects, of computation and of computational design. Its lessons are intended to communicate a structure of such models to students and through this structure to demonstrate a relationship between computation and design. It is hoped that this structure can be used as a framework, around which students can continue to develop an understanding of computers in design.
series CAAD Futures
email b.dave@unimelb.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id e33a
authors De Cola, S., De Cola, B. and Pentasuglia, Francesco
year 1990
title Messina 1908: The Invisible City
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 239-246
summary The initial purposes of this work were to build a 3D model of the old city of Messina and to reconstruct a walk through it; to understand the "Ghost city," the parts that form it, and the rules of its plan, which are explicit in some cases but hidden most of the time; to measure its space, appreciate the similarities to and differences from modern city plans, and use the information to improve the plans of tomorrow. It might seem a useless study of a nonexistent city, and yet during the months of detailed work, of patient reconstruction from the surveys and photographs of the city destroyed in 1908, we began to consider how it was still possible to obtain spatial values of and to project behaviors in the lost city, in other words, to practice tests on memory that are very interesting for people working in a context in which memory no longer exists. The work presented here is the first stage of a more complex research project still to be carried out on Messina as it was at the end of the nineteenth century. Here we constructed a 3D model of some parts of the city prior to the earthquake of 1908 and made a five-minute video, using cartoon techniques, of an "impossible" walk through the city. The fragments of the city were reconstructed from available documentary sources, primarily photographic images, which tended to be of the most important places in the city.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id c2ed
authors De Vries, Mark and Wagter, Harry
year 1990
title A CAAD Model for Use in Early Design Phases
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 215-228
summary In this paper we present a model for handling design information in the early design phases. This model can be used for representing both vague and exact defined information. The first part describes the difficulties involved in using CAD in the architectural design process and the characteristics of that process. Then we give a description of the design information and its representation during the design process. Next an overview of the architectural design process describes how design information is added and manipulated during the design process in order to achieve an effective result. Finally, we include a brief description of a simple prototype program to illustrate how this theory acts in practice.
series CAAD Futures
email Harry.Wagter@brighthouse.nl
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 0f73
authors Ervin, Stephen M.
year 1990
title Designing with Diagrams: A Role for Computing in Design Education and Exploration
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 107-122
summary Environmental designers, design educators and design students using computers are a constituency with a set of requirements for database structure and flexibility, for knowledge representation and inference mechanisms, and for both graphical and non-graphical operations, that are now articulatable and to-date largely unmet. This is especially so in the area called 'preliminary' or 'schematic' design, where our requirements are related to, but different from, those of our colleagues in mechanical and electrical engineering, whose needs have dominated the notable developments in this area. One manifestation of these needs is in the peculiar form of graphics called diagrams , and the ways in which environmental designers (architects, landscape architects., urban designers) use them. Our diagrams are both similar to and different from structural, circuit, or logical diagrams in important ways. These similarities and differences yield basic insights into designing and design knowledge, and provide guidance for some necessary steps in the development of the next generation of CAD systems. Diagrams as a form of knowledge representation have received little scrutiny in the literature of graphic representation and computer graphics. In the following sections I present an overview of the theoretical basis for distinguishing and using diagrams; examine some of the computational requirements for a system of computer-aided diagramming; describe a prototype implementation called CBD (Constraint Based Diagrammer) and illustrate one example of its use; and speculate on the implications and potential applications of these ideas in computer-aided design education.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id a672
authors Flemming, Ulrich
year 1990
title Syntactic Structures in Architecture: Teaching Composition with Computer Assistance
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 31-48
summary The present paper outlines a plan for the teaching of architectural composition with computer assistance.The approach is to introduce students to a series of architectural languages characterized by a vocabulary of elements and a grammar whose rules indicate how these elements can be placed in space. Exercises with each language include the analysis of precedents; the generation of forms using a given rule set; and follow-up studies with an expanded rule set. The paper introduces languages and exercises through illustrative examples. This architectural content can be taught in the traditional way. The use of computers is motivated by expectations which are stated, and some basic requirements for the needed software are listed. Work to develop this software has started.
series CAAD Futures
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/02/26 16:24

_id 63c7
authors Fox, C. William
year 1990
title Integrating Computing into an Architectural Undergraduate Program
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 377-386
summary This paper will discuss the process of integrating computing into the undergraduate architectural program at Temple University. It will address the selection and use of hardware and software consistent with the issues and concerns of introducing a new tool to expand the repertoire of skills available to students for use in the design process.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 2613
authors Frew, Robert S.
year 1990
title The Organization of CAD Teaching in Design Schools
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 387-392
summary This paper is the result of a survey of European CAD teaching that was conducted in 1987 and 1988. It makes comparisons with teaching at the Yale School of Architecture, and goes on to analyze the issues that should be addressed in a CAD program in a school of architecture.
series CAAD Futures
email frewr1@southernct.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id a21e
authors Gero, John S.
year 1990
title A Locus for Knowledge-Based Systems in CAAD Education
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 49-60
summary This paper outlines a possible locus for knowledge- based systems in computer-aided architectural design education. It commences with a review of computer-aided architectural design and knowledge-based systems. It then proposes their use at various stages in CAAD education.
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ab63
authors Gross, Mark D.
year 1990
title Relational Modeling: A Basis for Computer-Assisted Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 123-136
summary Today's computer assisted design (CAD) systems automate traditional ways of working with tracing paper and pencil, but they cannot represent the rules and relationships of a design. As hardware becomes faster and memory less expensive, more sophisticated fundamental software technologies will be adopted. This shift in the basis of CAD will provide powerful capabilities and offer new ways to think about designing. Recently parametric design, a technique for describing a large class of designs with a small description in code, has become a focus of attention in architectural computing. In parametric CAD systems, design features are identified and keyed to a number of input variables. Changes in the input values result in variations of the basic design. Based on conventional software technologies, parametric design has been successfully applied in many design domains including architecture and is supported by several commercial CAD packages. A weakness of parametric techniques is the need to predetermine which properties are input parameters to be varied and which are to be derived. Relational modeling is a simple and powerful extension of parametric design that overcomes this weakness. By viewing relations as reversible rather than one-way, any set of properties can be chosen as input parameters. For example, a relational model that calculates the shadow length of a given building can also be used to calculate the building height given a desired shadow length. In exercising a relational model the designer is not limited to a pre-selected set of input variables but can explore and experiment freely with changes in all parts of the model. Co is a relational modeling environment under development on the Macintosh-II computer, and Co-Draw, a prototype CAD program based on Co. Co's relationaI engine and object-oriented database provide a powerful basis for modeling design relations. Co-Draw's interactive graphics offer a flexible medium for design exploration. Co provides tools for viewing and editing design models in various representations, including spreadsheet cards, tree and graph structures, as well as plan and elevation graphics. Co's concepts and architecture are described and the implications for design education are discussed.
series CAAD Futures
email mdgross@u.washington.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id c903
authors Mark, Earl
year 1990
title Case Studies in Moviemaking and Computer-Aided Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 393-412
summary A movie which is developed from site location video, sync sound, and computer graphics animation can provide a highly convincing simulation of reality. A movie that conveys a sense of the space, materials and juxtaposition of objects of a proposed architectural design provides a special kind of realism, where the representation may be of a proposed building that exists only within the mind of an architect. For an experienced architect, however, the movie may not provide a good surrogate experience for what it feels like to actually be within the architectural space. In these case studies, a few projects that combine moviemaking and computer-aided design technologies are examined. These projects were completed using a combination of resources at the MIT School of Architecture and Planning and the Harvard Graduate School of Design. The integrated use of these media is presented as conceptualized with the Electronic Design Studio, a research project that has been supported over the past five years by Project Athena at MIT. The impact of movies and computer-aided design on the perception of architectural space is also reported- based on a pilot study of twenty architectural students.
series CAAD Futures
email ejmark@virginia.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 49a8
authors McCall, R., Fischer, G. and Morch, A.
year 1990
title Supporting Reflection-in-Action in the Janus Design Environment
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 247-259
summary We have developed a computer-based design aid called Janus, which is based on a model of computer-supported design that we think has significance for the future of architectural education. Janus utilizes a knowledge-based approach to link a graphic construction system to hypertext. This allows the computer to make useful comments on the solutions that students construct in a CAD-like environment. These comments contain information intended to make students think more carefully about what they are doing while they are doing it. In other words, Janus promotes what Donald Schon has called "reflection-inaction" (Schon, 1983). The Janus design environment is named for the Roman god with a pair of faces looking in opposite directions. In our case the faces correspond to complementary design activities we call construction and argumentation. Construction is the activity of graphically creating the form of the solution e.g., a building. Traditionally this has been done with tracing paper, pencils, and pens. Argumentation is the activity of reasoning about the problem and its solution. This includes such things as considering what to do next, what alternative courses of action are available, and which course of action to choose. Argumentation is mostly verbal but partly graphical.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 8bf3
authors McCullough, M., Mitchell, W.J. and Purcell, P. (Eds.)
year 1990
title The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [Conference Proceedings]
source International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design 1989/ ISBN 0-262-13254-0] (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, 505 p.
summary Design is the computation of shape information that is needed to guide fabrication or construction of artifacts. But it is not so straightforward as, say, the computation of numerical information required to balance a checkbook. This is partly because algebras of shapes are not as well understood and precisely formalized as algebras of numbers, partly because the rules for carrying out shape computations tend to be fluid and ill defined and partly because the predicates that must be satisfied to achieve successful termination are often complex and difficult to specify. For centuries architects have carried out shape computations by hand, using informal procedures and the simplest of tools. Over the last two decades though, they have made increasing use of more formal procedures executed by computers. It is still too early to be sure of the gains and losses that follow from this development, but there is no doubt that it raises some challenging questions of architectural theory and some perplexing issues for those concerned with the future of architectural education. This book frames those issues and provides a diversity of perspectives on them. Its contents were initially presented at the CAAD Futures 89 Conference-an international gathering of researchers and teachers in the field of computer-aided architectural design which was jointly sponsored by the Harvard Graduate School of Design and the MIT Department of Architecture and held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in July 1989. There are four major sections: Theoretical Foundations, Knowledge-Based Design Tools, Information Delivery Systems, and Case Studies: Electronic Media in the Design Studio. In a representative collection of current views, over thirty extensively illustrated papers discuss the experiences of universities in the USA, Europe, Japan, Israel, Canada, and Australia, articulate present theoretical and practical concerns, provide criticism of media and methods, and suggest directions for the future. Architectural educators and architects concerned with the effect of computer technology on the design process will find here an indispensable reference and a rich source of ideas. This book was itself prepared in an electronic design studio. Composition and typography, most image collection and placement, and such editing as was practical within this publishing format, were all performed digitally using Macintosh computers at the Harvard Graduate School of Design during a period of a few weeks in 1989.
series CAAD Futures
email mmmc@umich.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ac36
authors McCullough, Malcolm
year 1990
title Low-Threshold Modeling
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 413-426
summary This is a case study of teaching at the University of Texas at Austin. It is about using an electronic design studio to provide architecture students with their first exposure to computing. It suggests that, despite the limitations of present technology, there is reason to lower the thresholds to computer-aided design. The study presents a studio which attempted such by allowing students to find their own level of commitment to use of electronic media for geometric modeling. More generally, the paper aims to document issues presently facing the many professional schools not having substantial traditions in computer-aided design education.
series CAAD Futures
email mmmc@umich.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 07aa
authors McIntosh, John and Pihlak, Madis
year 1990
title The Thousand-Acre Sketch Problem
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 427-440
summary An unusually large sketch problem in urban design was given to an undergraduate studio class to introduce visualization techniques and to explore fundamental urban design principles. This thousand-acre sketch problem was distributed to students on a floppy disk as a three- dimensional computer model. The availability of a large number of Macintosh IIs and access to a pre-release version of the three-dimensional modeling program ModelShop allowed us to conduct this prototype electronic studio. This paper looks at the productivity gains experienced by our students during this project and discusses the increased level of understanding witnessed in student performance. More importantly, this sketch problem is examined as a philosophical parable for several pedagogical issues of design education in the microcomputer age.
series CAAD Futures
email john.mcintosh@asu.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

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