CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id caadria2007_659
id caadria2007_659
authors Chen, Zi-Ru
year 2007
title The Combination of Design Media and Design Creativity _ Conventional and Digital Media
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary Creativity is always interested in many fields, in particular, creativity and design creativity have many interpretations (Boden, 1991; Gero and Maher, 1992, 1993; Kim, 1990; Sternberg, 1988; Weisberg, 1986). In early conceptual design process, designers used large number of sketches and drawings (Purcell and Gero, 1998). The sketch can inspire the designer to increase the creativity of the designer’s creations(Schenk, 1991; Goldschmidt, 1994; Suwa and Tversky, 1997). The freehand sketches by conventional media have been believed to play important roles in processes of the creative design thinking(Goldschmidt, 1991; Schon and Wiggins, 1992; Goel, 1995; Suwa et al., 2000; Verstijnen et al., 1998; Elsas van and Vergeest, 1998). Recently, there are many researches on inspiration of the design creativity by digital media(Liu, 2001; Sasada, 1999). The digital media have been used to apply the creative activities and that caused the occurrenssce of unexpected discovery in early design processes(Gero and Maher, 1993; Mitchell, 1993; Schmitt, 1994; Gero, 1996, 2000; Coyne and Subrahmanian, 1993; Boden, 1998; Huang, 2001; Chen, 2001; Manolya et al. 1998; Verstijinen et al., 1998; Lynn, 2001). In addition, there are many applications by combination of conventional and digital media in the sketches conceptual process. However, previous works only discussed that the individual media were related to the design creativity. The cognitive research about the application of conceptual sketches design by integrating both conventional and digital media simultaneously is absent.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id fd70
authors Goldman, Glenn and Zdepski, Michael Stephen (Eds.)
year 1991
title Reality and Virtual Reality [Conference Proceedings]
source ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4 / Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, 236 p.
summary During the past ten years computers in architecture have evolved from machines used for analytic and numeric calculation, to machines used for generating dynamic images, permitting the creation of photorealistic renderings, and now, in a preliminary way, permitting the simulation of virtual environments. Digital systems have evolved from increasing the speed of human operations, to providing entirely new means for creating, viewing and analyzing data. The following essays illustrate the growing spectrum of computer applications in architecture. They discuss developments in the simulation of future environments on the luminous screen and in virtual space. They investigate new methods and theories for the generation of architectural color, texture, and form. Authors address the complex technical issues of "intelligent" models and their associated analytic contents. There are attempts to categorize and make accessible architects' perceptions of various models of "reality". Much of what is presented foreshadows changes that are taking place in the areas of design theory, building sciences, architectural graphics, and computer research. The work presented is both developmental, evolving from the work done before or in other fields, and unique, exploring new themes and concepts. The application of computer technology to the practice of architecture has had a cross disciplinary effect, as computer algorithms used to generate the "unreal" environments and actors of the motion picture industry are applied to the prediction of buildings and urban landscapes not yet in existence. Buildings and places from history are archeologically "re-constructed" providing digital simulations that enable designers to study that which has previously (or never) existed. Applications of concepts from scientific visualization suggest new methods for understanding the highly interrelated aspects of the architectural sciences: structural systems, environmental control systems, building economics, etc. Simulation systems from the aerospace industry and computer media fields propose new non-physical three-dimensional worlds. Video compositing technology from the television industry and the practice of medicine are now applied to the compositing of existing environments with proposed buildings. Whether based in architectural research or practice, many authors continue to question the development of contemporary computer systems. They seek new interfaces between human and machine, new methods for simulating architectural information digitally, and new ways of conceptualizing the process of architectural design. While the practice of architecture has, of necessity, been primarily concerned with increasing productivity - and automation for improved efficiency, it is clear that university based studies and research continue to go beyond the electronic replication of manual tasks and study issues that can change the processes of architectural design - and ultimately perhaps, the products.
series ACADIA
email Goldman@ADM.NJIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id a9d7
authors Mitchell, J.W. and McCullough, M.
year 1991
title Digital Design Media: A Handbook for Architects and Design Professionals
source Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp. 421-422
summary In Digital Design Media architects and related design professionals will find a complete conceptual guide to the multidimensional world of computer-aided design. In contrast to the many books that describe how to use particular programs (and which therefore go out of date very quickly), Digital Design Media constructs a lasting theoretical framework, which will make it easier to understand a great number of programs-existing and future-as a whole. Clear structure, numerous historical references, and hundreds of illustrations make this framework both accessible to the nontechnical professional and broadening for the experienced computer-aided designer. The book will be especially valuable to anyone who is ready to expand their work in CAD beyond production drafting systems. The new second edition adds chapters one merging technologies, such as the Internet, but the book's original content is as valid as ever. Thousands of design students and practitioners have made this book a standard.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 85c5
authors Strauss, Wolfgang
year 1991
title Organization Principles in Virtual Space - Digital Casa in Media City
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary Omitting the "virtual": the organization of the space - that is architecture. How the design process itself has been changed by the new media, is the topic of this discussion - the process of designing in its penetration and extension into other techniques and media, for example video montage or image data banks. The process of designing becomes an electronic working of images differing substantially from the traditional process by the employed electronic devices.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/23 07:50

_id 019c
authors Beyer, Horst A. and Streilein, André
year 1991
title Data Generation for CAAD with Digital Photogrammetry
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 583-594
summary The rapid advances in sensor technology and processing hardware make the development of a Digital Photogrammetric System for Architectural Photogrammetry possible. This system is able to acquire images with sufficient resolution for Architectural Photogrammetry. Geometric and topologic information for a CAAD-System can be derived with manual and/or semi-automated methods. This paper describes the current status of such a system which is under development at the Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry in cooperation with the Chair of Architecture and CAAD, both at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ascaad2014_002
id ascaad2014_002
authors Burry, Mark
year 2014
title BIM and the Building Site: Assimilating digital fabrication within craft traditions
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 27-36
summary This paper outlines a particular component of very well known project: Antoni Gaudí’s Sagrada Família Basilica in Barcelona (1882– on-going but scheduled for completion in 2026). At the time of writing the realisation of the project has proceeded for 87 years since Gaudí's death (1852-1926). As a building site it has been a living laboratory for the nexus between traditional construction offsite manufacturing and digital fabrication since the computers were first introduced to the project:CAD in 1989 closely followed by CAAD two years later. More remarkably CAD/CAM commenced its significant influence in 1991 with the take-up of sem robotised stone cutting and carving. The subject of this paper is an elevated auditorium space that is one of the relatively few ‘sketchy’ areas that Gaudí bequeathed the successors for the design of his magnum opus.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id sigradi2016_710
id sigradi2016_710
authors Duarte, Rovenir Bertola; Lepri, Louisa Savignon; Sanches, Malu Magalh?es
year 2016
title Objectile e o projeto paramétrico [Objectile and parametric design]
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.149-156
summary The objectile was a concept developed by Deleuze and Cache in the 80s. It treats the object as a variable and anticipates the society of obsolescence, an inquiry about the contemporary life of the object (marketing, function, representation, modeling, production and consumption). This concept deals with the object where“... fluctuation of the norm replaces the permanence of a law; where the object assumes a place in a continuum by variation” (Deleuze, 1991, p.38). This paper proposes to think objectile as the object of the architectural design, on three types of approximations between design and objectile: (a) Objectile as variable of the design, (b) Objectile as a design variable, and (c) Objectile as architecture (variable architecture). The second approximation (b) enables to discuss the conception of continuous design with power to cross other projects - a meta-design. The main aspect of this meta-design is the variability, another way of control based on concepts of patterns and modulations; however, objectile can mean the release of mind for new types of thought and new kinds of design based on “continuum by variation”: meta-design.
keywords Objectile; parametric design; Gilles Deleuze; Modulado; Digital design
series SIGraDi
last changed 2017/06/21 12:20

_id sigradi2003_026
id sigradi2003_026
authors Flanagan, Robert
year 2003
title Persistence of Perception: Encoding Reality
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary "Liquid architecture makes liquid cities, cities that change at the shift of value, where visitors with different backgrounds see different landmarks, where neighborhoods vary with ideas held in common, and evolve as the ideas mature or dissolve." In 1991, Marcos Novak in 'Liquid Architectures in Cyberspace' projected a future of individual and blended realities of things perceived and perceived things - a place of "fertile dreams". In the cathedral, "The dream and making were one." In the present he concludes, "Curiously the practice of architecture has become increasingly disengaged from those dreams." This paper addresses inherent limitations in today's digital technology that restrict its ability to participate in the future design of the "fertile dream." It does not address the technology required, but the requirements of the technology.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 673a
authors Fukuda, T., Nagahama, R. and Sasada, T.
year 1997
title Networked Interactive 3-D design System for Collaboration
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 429-437
summary The concept of ODE (Open Design Environment) and corresponding system were presented in 1991. Then the new concept of NODE. which is networked version of ODE. was generated to make wide area collaboration in 1994. The aim of our research is to facilitate the collaboration among the various people involved in the design process of an urban or architectural project. This includes various designers and engineers, the client and the citizens who may be affected by such a project. With the new technologies of hyper medium, network, and component architecture, we have developed NODE system and applied in practical use of the collaboration among the various people. This study emphasizes the interactive 3-D design tool of NODE which is able to make realistic and realtime presentation with interactive interface. In recent years, ProjectFolder of NODE system, which is a case including documents, plans, and tools to proceed project., is created in the World Wide Web (WWW) and makes hyper links between a 3-D object and a text, an image. and other digital data.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/04/01 18:20

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id b5be
authors Stok, Leon
year 1991
title Architectural synthesis and optimization of digital systems
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary High level synthesis means going from an functional specification of a digits-system at the algorithmic level to a register transfer level structure. Different appli-cations will ask for different design styles. Despite this diversity in design styles many tasks in the synthesis will be similar. There is no need to write a new synthesis system for each design style. The best way to go seems a decomposition of the high level synthesis problems in several well defined subproblems. How the problem is decomposed depends heavily on a) the type of network architecture chosen, b) the constraints applied to the design and c) on the functional description itself. From this architecture style, the constraints and the functional description a synthesis scheme can be derived. Once this scheme is fixed, algorithms can be chosen which fit into this scheme and solve the subproblems in a fast and, when possible, optimal way. To support such a synthesis philosophy, a framework is needed in which all design information can be stored in a unique way during the various phases of the design process. This asks for a design data base capable of handling all design information with a formally defined interface to all design tools. This thesis gives a formal way to describe both the functional representation, the register transfer level structure and the controller and the relations between all three of them. Special attention has been paid to the efficient representation of mutual exclusive operations and array accesses. The scheduling and allocation problems are defined as mappings between these formal representations. Both the existing synthesis algorithms and the new algorithms described in this thesis fit into this framework. Three new allocation algorithms are presented in this thesis: an algorithm for optimal register allocation in cyclic data flow graphs, an exact polynomial algorithm to do the module allocation and a new scheme to minimize the number of interconnections during all stages of the data path allocation. Cyclic data flow graphs result from high level behavioral descriptions that contain loops. Algorithms for register allocation in high level synthesis published up till now, only considered loop free data flow graphs, When these algorithms are applied to data flow graphs with loops, unnecessary register transfer operations are introduced. A new algorithm is presented that performs a minimal register allocation and eliminates all superfluous register transfer operations. The problem is reformulated as a multicommodity network flow problem for which very efficient solutions exist. Experiments on a benchmark set have shown that in all test cases all register transfers could be eliminated at no increase in register cost. Only heuristic algorithms appeared in literature to solve the module allocation problem. The module allocation problem is usually defined as a clique cover problem on a so-called module allocation graph. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the module allocation graph belongs to the special class of comparability graphs. A polynomial time algorithm can optimally find a clique cover of such a graph. Even when interconnect weights are taken into account, this can be solved exactly. This problem can be transformed into a maximal cost network flow problem, which can be solved exactly in polynomial time. An algorithm is described which solves the module allocation problem with interconnect weights exactly, with a complexity O(kn2), where n is the number of operations In previous research, interconnection was optimized when the module allocation for the operations and the register allocation for the variables already had been done. However, the amount of multiplexing and interconnect are crucial factors to both the delay and the area of a circuit. A new scheme is presented to minimize the number of interconnections during the data path allocation. This scheme first groups all values based on their read and write times. Values belonging to the same group can share a register file. This minimizes the number of data transfers with different sources and destinations. Secondly, registers are allocated for each group separately. Finally the interconnect allocation is done. During the interconnect allocation, the module allocation is determined. The value grouping is based on edge coloring algorithms providing a sharp upper bound on the number of colors needed two techniques: splitting read and write phases of values and introducing serial (re-)write operations for the same value, make that even more efficient exact edge coloring algorithms can be used. It is shown that when variables are grouped into register files and operations are assigned to modules during the interconnection minimization, significant savings (20%) can be obtained in the number of local interconnections and the amount of global interconnect, at the expense of only slightly more register area.
keywords Digital Systems; Digital Systems
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 2005_391
id 2005_391
authors Suneson, Kaj, Wernemyr, Claes, Westerdahl, Börje and Allwood, Carl Martin
year 2005
title The Effect of Stereovision on the Experience of VR Models of the External Surroundings and the Interior of a Building
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 391-398
summary Virtual reality offers considerable promise with regard to facilitating the building process. A good example is the facilitation of communication between architects and building companies, sellers and buyers or between community planners and the general public. It is often thought that in order to utilise the potential of VR in, for example, the above-mentioned contexts, it is necessary to use fully fledged versions of VR, including stereovision and the possibility of controlling the VR show. However, if a model can also be presented on less advanced equipment and still interpreted in a way that is useful to the viewer it will be possible to distribute the model simply and effectively. This would make it easier to create a more democratic urban planning process compared with if specialised equipment needed to be used and special shows needed to be arranged. In this study we compared the experience of two VR models (a large indoor exhibition hall and an outdoor street in Gothenburg, Sweden) when presented with and without stereovision. When the experience was measured using the Semantic Environmental Scale (the SMB scale, developed by Küller, 1975, 1991), questions on the experience of presence and six other questions on the experience of the models, the results only revealed one indication that stereovision made a difference. This indication was the result for the SMB factor Enclosedness. Suggestions are presented for future research in this area.
keywords Design Process; Virtual Environments; Human-Computer Interaction; 3D City Modelling; Environmental Simulation
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id e40f
authors Van Bakergem, Davis W. and Obata, Gen
year 1991
title Free Hand Plotting - Is It Live or Is It Digital?
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 567-582
summary Free hand plotting is a technique for creating the illusion of hand drawn sketches by means of a CAD system. Utilizing a single pen plotter and altering the holding device, squiggly line drawings can be produced which have a hand made quality and character. In addition, a software technique using postscript can be used to create images that appear to be hand drawn. This paper describes and illustrates both the pen and software techniques for creating these squiggly line drawings. It further proposes several explanations for the unusual viewer response and suggests potential applications.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 0d59
authors Vaupel, Jesper
year 1991
title Reference Architecture for Computer Integration in Denmark
source The Computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991. Unnumbered : ill
summary This paper gives an overview of the principles and the existing integration framework for a new set of projects in Denmark, intended to develop a common reference architecture for the integration of design, construction, distribution and use of building products. The budget for these projects is 6 million dkr. The new projects are based upon existing reference architectures from previous projects - called 'DIGIDOK' (Digital building documents) and 'EITI' (Contractors Association IT-initiative) - which over the past 4 years have provided a set of generic application models, data models and EDIFACT specifications. The total budget was around 15 million dkr. New projects serve as a coordinating link and part of a greater IT-initiative 'data interchange in the construction sector' comprising 15-20 subprojects with a budget or around 30 million dkr
keywords integration, systems, standards, research, building, construction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id ddss2006-hb-487
id DDSS2006-HB-487
authors Chien-Tung Chen and Teng-Wen Chang
year 2006
title 1:1 Spatially Augmented Reality Design Environment
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) 2006, Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Springer, ISBN-10: 1-4020-5059-3, ISBN-13: 978-1-4020-5059-6, p. 487-499
summary With the development of ubiquitous computing (Weiser, 1991), what will become of the traditional media such as pen and sketches, especially in the design education environment? Or what will they be transformed into? In this research, we focus on the interior design process with a particular type of media-1:1 spatially augmented reality design environment (SARDE). In this research, we tried to implement SARDE and have a scenario experiment to check how designers interact with such design media. Furthermore, through this research, we have come to know more about how designers use design media to represent their design dream.
keywords Design & Decision Support Systems, Spatially Augmented Reality, Architecture Education, and Computer Visualization
series DDSS
last changed 2006/08/29 10:55

_id 218a
authors Ervin, Stephen M.
year 1991
title Intra-Medium and Inter-Media Constraints
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 365-380
summary Designers work with multiple representations in a variety of media to express and explore different kinds of knowledge. The advantages of multi-media in design are well- known, and exemplified by the current interest in 'hyper-media' approaches to knowledge exploration. A principal activity in working between views in one medium (e.g. plan, section and perspective drawings), or between different representations (diagrams, maps, graphs, pictures, e.g.) is extrapolating decisions made in one view or medium over to others, so that some consistency is maintained, and implications can be explored. The former kind of consistency maintenance (intra-medium) is beginning to be well understood techniques for constraint expression., satisfaction and propagation are starting to appear in 'smart CAD' systems. The latter kind of consistency maintenance inter-media.) is different, less well understood, and will require new mechanisms for constraint management and exploration. Experiments, hypotheses, and solutions in this direction will be central to any effort that seeks to explain, emulate or assist the integrative, synthetic reasoning that characterizes environmental design and planning. This paper examines some of the characteristics and advantages of intra and inter-media constraint exploration, describes a prototype "designers workstation" and some experiments in the context of landscape planning and design, and lays out some directions for development of these ideas in future computer aided design systems.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 0d72
authors Millet, M.S., Hildebrand, G., Cohan, P. and Read, M.
year 1991
title ArchiMedia Case Studies: Integrative Architectural Education
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 127-134
summary Few people would argue that architectural education, ideally a complex holistic experience, completely integrates the many aspects and concerns that contribute to the design and realization of a building. This is hardly surprising given the vast array of information that architecture schools with limited resources attempt to present to students within constricted time frames. One may argue that in attempting to approach such a holistic educational goal, representations of reality on a computer screen are no more useful or provocative than conventional communication devices: slides, photographs, drawings, the spoken and printed word, moving pictures (film, video), and various combinations of all of these. The opportunities offered by computer-driven multimedia presentations, however, lie in the speed and relevance of connections made between associated ideas in various media formats. In particular, a multimedia presentation, if carefully authored and developed, can provide a wide range of interactive information gathering pathways. The approach called ArchiMedia offers a means for presenting a wide variety of information about a range of building types in an interactive format with the goal of supporting the creative and practical processes of communication among teachers and students.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:27

_id 9e4e
authors Minneman, S. and Bly, S.
year 1991
title Managing a Trois: a study of a multi-user drawing tool in distributed design work
source Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Human Interaction (CHI) '91, pp. 217-224,1991
summary A multi-user drawing tool was used by participants in a distributed design exercise conducted in a multi-media working environment. The goal of the study was to explore how observations from our earlier studies of shared drawing in two-person design activity would hold up when three participants worked together. Additionally, the study provided opportunities to contrast video/audio connections with audio-only connections and to discover new behaviors that emerge in the use of new technologies. Participants successfully used the shared drawing system with no observed difficulties attributable to the addition of a third user. Audio-only connections appeared to adequately suppofi this work activity, but details of the participants' interactions in the exercise raised questions that deserve further study. Finally, observations suggest that drawing tools such as the one reported here may offer support for alternative forms of participation in collaborative work.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id f2e8
authors Norman, Richard B.
year 1991
title Real and Un-real Color
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 45-52
summary Drawings exist for the communication of ideas. They are the containers of mankind's visual dreams and embody all of the hopes, the aspirations, and intentions of their creators. The act of drawing is itself an expression of the desire for a world that is better than what already exists. The appearance of a new drawing media does not change that purpose, it only presents new and stimulating methods of communication, better ways of conveying ideas. In ideal terms the design of a building requires a holistic procedure, one where the entire edifice is created in a single instant. The building must seem totally compete and be universally understood in order that it can be accepted, detailed, structured, and priced. This is of course not possible; there are too many aspects of architecture that are not thought about at the moment of creation. The process of design is continuous and moves from general to specific; any drawing media, to be useful, must accommodate this continuity. Completeness, where complete thought does not exist, cannot be achieved by the pursuit of reality on the computer. There are many unknowns that prohibit the creation of "real" pictures-unless one makes design assumptions that prudent process should not accept.
series ACADIA
email rnorman@CLEMSON.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

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