CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

PDF papers
References

Hits 1 to 20 of 216

_id eee5
authors Luczak, H., Beitz, W., Springer, J. and Langner, T.
year 1991
title Frictions and Frustrations in Creative-Informatory Work with Computer Aided Design -- CAD-Systems -- Congress I: Work with Terminals: HEALTH ASPECTS: WORKLOAD, STRESS AND STRAIN AND IRREGULAR WORKING HOURS; Causes and Measures of Stress
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1991 v.1 pp. 175-179
summary The effects of computer aided design work on the design process are analysed by field experiments. The study focuses on the influence of 3 different design tasks (standard tasks) and 11 CAD-systems (2D and 3D), taking into account the performance and strain measurements of 43 subjects (15 design engineers, 8 technicians, 17 draughtsmen, 3 trainees). The 3 standard tasks differ in performance measurements, especially in time spent on task, quantity of generated elements, not in the quality of the solution. The kind of CAD-system influences the time spent on task as well as the design performance, with significant differences of up to 100%. The same tendency can be diagnosed in a comparison of 2D and 3D systems. During the use of different functions of the CAD-system, strain effects are identified by cross-correlation with continuously measured physiological parameters, even with CAD-functions which should reduce stresses of routine work. Deficits and complications in the handling of CAD-systems increase with the complexity of the system and thus cause an antinome effect on performance and strain of its operators: creativity is reduced by frictions and frustrations in system handling even if operators are highly trained.
keywords Stressor Analysis; Performance Measurement; Field-Experiment; Design Process
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 0aba
authors Carrara, Gianfranco, Kalay, Yehuda E. and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1991
title Intelligent Systems for Supporting Architectural Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 191-202
summary Design can be considered a process leading to the definition of a physical form that achieves a certain predefined set of objectives. The process comprises three distinct operations: (1) definition of the desired set of performance criteria (design goals); (2) production of alternative design solutions; (3) evaluation of the expected performances of alternative design solutions, and comparing them to predefined criteria. Difficulties arise in performing each one of the three operations, as well as in combining them into a purposeful, unified process. First, it is difficult to define the desired performance criteria prior to and independently of, the search for an acceptable solution that achieves them, since many aspects of the desired criteria can only be discovered through the search for an acceptable solution. Furthermore, the search for such a solution may well alter the definition of these criteria, as new criteria and incompatibilities between existing criteria are discovered. Second the generation of a design solution is a task demanding creativity, judgement, and experience, all three of which are difficult to define, teach, and otherwise capture in some explicit manner. Third, it is difficult to evaluate the expected performances of alternative design solutions and to compare them to the predefined criteria. Design parameters interact with each other in complex ways, which cause effects and side effects. Predicting the expected performances of even primary effects involves extrapolating non-physical characteristics from the proposed solution's physical organization, a process which relies on a host of assumptions (physical, sociological, psychological, etc.) and hence is seldom a reliable measure. A fourth problem arises from the need to coordinate the three operations in an iterative process that will converge on an acceptable design solution in reasonable time. Computational techniques that were developed in the past to assist designers in performing the above mentioned activities have shown limitations and proved inadequate to a large degree. In this paper we discuss the work in progress aimed at developing an intelligent support system for building and architectural design, which will be able to play a decisive role in the definition, evaluation and putting into effect of the design choices.
series CAAD Futures
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 218a
authors Ervin, Stephen M.
year 1991
title Intra-Medium and Inter-Media Constraints
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 365-380
summary Designers work with multiple representations in a variety of media to express and explore different kinds of knowledge. The advantages of multi-media in design are well- known, and exemplified by the current interest in 'hyper-media' approaches to knowledge exploration. A principal activity in working between views in one medium (e.g. plan, section and perspective drawings), or between different representations (diagrams, maps, graphs, pictures, e.g.) is extrapolating decisions made in one view or medium over to others, so that some consistency is maintained, and implications can be explored. The former kind of consistency maintenance (intra-medium) is beginning to be well understood techniques for constraint expression., satisfaction and propagation are starting to appear in 'smart CAD' systems. The latter kind of consistency maintenance inter-media.) is different, less well understood, and will require new mechanisms for constraint management and exploration. Experiments, hypotheses, and solutions in this direction will be central to any effort that seeks to explain, emulate or assist the integrative, synthetic reasoning that characterizes environmental design and planning. This paper examines some of the characteristics and advantages of intra and inter-media constraint exploration, describes a prototype "designers workstation" and some experiments in the context of landscape planning and design, and lays out some directions for development of these ideas in future computer aided design systems.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id diss_hensen
id diss_hensen
authors Hensen, J.L.M.
year 1991
title On the Thermal Interaction of Building Structure and Heating and Ventilating System
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary In this dissertation, developments in the field of building performance evaluation tools are described. The subject of these tools is the thermal interaction of building structure and heating and ventilating system. The employed technique is computer simulation of the integrated, dynamic system comprising the occupants, the building and its heating and ventilating system. With respect to buildings and the heating and ventilating systems which service them, the practical objective is ensuring thermal comfort while using an optimum amount of fuel. While defining the optimum had to be left for other workers, the issue of thermal comfort is addressed here. The conventional theory of thermal comfort in conditions characteristic for dwellings and offices assumes steady-state conditions. Yet thermal conditions in buildings are seldom steady, due to the thermal interaction between building structure, climate, occupancy, and auxiliary systems. A literature rewiew is presented regarding work on thermal comfort specifically undertaken to examine what fluctuations in indoor climate may be acceptable. From the results, assessment criteria are defined. Although its potentials reach beyond the area of Computer Aided Building Design, a description is given of building and plant energy simulation within the context of the CABD field of technology. Following an account of the present state-of-the-art, the choice for starting from an existing energy simulation environment (ESPR) is justified. The main development areas of this software platform - within the present context - are identified as: fluid flow simulation, plant simulation, and their integration with the building side of the overall problem domain. In the field of fluid flow simulation, a fluid flow network simulation module is described. The module is based on the mass balance approach, and may be operated either in standalone mode or from within the integrated building and plant energy simulation system. The program is capable of predicting pressures and mass flows in a user-defined building / plant network comprising nodes (ie building zones, plant components, etc) and connections (ie air leakages, fans, pipes, ducts, etc), when subjected to flow control (eg thermostatic valves) and / or to transient boundary conditions (eg due to wind). The modelling and simulation techniques employed to predict the dynamic behaviour of the heating and ventilating system, are elaborated. The simultaneous approach of the plant and its associated control is described. The present work involved extensions to the ESPR energy simulation environment with respect to robustness of the program, and with respect to additional plant simulation features, supported plant component models and control features. The coupling of fluid flow, plant side energy and mass, and building side energy simulation into one integrated program is described. It is this "modular-simultaneous" technique for the simulation of combined heat and fluid flow in a building / plant context, which enables an integral approach of the thermal interaction of building structure and heating and ventilating system.

A multi stage verification and validation methodology is described, and its applicability to the present work is demonstrated by a number of examples addressing each successive step of the methodology. A number of imaginary and real world case studies are described to demonstrate application of the present work both in a modelling orientated context and in a building engineering context. Then the general conclusions of the present work are summarized. Next and finally, there are recommendations towards possible future work in the areas of: theory, user interface, software structure, application, and technology transfer.

series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/12/15 13:43

_id 2a0e
authors Jacobs, Stephen Paul
year 1991
title The CAD Design Studio: 3D modeling as a fundamental design skill
source McGraw-Hill, New York
summary Until now, books on CAD aimed at architects have addressed the use of computer-aided design and drafting as a recording tool, a faster means of producing and storing finished working drawings-and not as an adjunctive creative tool for the design process. Without being software specific, this book will guide the professional and student architect and graphics designer in how to use the computer as an electronic modelling tool, exploring graphic and geometric forms and systems with the freedom and speed of the computer. The reader will be led through a progression of design exercises and design problems, learning how to come up with multiple solutions to a given program. Beautifully illustrated throughout, including 10 four-color CAD drawings!
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2e3b
authors Kvan, Thomas and Kvan, Erik
year 1997
title Is Design Really Social
source Creative Collaboration in Virtual Communities 1997, ed. A. Cicognani. VC'97. Sydney: Key Centre of Design Computing, Department of Architectural and Design Science, University of Sydney, 8 p.
summary There are many who will readily agree with Mitchell’s assertion that “the most interesting new directions (for computer-aided design) are suggested by the growing convergence of computation and telecommunication. This allows us to treat designing not just as a technical process... but also as a social process.” [Mitchell 1995]. The assumption is that design was a social process until users of computer-aided design systems were distracted into treating it as a merely technical process. Most readers will assume that this convergence must and will lead to increased communication between design participants; that better social interaction leads to be better design. The unspoken assumption appears to be that putting the participants into an environment with maximal communication channels will result in design collaboration. The tools provided; therefore; must permit the best communication and the best social interaction. We think it essential to examine the foundations and assumptions on which software and environments are designed to support collaborative design communication. Of particular interest to us in this paper is the assumption about the “social” nature of design. Early research in computer-assisted design collaborations has jumped immediately into conclusions about communicative models which lead to high-bandwidth video connections as the preferred channel of collaboration. The unstated assumption is that computer-supported design environments are not adequate until they replicate in full the sensation of being physically present in the same space as the other participants (you are not there until you are really there). It is assumed that the real social process of design must include all the signals used to establish and facilitate face-to-face communication; including gestures; body language and all outputs of drawing (e.g. Tang [1991]). In our specification of systems for virtual design communities; are we about to fall into the same traps as drafting systems did?
keywords CSCW; Virtual Community; Architectural Design; Computer-Aided Design
series other
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id 29c2
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1991
title An Intelligent Simulation Approach in Simulating Dynamic Processes in Architectural Environments
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 177-190
summary The implications of object-oriented data models and rule-based reasoning systems is being researched in a wide variety of application areas ranging from VLSI circuit design (Afsannanesh et al 1990) to architectural environments (Coyne et al 1990). The potential of this approach in the development of discrete event simulations is also being scrutinized (Birtwistle et al 1986). Such computer models are usually called "expert simulations" or "intelligent simulations". Typically rule-basing in such models allows the definition of intelligent-objects that can reason about the simulated dynamic processes through an inferencing system. The major advantage of this approach over traditional simulation languages is its ability to provide direct reference to real world objects and processes. The simulation of dynamic processes in architectural environments poses an additional Problem of resolving the interaction of architectural objects with other objects such as humans, water, smoke etc., depending on the process simulated. Object-oriented approach promises potential in solving this specific problem. The first part of this paper addresses expert simulation approach within the context of architectural settings, then the second part summarizes work done in the application of such an approach to an emergency egress simulation.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 2344
authors White, Richard
year 1991
title Recognizing Structures: Some Problems in Reasoning with Drawings
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 381-394
summary This paper describes work on our current project aimed at developing a generalized system for performing automated reasoning tasks in various domains, using information extracted from drawings. It briefly describes the MOLE representation system, a frame-like formalism which can be used to build both description and inheritance hierarchies. The use of MOLE for representing graphical objects as well as the objects they represent is also described.The paper goes on to discuss some of the problems faced in the development of systems which can perform reasoning tasks on such representations. In particular, problems arising from the need to map the structures required by the application domain to the drawing description are outlined and a model which adapts existing Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to solve these problems is proposed.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id f9bd
authors Amor, R.W.
year 1991
title ICAtect: Integrating Design Tools for Preliminary Architectural Design
source Wellington, New Zealand: Computer Science Department, Victoria University
summary ICAtect is a knowledge based system that provides an interface between expert systems, simulation packages and CAD systems used for preliminary architectural design. This thesis describes its structure and development.The principal work discussed in this thesis involves the formulation of a method for representing a building. This is developed through an examination of a number of design tools used in architectural design, and the ways in which each of these describe a building.Methods of enabling data to be transferred between design tools are explored. A Common Building Model (CBM), forming the core of the ICAtect system, is developed to represent the design tools knowledge of a building. This model covers the range of knowledge required by a large set of disparate design tools used by architects at the initial design stage.Standard methods of integrating information from the tools were examined, but required augmentation to encompass the unusual constraints found in some of the design tools. The integration of the design tools and the CBM is discussed in detail, with example methods developed for each type of design tool. These example methods provide a successful way of moving information between the different representations. Some problems with mapping data between very different representations were encountered in this process, and the solutions or ideas for remedies are detailed. A model for control and use of ICAtect is developed in the thesis, and the extensions to enable a graphical user interface are discussed.The methods developed in this thesis demonstrate the feasibility of an integrated system of this nature, while the discussion of future work indicates the scope and potential power of ICAtect.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0b1c
authors Bridges, Alan
year 1991
title Computer Exercises in Architectural Design Theory
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary This paper discusses how architectural theory may be taught using computer based exercises to explore the practical application of those theories. The particular view of architecture developed is, necessarily, a restricted one but the objectives behind the exercises are slightly different to those that a pure architectural theorist or historian might have The formal teaching of architectural theory and composition has not been very fashionable in Schools of Architecture for several years now: indeed there is a considerable inbuilt resistance in students to the application of any form of rules or procedures. There is however a general interest in computing and this can be utilised to advantage. In concentrating on computer applications in design eclectic use has been made of a number of architectural examples ranging from Greek temples to the work of modern deconstructionists. Architectural theory since Vitruvius is littered with attempts to define universal theories of design and this paper certainly does not presume to anything so grand: I have merely looked at buildings, compared them and noted what they have in common and how that might relate to computer-aided design. I have ignored completely any sociological, philosophical or phenomenological questions but would readily agree with the criticism that Cartesian rationality is not, on its own, a sufficient base upon which to build a theory of design. However I believe there is merit in articulating design by separating it from other concerns and making it a subject of study in its own right. Work in design research will provide the models and intellectual structures to facilitate discourse about design and might be expected to benefit the development of design skills by providing material that could be formally taught and debated in a way that is removed from the ephemeral "fashionable designer" debate. Of course, some of the ideas discussed here may prove to be equally ephemeral but that does not entirely negate their value.

series eCAADe
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 00bc
authors Chen, Chen-Cheng
year 1991
title Analogical and inductive reasoning in architectural design computation
source Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich
summary Computer-aided architectural design technology is now a crucial tool of modern architecture, from the viewpoint of higher productivity and better products. As technologies advance, the amount of information and knowledge that designers can apply to a project is constantly increasing. This requires development of more advanced knowledge acquisition technology to achieve higher functionality, flexibility, and efficient performance of the knowledge-based design systems in architecture. Human designers do not solve design problems from scratch, they utilize previous problem solving episodes for similar design problems as a basis for developmental decision making. This observation leads to the starting point of this research: First, we can utilize past experience to solve a new problem by detecting the similarities between the past problem and the new problem. Second, we can identify constraints and general rules implied by those similarities and the similar parts of similar situations. That is, by applying analogical and inductive reasoning we can advance the problem solving process. The main objective of this research is to establish the theory that (1) design process can be viewed as a learning process, (2) design innovation involves analogical and inductive reasoning, and (3) learning from a designer's previous design cases is necessary for the development of the next generation in a knowledge-based design system. This thesis draws upon results from several disciplines, including knowledge representation and machine learning in artificial intelligence, and knowledge acquisition in knowledge engineering, to investigate a potential design environment for future developments in computer-aided architectural design. This thesis contains three parts which correspond to the different steps of this research. Part I, discusses three different ways - problem solving, learning and creativity - of generating new thoughts based on old ones. In Part II, the problem statement of the thesis is made and a conceptual model of analogical and inductive reasoning in design is proposed. In Part III, three different methods of building design systems for solving an architectural design problem are compared rule-based, example-based, and case-based. Finally, conclusions are made based on the current implementation of the work, and possible future extensions of this research are described. It reveals new approaches for knowledge acquisition, machine learning, and knowledge-based design systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email arch@mail.tku.edu.tw
last changed 2003/05/10 03:42

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ga9921
id ga9921
authors Coates, P.S. and Hazarika, L.
year 1999
title The use of genetic programming for applications in the field of spatial composition
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Architectural design teaching using computers has been a preoccupation of CECA since 1991. All design tutors provide their students with a set of models and ways to form, and we have explored a set of approaches including cellular automata, genetic programming ,agent based modelling and shape grammars as additional tools with which to explore architectural ( and architectonic) ideas.This paper discusses the use of genetic programming (G.P.) for applications in the field of spatial composition. CECA has been developing the use of Genetic Programming for some time ( see references ) and has covered the evolution of L-Systems production rules( coates 1997, 1999b), and the evolution of generative grammars of form (Coates 1998 1999a). The G.P. was used to generate three-dimensional spatial forms from a set of geometrical structures .The approach uses genetic programming with a Genetic Library (G.Lib) .G.P. provides a way to genetically breed a computer program to solve a problem.G. Lib. enables genetic programming to define potentially useful subroutines dynamically during a run .* Exploring a shape grammar consisting of simple solid primitives and transformations. * Applying a simple fitness function to the solid breeding G.P.* Exploring a shape grammar of composite surface objects. * Developing grammarsfor existing buildings, and creating hybrids. * Exploring the shape grammar of abuilding within a G.P.We will report on new work using a range of different morphologies ( boolean operations, surface operations and grammars of style ) and describe the use of objective functions ( natural selection) and the "eyeball test" ( artificial selection) as ways of controlling and exploring the design spaces thus defined.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id cdb1
authors Cornick, T., Noble, B. and Hallahan, C.
year 1991
title The Limitations of Current Working Practices on the Development of Computer Integrating Modelling in Construction
source computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. Calibre, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, september, 1991. Unnumbered. includes bibliography
summary For the construction Industry to improve its processes through the application computer-based systems, traditional working practices must first change to support the integrated control of design and construction. Current manual methods of practice accept the limitations of man to process a wide range of building performance and production information simultaneously. However when these limitations are removed, through the applications of computer systems, the constraints of manual methods need no longer apply. The first generation of computer applications to the Construction Industry merely modelled the divided and sequential processes of manual methods i.e. drafting, specification writing, engineering and quantity calculations, estimating, billing, material ordering data-bases and activity planning. Use of these systems raises expectations that connections within the computer between the processes modelled can actually be made and faster and more integrated information processing be achieved. 'Linking' software is then developed. The end result of this approach was that users were able to produce information faster, present it in an impressive manner but, in reality, no perceived improvement in actual building performance, production economy or efficiency was realized. A current government sponsored Teaching Company Programme with a UK design and build company is addressing the problem of how real economic benefit can be realized through improvement in, amongst other things, their existing computer applications. This work is being carried out by both considering an academic conceptual model of how 'designing for production' can be achieved in computer applications and what is immediately realizable in practice by modelling the integration of a limited number of knowledge domains to which computers are already being applied. i.e. billing from design, estimating and buying. This paper describes each area of work and how they are impacting on each other
keywords construction, building process, integration
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8570
authors Danahy, John
year 1991
title The Computer-Aided Studio Critic: Gaining Control of What We Look At
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 121-138
summary This paper presents an approach to teaching that put computer resources in the hands of a studio instructor. A design professor or tutor that is expert in the use of the tool. The studio master used the computer to "study" the propositions of students. This was done as an extension of his current teaching practice. The critic used the computer as another tool additional to discussion, pencil and paper, and working models. Computer walk-throughs and visual representations of concepts were used by the professor to convey his interpretation of the work to students. In this model the students did not have to use the computer. The model recognized the years of experience and expensive equipment required to create an adequate representation of a design scheme and view it in the very short time period available during desk critiques. This approach for studio teaching has not been identified and discussed in any depth in recent literature on CAD studio teaching. The emphasis of papers presented at CAD conferences has been on how to provide students with better software and skills needed to make effective use of computers in their studio work.
series CAAD Futures
email jwdanahy@rogers.com
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id e4b3
authors Eastman, Charles M.
year 1991
title Use of Data Modeling in the Conceptual Structuring of Design Problems
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 225-244
summary An approach is presented for defining the information needed or used in a design task, based on data modeling techniques. Called EDM, it allows representation of the information complexity imposed both from the performances or technologies involved as well as imposed criteria, such as aesthetic intentions. Here, EDM is applied to the design of chairs, a design domain with highly diverse technologies and information structures. The relation is shown between the information considered and the class of designs possible. Also shown is the complexity of different design structures and the implication of information structures for conventional and creative design.
series CAAD Futures
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 68c8
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R. and Fenves, S. (et al.)
year 1994
title SEED: A Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design
source Proceeding of IKM '94, Weimar, Germany, pp. 5-10
summary The SEED project intends to develop a software environment that supports the early phases in building design (Flemming et al., 1993). The goal is to provide support, in principle, for the preliminary design of buildings in all aspects that can gain from computer support. This includes using the computer not only for analysis and evaluation, but also more actively for the generation of designs, or more accurately, for the rapid generation of design representations. A major motivation for the development of SEED is to bring the results of two multi-generational research efforts focusing on `generative' design systems closer to practice: 1. LOOS/ABLOOS, a generative system for the synthesis of layouts of rectangles (Flemming et al., 1988; Flemming, 1989; Coyne and Flemming, 1990; Coyne, 1991); 2. GENESIS, a rule-based system that supports the generation of assemblies of 3-dimensional solids (Heisserman, 1991; Heisserman and Woodbury, 1993). The rapid generation of design representations can take advantage of special opportunities when it deals with a recurring building type, that is, a building type dealt with frequently by the users of the system. Design firms - from housing manufacturers to government agencies - accumulate considerable experience with recurring building types. But current CAD systems capture this experience and support its reuse only marginally. SEED intends to provide systematic support for the storing and retrieval of past solutions and their adaptation to similar problem situations. This motivation aligns aspects of SEED closely with current work in Artificial Intelligence that focuses on case-based design (see, for example, Kolodner, 1991; Domeshek and Kolodner, 1992; Hua et al., 1992).
series other
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id fd70
authors Goldman, Glenn and Zdepski, Michael Stephen (Eds.)
year 1991
title Reality and Virtual Reality [Conference Proceedings]
source ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4 / Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, 236 p.
summary During the past ten years computers in architecture have evolved from machines used for analytic and numeric calculation, to machines used for generating dynamic images, permitting the creation of photorealistic renderings, and now, in a preliminary way, permitting the simulation of virtual environments. Digital systems have evolved from increasing the speed of human operations, to providing entirely new means for creating, viewing and analyzing data. The following essays illustrate the growing spectrum of computer applications in architecture. They discuss developments in the simulation of future environments on the luminous screen and in virtual space. They investigate new methods and theories for the generation of architectural color, texture, and form. Authors address the complex technical issues of "intelligent" models and their associated analytic contents. There are attempts to categorize and make accessible architects' perceptions of various models of "reality". Much of what is presented foreshadows changes that are taking place in the areas of design theory, building sciences, architectural graphics, and computer research. The work presented is both developmental, evolving from the work done before or in other fields, and unique, exploring new themes and concepts. The application of computer technology to the practice of architecture has had a cross disciplinary effect, as computer algorithms used to generate the "unreal" environments and actors of the motion picture industry are applied to the prediction of buildings and urban landscapes not yet in existence. Buildings and places from history are archeologically "re-constructed" providing digital simulations that enable designers to study that which has previously (or never) existed. Applications of concepts from scientific visualization suggest new methods for understanding the highly interrelated aspects of the architectural sciences: structural systems, environmental control systems, building economics, etc. Simulation systems from the aerospace industry and computer media fields propose new non-physical three-dimensional worlds. Video compositing technology from the television industry and the practice of medicine are now applied to the compositing of existing environments with proposed buildings. Whether based in architectural research or practice, many authors continue to question the development of contemporary computer systems. They seek new interfaces between human and machine, new methods for simulating architectural information digitally, and new ways of conceptualizing the process of architectural design. While the practice of architecture has, of necessity, been primarily concerned with increasing productivity - and automation for improved efficiency, it is clear that university based studies and research continue to go beyond the electronic replication of manual tasks and study issues that can change the processes of architectural design - and ultimately perhaps, the products.
series ACADIA
email Goldman@ADM.NJIT.EDU
more http://www.acadia.org
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 2559
authors Knight, Terry W.
year 1991
title Designing with Grammars
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 33-48
summary Shape grammars that generate languages of designs have been used widely over the past several years to describe and understand a diversity of architectural and other styles of designs. These grammars have been developed to address two fundamental concerns in design: 1) the analysis of contemporary or historic styles of designs, and 2) the synthesis or creation of completely new and original styles of designs. Most applications of shape grammars so far have been concerned with analysis. The creative use of shape grammars - the use of grammars to invent new architectural or other designs - has not been exploited nearly as well. A new series of exercises for designing with shape grammars, and also with color grammars, is sketched informally here. These exercises are currently being used in classes in the Architecture and Urban Design Program at U.C.L.A.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

For more results click below:

this is page 0show page 1show page 2show page 3show page 4show page 5... show page 10HOMELOGIN (you are user _anon_935250 from group guest) CUMINCAD Papers Powered by SciX Open Publishing Services 1.002