CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 969c
authors Barnes, Thomas
year 1990
title Dynamic Interaction of Solids as a Design Tool
source From Research to Practice [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, pp. 29-40
summary Architectural form and order can sometimes be described as having dynamic characteristics. To capitalize on this notion, physical qualities (mass, velocity, material elasticity, and friction) are given to objects. The objects are set in motion and allowed to interact at will with each other and their environment. The physical qualities are the rules that govern the outcome of interactions. As a result, interactions can lead to affine transformations (translate, scale, rotate), reformations (topological editing), and/or deformations (geometrical editing) of the objects. The designer can investigate the effects of interaction between dynamic elements, vary their physical qualities, and evaluate the appropriateness of the outcome as a solution to the design problem.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 84c3
authors Blinn, James F.
year 1990
title The Ultimate Design Tool
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. November, 1990. vol. 10: pp. 90-92
summary Paper and pen(cil)? Some thoughts on the ultimate design tool
keywords design, computer graphics, drafting
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 6a30
authors Bonn, Markus
year 1989
title Modeling Architectural Forms through Replacement Operations
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 103-130
summary Replacement operations, where an element at any topological level may be replaced by another element at the same or different topological level, are defined. Their potential as design tools which may be incorporated in a CAD system is investigated and demonstrated through the experimental implementation of two such operations in MARCOS, a Modeling Architectural Compositions System. MARCOS has been written in C. It is highly interactive and runs on an Apple Macintosh IIx. The two operations which have been implemented are the face -> volume and volume -> volume replacements. They were chosen for their potential as generators of architectural forms. Examples of architectural compositions produced through the use of replacement operations are also illustrated.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss9219
id ddss9219
authors Bourdakis, V. and Fellows, R.F.
year 1993
title A model appraising the performance of structural systems used in sports hall and swimming pool buildings in greece
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The selection of the best performing structural system (among steel, timber laminated, concrete, fabric tents) for medium span (30-50m) sports halls and swimming pools in Greece formed the impetus for this research. Decision-making concerning selection of the structural system is difficult in this sector of construction, as was explained in the "Long Span Structures" conference (November 1990, Athens. Greece). From the literature it has been found that most building appraisals end up at the level of data analysis and draw conclusions on the individual aspects they investigate. These approaches usually focus on a fraction of the problem, examining it very deeply and theoretically. Their drawback is loss of comprehensiveness and ability to draw conclusions on an overall level and consequently being applicable to the existing conditions. Research on an inclusive level is sparse. In this particular research project, an inclusive appraisal approach was adopted, leading to the identification of three main variables: resources, human-user-satisfaction, and technical. Consequently, this led to a combination of purely quantitative and qualitative data. Case studies were conducted on existing buildings in order to assess the actual performance of the various alternative structural systems. This paper presents the procedure followed for the identification of the research variables and the focus on the development of the model of quantification. The latter is of vital importance if the problem of incompatibility of data is to be solved, overall relation of findings is to be achieved and holistic conclusions are to be drawn.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 64b2
authors Brown, G. Z.
year 1990
title Desirable Interface Characteristics of Knowledge-Based Energy Software Used by Architects
source March, 1990. 14 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper describes ongoing research projects on the development of user interfaces for energy software to be used by architects. The paper takes the position that the goal of knowledge-based design software should be to help the architect to visualize the unimagined. In order to approach this goal the unique characteristics of the architectural design process must be understood and used in the creation of software. The two characteristics discussed are: the architectural design process emphasizes synthesis rather than analysis, and the symbols used to transmit knowledge are primarily graphic abstractions rather than alpha-numeric abstractions
keywords user interface, architecture, design process, knowledge base, software, energy
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8927
authors Brown, G.Z., McDonald, M. and Meacham, M.
year 1990
title A Review of Computer Use in Industrialized Housing
source October, 1990. 72 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The U.S. housing industry is becoming increasingly industrialized. In the process, housing production is becoming more standardized and rationalized, which have the potential to make computerization of the production process easier. This report reviews, assess and documents the extent of computer use in marketing, design, engineering and manufacturing of industrialized housing. Compares and contrasts the state of the art in U.S. vs. Japan and Western Europe. It assess and documents the needs of the domestic industry in this field, and establishes design criteria for new computerized energy tools unique to industrialized housing
keywords prefabrication, housing, CAD, practice, building, energy, management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id abc9
authors Campbell, A.T. and Fussell, D.S.
year 1990
title Adaptive Mesh Generation for Global Diffuse Illumination
source Computer Graphics Proc. SIGGRAPH 90 Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug. 1990, pp. 155-164
summary Rapid developments in the design of algorithms for rendering globally illuminated scenes have taken place in the past five years. Net energy methods such as the hemicube and other radiosity algorithms have become very effective a t computing the energy balance for scenes containing diffusely reflecting objects. Such methods first break up a scene description into a relatively large number of elements, or possibly sev- eral levels of elements. Energy transfers among these ele- ments are then determined using a variety of means. While much progress has been made in the design of energy transfer algorithms, little or no attention has been paid to the proper generation of the mesh of surface elements. This pa- per presents a technique for adaptively creating a mesh of surface elements as the energy transfers are computed. The method allows large numbers of small elements to be placed at parts of the scene where the most active energy trans- fers occur without requiring that other parts of the scene be needlessly subdivided to the same degree. As a result, the computational effort in the energy transfer computations can be concentrated where it has the most effect. CR Categories and Subject Descriptors: 1.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation-Display algorithms. 1.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism. General Terms: Algorithms Additional Key Words and Phrases: global illumination, radiosity, mesh-generation, diffuse, data structure, incremental.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 48fc
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1990
title Knowledge Assistant in the Process of Architectural Design
source Building and Environment. 1990. 39 p. includes bibliography
summary The article illustrates a methodological approach for the realization of a knowledge-based assistant for building and architectural design. The system is based on the concepts of constraint propagation, and uses the formal method of frames. The aim of the system is to cooperate 'interactively' with the designer in the various phases of this work
keywords knowledge base, architecture, CAD, building, design, frames
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id caadria2011_061
id caadria2011_061
authors Celani, Gabriela; José P. Duarte and Carlos V. Vaz
year 2011
title The gardens revisited: The link between technology, meaning and logic?
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 643-652
summary The objective of this paper is to compare the computational concepts present in three books published by Mitchell between 1987 and 1990: The art of computer-graphics programming (1987), which has Robin Liggett and Thomas Kvan as co-authors, The logic of architecture (1990), probably his most influential work, and The poetics of gardens (1988), which has Charles Moore and William Turnbull as coauthors. By looking at the concepts that are presented in the three books and establishing a comparison between them, we expect to show that The poetics of Gardens should not be seen as a detour from Mitchell´s line of research, but rather as a key piece for understanding the relationship between technology, meaning and logic in his very coherent body of work.
keywords Computational design concepts; technology; meaning; logic
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id 91c4
authors Checkland, P.
year 1981
title Systems Thinking, Systems Practice
source John Wiley & Sons, Chichester
summary Whether by design, accident or merely synchronicity, Checkland appears to have developed a habit of writing seminal publications near the start of each decade which establish the basis and framework for systems methodology research for that decade."" Hamish Rennie, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 1992 Thirty years ago Peter Checkland set out to test whether the Systems Engineering (SE) approach, highly successful in technical problems, could be used by managers coping with the unfolding complexities of organizational life. The straightforward transfer of SE to the broader situations of management was not possible, but by insisting on a combination of systems thinking strongly linked to real-world practice Checkland and his collaborators developed an alternative approach - Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) - which enables managers of all kinds and at any level to deal with the subtleties and confusions of the situations they face. This work established the now accepted distinction between hard systems thinking, in which parts of the world are taken to be systems which can be engineered, and soft systems thinking in which the focus is on making sure the process of inquiry into real-world complexity is itself a system for learning. Systems Thinking, Systems Practice (1981) and Soft Systems Methodology in Action (1990) together with an earlier paper Towards a Systems-based Methodology for Real-World Problem Solving (1972) have long been recognized as classics in the field. Now Peter Checkland has looked back over the three decades of SSM development, brought the account of it up to date, and reflected on the whole evolutionary process which has produced a mature SSM. SSM: A 30-Year Retrospective, here included with Systems Thinking, Systems Practice closes a chapter on what is undoubtedly the most significant single research programme on the use of systems ideas in problem solving. Now retired from full-time university work, Peter Checkland continues his research as a Leverhulme Emeritus Fellow. "
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id caadria2007_659
id caadria2007_659
authors Chen, Zi-Ru
year 2007
title The Combination of Design Media and Design Creativity _ Conventional and Digital Media
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary Creativity is always interested in many fields, in particular, creativity and design creativity have many interpretations (Boden, 1991; Gero and Maher, 1992, 1993; Kim, 1990; Sternberg, 1988; Weisberg, 1986). In early conceptual design process, designers used large number of sketches and drawings (Purcell and Gero, 1998). The sketch can inspire the designer to increase the creativity of the designer’s creations(Schenk, 1991; Goldschmidt, 1994; Suwa and Tversky, 1997). The freehand sketches by conventional media have been believed to play important roles in processes of the creative design thinking(Goldschmidt, 1991; Schon and Wiggins, 1992; Goel, 1995; Suwa et al., 2000; Verstijnen et al., 1998; Elsas van and Vergeest, 1998). Recently, there are many researches on inspiration of the design creativity by digital media(Liu, 2001; Sasada, 1999). The digital media have been used to apply the creative activities and that caused the occurrenssce of unexpected discovery in early design processes(Gero and Maher, 1993; Mitchell, 1993; Schmitt, 1994; Gero, 1996, 2000; Coyne and Subrahmanian, 1993; Boden, 1998; Huang, 2001; Chen, 2001; Manolya et al. 1998; Verstijinen et al., 1998; Lynn, 2001). In addition, there are many applications by combination of conventional and digital media in the sketches conceptual process. However, previous works only discussed that the individual media were related to the design creativity. The cognitive research about the application of conceptual sketches design by integrating both conventional and digital media simultaneously is absent.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id 6b3c
authors Cheng, Nancy Yen-wen
year 1990
title Tradition and Innovation: Mixing digital and manual methods in designing a Cambodian Community Center
source Harvard Graduate School of Design, USA
summary This thesis examines how an architectural problem with specific social and site constraints can be addressed by a formal solution. In the process of exploring formal possibilities, computer imaging techniques were used to complement traditional models and drawings. Because the methods reveal different aspects of the project, they elicit different perceptions.

The project yielded insights into the use of representational techniques in design. Changing media keeps the designer alert to alternate ways of understanding. Successive manifestations can keep the identity of the design shifting: useful for exploring variants, but antithetical to resolution. In presentation, traditional representations can make the work more legible. If traditional and digital media are shown together, they must be arranged to complement rather than compete with each other.

series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/05/29 04:01

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id caadria2006_597
id caadria2006_597
year 2006
title NEW MEDIA IN DIGITAL DESIGN PROCESS: Towards a standardize procedure of CAD/CAM fabrication
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 597-599
summary In 1990, due to the traditional architecture design and construction method difficult to build the complicated and non-geometry free-form Fish Structure in Barcelona, architect Frank Gehry started learn from the field of aerospace to utilize CAD/CAM technology in design and manufacture process. He created the free-form fish model in CAD system and exported the digital CAD model data to CAM machine (RP and CNC) to fabricate the design components, and finally assembled on the site. Gehry pioneered in the new digital design process in using CAD/CAM technology or so-called digital fabrication. It becomes an important issue recently as the CAD/CAM technology progressively act as the new digital design media in architectural design and construction process (Ryder et al., 2002; Kolarevic, 2003). Furthermore, in the field of architecture professional, some commercial computer systems had been developed on purpose of standardizes the digital design process in using CAD/CAM fabrication such as Gehry Technologies formed by Gehry Partners; SmartGeometry Group in Europe and Objectile proposed by Bernard Cache. Researchers in the research field like Mark Burry, Larry Sass, Branko Kolarevic, Schodek and others are enthusiastic about the exploration of the role of CAD/CAM fabrication as new design media in design process (Burry, 2002; Schodek et al., 2005; Lee, 2005).
series CAADRIA
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id 6ee1
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1990
title Background Agents to Enhance Access and Growth of Loosely Coupled Models for Building Design
source System Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, International Conference -- ICSRIC-90. (5th. : 1990 : Baden-Baden, Germany). 6 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The paper describes and exemplifies how modern information technology may impact the properties of future building information systems. Examples have been picked from ongoing research under the heading KBS-MEDIA LAB, Knowledge based systems media lab
keywords AI, user interface, knowledge, representation, hypermedia,
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id e73e
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1990
title State of the Art of Computer Use in Practical Architectural Design in Sweden
source A/E/C Systems Japan. September, 1990. [4] p. English and Japanese
summary A status report on Computer Aided Design in Sweden, since 1986
keywords CAD, architecture, practice
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id a33f
authors Cote, Pierre, Hartkopf , Volker and Loftness, Vivian (et al)
year 1990
title Vector Field Representation for the Evaluation of Multiple Performance Variables
source 1990. 6, [7] p., [3] p. of ill. includes bibliography
summary A vector field representation is proposed to simulate the spatial distribution of four building system performance variables: light, sound, radiant heat, and air flow. From this simulation, a measure of the impact of adding, deleting, or modifying an object in the field is computed. This measure serves as a passive evaluation of the user/designer's decision to modify the location or dimensions of the object in a space. This process of simulation-evaluation is performed by a performance module (PM), which is viewed as a component of a CAAD System (Computer Architectural Aided Design). This paper describes the motivation, objectives, methodology and preliminary results of the approach
keywords simulation, CAD, computation, evaluation, building, performance, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e5e2
authors Coyne, R.D., Rosenman, M.A. and Radford, A.D. (
year 1990
title Knowledge Based Design Systems
source 576 p. : ill Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1990. includes bibliographies and index.
summary This book describes the bases, approaches, techniques, and implementations of knowledge-based design systems, and advocates and develops new directions in design systems generally. A formal model of design coupled with the notion of prototypes provides a coherent framework for all that follows and is a platform on which a comprehension of knowledge-based design rests. The book is divided into three parts. Part I, Design, examines and describes design and design processes, providing the context for the remainder of the book. Part II, Representation and Reasoning, explores the kinds of knowledge involved in design and the tools and techniques available for representing and controlling this knowledge. It examines the attributes of design that must be described and the ways in which knowledge-based methods are capable of describing and controlling them. Part III, Knowledge-Based Design, presents in detail the fundamentals of the interpretation of design, including the role of expert systems in interpreting existing designs, before describing how to produce designs within a knowledge-based environment. This part includes a detailed examination of design processes from the perspective of how to control these processes. Within each of these processes, the place and role of knowledge is presented and examples of knowledge-based design systems given. Finally, the authors examine central areas of human design and demonstrate what current knowledge-based design systems are capable of doing now and in the future
keywords knowledge base, design process, representation, CAD, AI, prototypes, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id 49d5
authors Coyne, Richard D. and Newton, S.
year 1990
title Design Reasoning by Association
source Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design. 1990. vol. 17: pp. 39-56
summary The utility is demonstrated of a parallel distributed processing (PDP) approach to processing certain kinds of information of interest to designers. The information is of the kind that could be stored on a Hypercard stack. A system which facilitates the automatic linking of information on the basis of similarity is demonstrated. This approach fits within an overall framework of design reasoning by association
keywords reasoning, design, methods
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id 411f
authors Coyne, Richard D. and Postmus, A.G.
year 1990
title Spatial Applications of Neural Networks in Computer-Aided Design
source Artificial Intelligence in Engineering. 1990. vol. 5: pp. 9-22. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Neural networks of PDP (parallel distributed processing), models of computation are based on mathematical models of neural processes. The authors explore the application of PDP to simple spatial reasoning in computer-aided design. Knowledge that provides a mapping from performances to design descriptions can be encoded into PDP systems in the form of learned patterns. The implementation of a simple PDP pattern associator is described. The system is shown to facilitate a rudimentary kind of associative or analogical reasoning. It also facilitates reasoning where only incomplete information is available. There are important concerns in design reasoning
keywords CAD, neural networks, design, representation, knowledge, reasoning
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

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