CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 0f73
authors Ervin, Stephen M.
year 1990
title Designing with Diagrams: A Role for Computing in Design Education and Exploration
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 107-122
summary Environmental designers, design educators and design students using computers are a constituency with a set of requirements for database structure and flexibility, for knowledge representation and inference mechanisms, and for both graphical and non-graphical operations, that are now articulatable and to-date largely unmet. This is especially so in the area called 'preliminary' or 'schematic' design, where our requirements are related to, but different from, those of our colleagues in mechanical and electrical engineering, whose needs have dominated the notable developments in this area. One manifestation of these needs is in the peculiar form of graphics called diagrams , and the ways in which environmental designers (architects, landscape architects., urban designers) use them. Our diagrams are both similar to and different from structural, circuit, or logical diagrams in important ways. These similarities and differences yield basic insights into designing and design knowledge, and provide guidance for some necessary steps in the development of the next generation of CAD systems. Diagrams as a form of knowledge representation have received little scrutiny in the literature of graphic representation and computer graphics. In the following sections I present an overview of the theoretical basis for distinguishing and using diagrams; examine some of the computational requirements for a system of computer-aided diagramming; describe a prototype implementation called CBD (Constraint Based Diagrammer) and illustrate one example of its use; and speculate on the implications and potential applications of these ideas in computer-aided design education.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 22de
authors Oxman, Rivka E.
year 1990
title The Role of Knowledge-Based Systems in Design and Design Education
source Int. J. Appl. Enging, Ed England: Pergamon Press, 1990. vol. 6: pp. 255-264 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This paper investigates the role of Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Based Design in the emergence of a 'general design science' common to all engineering design. The advantages of the design shell's approach is demonstrated relative to the utilization of expert systems for design. The design shell is proposed as a medium to accommodate the characteristics of design knowledge. The significance of this concept is discussed with respect to formalization of knowledge, implementation, application and operation in knowledge based systems. GRPS - a generative prototype refinement design shell is defined and elaborated. A system applying this concept in a significant structure of generic knowledge in architectural design is demonstrated. It utilizes a method for representing structured knowledge by exploiting the characteristics of both rules and frames, and integrates them in a prototype based design system. Finally, the significance of such an approach in research and design teaching is discussed
keywords design, education, knowledge base, expert systems, frames, architecture
series CADline
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id e5e2
authors Coyne, R.D., Rosenman, M.A. and Radford, A.D. (et.al.)
year 1990
title Knowledge Based Design Systems
source 576 p. : ill Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1990. includes bibliographies and index.
summary This book describes the bases, approaches, techniques, and implementations of knowledge-based design systems, and advocates and develops new directions in design systems generally. A formal model of design coupled with the notion of prototypes provides a coherent framework for all that follows and is a platform on which a comprehension of knowledge-based design rests. The book is divided into three parts. Part I, Design, examines and describes design and design processes, providing the context for the remainder of the book. Part II, Representation and Reasoning, explores the kinds of knowledge involved in design and the tools and techniques available for representing and controlling this knowledge. It examines the attributes of design that must be described and the ways in which knowledge-based methods are capable of describing and controlling them. Part III, Knowledge-Based Design, presents in detail the fundamentals of the interpretation of design, including the role of expert systems in interpreting existing designs, before describing how to produce designs within a knowledge-based environment. This part includes a detailed examination of design processes from the perspective of how to control these processes. Within each of these processes, the place and role of knowledge is presented and examples of knowledge-based design systems given. Finally, the authors examine central areas of human design and demonstrate what current knowledge-based design systems are capable of doing now and in the future
keywords knowledge base, design process, representation, CAD, AI, prototypes, expert systems
series CADline
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id a21e
authors Gero, John S.
year 1990
title A Locus for Knowledge-Based Systems in CAAD Education
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 49-60
summary This paper outlines a possible locus for knowledge- based systems in computer-aided architectural design education. It commences with a review of computer-aided architectural design and knowledge-based systems. It then proposes their use at various stages in CAAD education.
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ab63
authors Gross, Mark D.
year 1990
title Relational Modeling: A Basis for Computer-Assisted Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 123-136
summary Today's computer assisted design (CAD) systems automate traditional ways of working with tracing paper and pencil, but they cannot represent the rules and relationships of a design. As hardware becomes faster and memory less expensive, more sophisticated fundamental software technologies will be adopted. This shift in the basis of CAD will provide powerful capabilities and offer new ways to think about designing. Recently parametric design, a technique for describing a large class of designs with a small description in code, has become a focus of attention in architectural computing. In parametric CAD systems, design features are identified and keyed to a number of input variables. Changes in the input values result in variations of the basic design. Based on conventional software technologies, parametric design has been successfully applied in many design domains including architecture and is supported by several commercial CAD packages. A weakness of parametric techniques is the need to predetermine which properties are input parameters to be varied and which are to be derived. Relational modeling is a simple and powerful extension of parametric design that overcomes this weakness. By viewing relations as reversible rather than one-way, any set of properties can be chosen as input parameters. For example, a relational model that calculates the shadow length of a given building can also be used to calculate the building height given a desired shadow length. In exercising a relational model the designer is not limited to a pre-selected set of input variables but can explore and experiment freely with changes in all parts of the model. Co is a relational modeling environment under development on the Macintosh-II computer, and Co-Draw, a prototype CAD program based on Co. Co's relationaI engine and object-oriented database provide a powerful basis for modeling design relations. Co-Draw's interactive graphics offer a flexible medium for design exploration. Co provides tools for viewing and editing design models in various representations, including spreadsheet cards, tree and graph structures, as well as plan and elevation graphics. Co's concepts and architecture are described and the implications for design education are discussed.
series CAAD Futures
email mdgross@u.washington.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 8833
authors Kalay, Yehuda E., Swerdloff, Lucien M. and Majkowski, Bruce R. (et al)
year 1990
title Process and Knowledge in Design Computation
source Journal of Architectural Education. February, 1990. includes bibliography
summary The challenge of understanding the many facets of design has been a central issue in attempting to computationally define design processes and knowledge. The historical progression of computers in design has been characterized by high aspirations repeatedly humbled by the complexity of design problems. Fundamental questions concerning the role and impact of computers in design should be re-examined in light of new developments in Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), and the progressive understanding of design itself. At the heart of these issues must lie a mutual understanding of the respective traits of design and computation, and the balance of interaction between them. In this paper two avenues, expressed in terms of mappings between design and computation, are explored with the intention of clarifying the relationship between the theories of design and computation. First, the relationship between models of the design process and computational search strategies is explored. Several paradigms (problem solving, puzzle making, and constraint satisfying), which demonstrate a breadth of approaches to modeling design, are presented along with their computational implications. Second, relationships between design knowledge and computational representation schemes are discussed. Emphasis is placed on drawing from cognitive and computational knowledge representation schemes to represent design knowledge. Finally, some thoughts on integrating these design models and knowledge representation schemes into computer systems to assist designers are discussed
keywords design process, knowledge, representation, architecture
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 5509
authors Koutamanis, Alexandros
year 1990
title Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans
source Delft University of Technology
summary The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of architectural plans. This investigation can be summarized as an introduction of computer vision to the computerization of architectural representations: chap represents an attempt to automate recognition of the most essential among conventional architectural drawings, floor plans. The system accepts as input digitized images of architectural plans and recognizes their spatial primitives (locations) and their spatial articulation on a variety of abstraction levels. The final output of chap is a description of the plan in terms of the grouping formations detected in its spatial articulation. The overall structure of the description is based on an analysis of its conformity to the formal rules of its “stylistic” context (which in the initial version of chap is classical architecture). Chapter 1 suggests that the poor performance of computerized architectural drawing and design systems is among others evidence of the necessity to computerize visual / spatial architectural representations. A recognition system such as chap offers comprehensive means for the investigation of a methodology for the development and use of such representations. Chapter 2 describes a fundamental task of chap: recognition of the position and shape of locations, the atomic parts of the description of an architectural plan in chap. This operation represents the final and most significant part of the first stage in processing an image input in machine environment. Chapter 3 moves to the next significant problem, recognition of the spatial arrangement of locations in an architectural plan, that is, recognition of grouping relationships that determine the subdivision of a plan into parts. In the absence of systematic and exhaustive typologic studies of classical architecture that would allow us to define a repertory of the location group types possible in classical architectural plans, Chapter 3 follows a bottom-up approach based on grouping relationships derived from elementary architectural knowledge and formalized with assistance from Gestalt theory and its antecedents. The grouping process described in Chapter 3 corresponds both in purpose and in structure to the derivation of a description of an image in computer vision [Marr 1982]. Chapter 4 investigates the well-formedness of the description of a classical architectural plan in an analytical manner: each relevant level (or sublevel) of the classical canon according to Tzonis & Lefaivre [1986] is transformed into a single group of criteria of well-formedness which is investigated independently. The hierarchical structure of the classical canon determines the coordination of these criteria into a sequence of cognitive filters which progressively analyses the correspondence of the descriptions derived as in Chapter 3 to the constraints of the canon. The methodology and techniques presented in the dissertation are primarily considered with respect to chap, a specific recognition system. The resulting specification of chap gives a measure of the use of such a system within the context of a computerized collection of architectural precedents and also presents several extensions to other areas of architecture. Although these extensions are not considered as verifiable claims, Chapter 5 describes some of their implications, including on the role of architectural drawing in computerized design systems, on architectural typologies, and on the nature and structure of generative systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 8bf3
authors McCullough, M., Mitchell, W.J. and Purcell, P. (Eds.)
year 1990
title The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [Conference Proceedings]
source International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design 1989/ ISBN 0-262-13254-0] (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, 505 p.
summary Design is the computation of shape information that is needed to guide fabrication or construction of artifacts. But it is not so straightforward as, say, the computation of numerical information required to balance a checkbook. This is partly because algebras of shapes are not as well understood and precisely formalized as algebras of numbers, partly because the rules for carrying out shape computations tend to be fluid and ill defined and partly because the predicates that must be satisfied to achieve successful termination are often complex and difficult to specify. For centuries architects have carried out shape computations by hand, using informal procedures and the simplest of tools. Over the last two decades though, they have made increasing use of more formal procedures executed by computers. It is still too early to be sure of the gains and losses that follow from this development, but there is no doubt that it raises some challenging questions of architectural theory and some perplexing issues for those concerned with the future of architectural education. This book frames those issues and provides a diversity of perspectives on them. Its contents were initially presented at the CAAD Futures 89 Conference-an international gathering of researchers and teachers in the field of computer-aided architectural design which was jointly sponsored by the Harvard Graduate School of Design and the MIT Department of Architecture and held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in July 1989. There are four major sections: Theoretical Foundations, Knowledge-Based Design Tools, Information Delivery Systems, and Case Studies: Electronic Media in the Design Studio. In a representative collection of current views, over thirty extensively illustrated papers discuss the experiences of universities in the USA, Europe, Japan, Israel, Canada, and Australia, articulate present theoretical and practical concerns, provide criticism of media and methods, and suggest directions for the future. Architectural educators and architects concerned with the effect of computer technology on the design process will find here an indispensable reference and a rich source of ideas. This book was itself prepared in an electronic design studio. Composition and typography, most image collection and placement, and such editing as was practical within this publishing format, were all performed digitally using Macintosh computers at the Harvard Graduate School of Design during a period of a few weeks in 1989.
series CAAD Futures
email mmmc@umich.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 4ac0
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1990
title Knowledge Engineering and Multicriteria Optimization
source Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1990. pp. 115-147. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Many aspects of optimization, including problem formulation, algorithm selection and the interpretation of results require human judgment and experience, and are traditionally carried out by humans. Recently developed knowledge-based system methodologies now allow us to incorporate different forms of knowledge required to carry out such non-numeric tasks. The role and effectiveness of knowledge-based methodologies in multicriteria optimization are described and illustrated with examples
keywords design, multicriteria, optimization, knowledge base
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 235d
authors Catalano, Fernando
year 1990
title The Computerized Design Firm
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 317-332
summary This paper is not just about the future of computerized design practice. It is about what to do today in contemplation of tomorrow-the issues of computercentered practice and the courses of action open to us can be discerned by the careful observer. The realities of computerized design practice are different from the issues on which design education still fixes its attention. To educators, the present paper recommends further clinical research on computerized design firms and suggests that case studies on the matter be developed and utilized as teaching material. Research conducted by the author of this paper indicates that a new form of design firm is emerging-the computerized design firm-totally supported and augmented by the new information technology. The present paper proceeds by introducing an abridged case study of an actual totally electronic, computerized design practice. Then, the paper concentrates on modelling the computerized design firm as an intelligent system, indicating non-trivial changes in its structure and strategy brought about by the introduction of the new information technology into its operations - among other considerations, different strategies and diverse conceptions of management and workgroup roles are highlighted. In particular, this paper points out that these structural and strategic changes reflect back on the technology of information with pressures to redirect present emphasis on the individual designer, working alone in an isolated workstation, to a more realistic conception of the designer as a member of an electronic workgroup. Finally, the paper underlines that this non-trivial conception demands that new hardware and software be developed to meet the needs of the electronic workgroup - which raises issues of human-machine interface. Further, it raises the key issues of how to represent and expose knowledge to users in intelligent information - sharing systems, designed to include not only good user interfaces for supporting problem-solving activities of individuals, but also good organizational interfaces for supporting the problem-solving activities of groups. The paper closes by charting promising directions for further research and with a few remarks about the computerized design firm's (near) future.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id f9e5
authors Cherneff, Jonathan Martin
year 1990
title Knowledge Based Interpretation of Architectural Drawings
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Cambridge, MA
summary Architectural schematic drawings have been used to communicate building designs for centuries. The symbolic language used in these drawings efficiently represents much of the intricacy of the building process (e.g. implied business relationships, common building practice, and properties of construction materials). The drawing language is an accepted standard representation for building design, something that modern data languages have failed to achieve. In fact, the lack of an accepted standard electronic representation has hampered efforts at computer intergration and perhaps worsened industry fragmentation. In general, drawings must be interpreted, by a professional, and then reentered in order to transfer them from one CAD system to another. This work develops a method for machine interpretation of architectural (or other) schematic drawings. The central problem is to build an efficient drawing parser (i.e. a program that identifies the semantic entitites, characteristics, and relationships that are represented in the drawing). The parser is built from specifications of the drawing grammar and an underlying spatial model. The grammar describes what to look for, and the spatial model enables the parser to find it quickly. Coupled with existing optical recognition technology, this technique enables the use of drawings directly as: (1) a database to drive various AEC applications, (2) a communication protocol to integrate CAD systems, (3) a traditional user interface.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 411f
authors Coyne, Richard D. and Postmus, A.G.
year 1990
title Spatial Applications of Neural Networks in Computer-Aided Design
source Artificial Intelligence in Engineering. 1990. vol. 5: pp. 9-22. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Neural networks of PDP (parallel distributed processing), models of computation are based on mathematical models of neural processes. The authors explore the application of PDP to simple spatial reasoning in computer-aided design. Knowledge that provides a mapping from performances to design descriptions can be encoded into PDP systems in the form of learned patterns. The implementation of a simple PDP pattern associator is described. The system is shown to facilitate a rudimentary kind of associative or analogical reasoning. It also facilitates reasoning where only incomplete information is available. There are important concerns in design reasoning
keywords CAD, neural networks, design, representation, knowledge, reasoning
series CADline
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id 45b4
authors Coyne, Richard D.
year 1990
title Logic of Design Actions
source Knowledge Based Systems. 1990. vol. 3: pp. 242-257
summary The way in which knowledge about design can be incorporated into knowledge-based design systems is discussed and demonstrated within the framework of an overall logical/ linguistic model of the design process. The technique of hierarchical planning is discussed within this framework. The domain under consideration is that of spatial layout in buildings
keywords space allocation, logic, design process, knowledge base, planning
series CADline
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id eee2
authors Gero, John S. and Rosenman, Michael A.
year 1989
title A Conceptual Framework for Knowledge-Based Design Research at Sydney University's Design Computing Unit
source Southampton/Berlin: CMP/Springer- verlag, 1989. pp. 363-382. Published also in Artificial Intelligence in Engineering 5(2):363-383, 1990
summary This paper presents the conceptual framework behind the Design Computing Unit's knowledge-based design research. It commences with a brief overview before introducing the role of experience in design. The conceptual schema 'prototypes' is introduced and described within a framework of design as transforming required or expected functions to structure descriptions. Current projects related to this conceptual framework are briefly described
keywords CAD, knowledge base, design, prototypes, representation
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ed07
authors Love, James
year 1990
title A Case Study in Knowledge-Based System Development : Envelope Design for Reduction of Traffic Noise Transmission
source February, 1990. 19 p. : some ill. and table. includes a bibliography
summary Researchers have demonstrated the value of replication of research and explicit testing of concepts in artificial intelligence (Ritchie and Hanna 1989). In this study, a rule- based system was implemented as an exercise in the application of the theory and practice of knowledge-based systems development to architectural design analysis. The test domain was the selection of wall and window assemblies to provide adequate noise reduction given a set of traffic and building site conditions. This domain was chosen for two reasons: (1) considerable detailed heuristic information was available; and (2) it avoided large solutions spaces, 'errorful' and time-dependent data, and unreliable knowledge. Development of the system in conjunction with an extensive literature review revealed that publications on construction and performance of rule-based systems provided insufficient detail on key aspects of system architecture. Topics suffering from neglect or insufficiently rigorous treatment included algorithms used in automated inference, methods for selection of inference procedures, the integration of numerical and symbolic processing, the formulation of explanation mechanisms to deal with integrated numerical and symbolic processing, testing methods, and software standardization. Improving the quality and scope of knowledge in these areas is essential if expert systems are to be applied effectively in architectural design
keywords CAD, expert systems, acoustics, applications, knowledge base, design, architecture, AI, analysis
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 0b62
authors Maher, Mary Lou
year 1990
title Process Models for Design Synthesis
source AI Magazine. 1990. vol. 11: pp. 49-58
summary Models of design processes provide guidance in the development of knowledge-based systems for design. The basis for such models comes from both research in design theory and methodology as well as problem solving in artificial intelligence. Three models are presented: decomposition, case-based reasoning, and transformation. Each model provides a formalism for representing design knowledge and experience in distinct and complementary forms
keywords design process, knowledge base, systems, theory, decomposition, representation, reasoning
series CADline
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:19

_id 49a8
authors McCall, R., Fischer, G. and Morch, A.
year 1990
title Supporting Reflection-in-Action in the Janus Design Environment
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 247-259
summary We have developed a computer-based design aid called Janus, which is based on a model of computer-supported design that we think has significance for the future of architectural education. Janus utilizes a knowledge-based approach to link a graphic construction system to hypertext. This allows the computer to make useful comments on the solutions that students construct in a CAD-like environment. These comments contain information intended to make students think more carefully about what they are doing while they are doing it. In other words, Janus promotes what Donald Schon has called "reflection-inaction" (Schon, 1983). The Janus design environment is named for the Roman god with a pair of faces looking in opposite directions. In our case the faces correspond to complementary design activities we call construction and argumentation. Construction is the activity of graphically creating the form of the solution e.g., a building. Traditionally this has been done with tracing paper, pencils, and pens. Argumentation is the activity of reasoning about the problem and its solution. This includes such things as considering what to do next, what alternative courses of action are available, and which course of action to choose. Argumentation is mostly verbal but partly graphical.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e91f
authors Mitchell, W.J., Liggett, R.S. and Tan, M.
year 1990
title Top-Down Knowledge-Based Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 137-148
summary Traditional computer drafting systems and three- dimensional geometric modeling systems work in bottom-up fashion. They provide a range of graphic primitives, such as vectors, arcs, and splines, together with operators for inserting, deleting, combining, and transforming instances of these. Thus they are conceptually very similar to word processors, with the difference that they operate on two- dimensional or three-dimensional patterns of graphic primitives rather than one-dimensional strings of characters. This sort of system is effective for input and editing of drawings or models that represent existing designs, but provides little more help than a pencil when you want to construct from scratch a drawing of some complex object such as a human figure, an automobile, or a classical column: you must depend on your own knowledge of what the pieces are and how to shape them and put them together. If you already know how to draw something then a computer drafting system will help you to do so efficiently, but if you do not know how to begin, or how to develop and refine the drawing, then the efficiency that you gain is of little practical consequence. And accelerated performance, flashier color graphics, or futuristic three-dimensional modes of interaction will not help with this problem at all. By contrast, experienced expert graphic artists and designers usually work in top-down fashion-beginning with a very schematic sketch of the whole object, then refining this, in step-by-step fashion, till the requisite level of precision and completeness is reached. For example, a figure drawing might begin as a "stick figure" schema showing lengths and angles of limbs, then be developed to show the general blocking of masses, and finally be resolved down to the finest details of contour and surface. Similarly, an architectural drawing might begin as a parti showing just a skeleton of construction lines, then be developed into a single-line floor plan, then a plan showing accurate wall thicknesses and openings, and finally a fully developed and detailed drawing.
series CAAD Futures
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id effd
authors Morozumi, M., Nakamura, H. and Kijima, Y.
year 1990
title A Primitive-Instancing Interactive 3-D Modeling System for Spatial Design Studies
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 457-468
summary The authors have developed a basic, interactive, primitive-instancing 3-D modeling system (CAADF), which is based on a high-speed 3-D color graphic workstation, and have tested its potential ability to support spatial design studies in an architectural design studio. After- a review of work performed by a student with the system, this paper concludes that this system provides an attractive environment for spatial design studies which conventional CAD systems have not achieved. The interactive process of 3-D modeling in perspective or isometric view images and the dynamic viewing utility are the most successful features of the system. In contrast to those advantages, the resolution of color graphic display is a limitation of the system. The authors conclude that if sufficiently many appropriate 3-D geometric primitives are supported by a CAD system, a primitive instancing method can significantly reduce the work entailed in object modeling.
series CAAD Futures
email moro@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

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