CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 4eed
authors Benedickt, Michael (ed.)
year 1991
title Cyberspace: First Steps
source The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA and London, UK
summary Cyberspace has been defined as "an infinite artificial world where humans navigate in information-based space" and as "the ultimate computer-human interface." These original contributions take up the philosophical basis for cyberspace in virtual realities, basic communications principles, ramifications of cyberspace for future workplaces, and more.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id eaca
authors Davis, L. (ed.)
year 1991
title Handbook of genetic algorithms
source Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York
summary This book sets out to explain what genetic algorithms are and how they can be used to solve real-world problems. The first objective is tackled by the editor, Lawrence Davis. The remainder of the book is turned over to a series of short review articles by a collection of authors, each explaining how genetic algorithms have been applied to problems in their own specific area of interest. The first part of the book introduces the fundamental genetic algorithm (GA), explains how it has traditionally been designed and implemented and shows how the basic technique may be applied to a very simple numerical optimisation problem. The basic technique is then altered and refined in a number of ways, with the effects of each change being measured by comparison against the performance of the original. In this way, the reader is provided with an uncluttered introduction to the technique and learns to appreciate why certain variants of GA have become more popular than others in the scientific community. Davis stresses that the choice of a suitable representation for the problem in hand is a key step in applying the GA, as is the selection of suitable techniques for generating new solutions from old. He is refreshingly open in admitting that much of the business of adapting the GA to specific problems owes more to art than to science. It is nice to see the terminology associated with this subject explained, with the author stressing that much of the field is still an active area of research. Few assumptions are made about the reader's mathematical background. The second part of the book contains thirteen cameo descriptions of how genetic algorithmic techniques have been, or are being, applied to a diverse range of problems. Thus, one group of authors explains how the technique has been used for modelling arms races between neighbouring countries (a non- linear, dynamical system), while another group describes its use in deciding design trade-offs for military aircraft. My own favourite is a rather charming account of how the GA was applied to a series of scheduling problems. Having attempted something of this sort with Simulated Annealing, I found it refreshing to see the authors highlighting some of the problems that they had encountered, rather than sweeping them under the carpet as is so often done in the scientific literature. The editor points out that there are standard GA tools available for either play or serious development work. Two of these (GENESIS and OOGA) are described in a short, third part of the book. As is so often the case nowadays, it is possible to obtain a diskette containing both systems by sending your Visa card details (or $60) to an address in the USA.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c12b
authors Sakr, Yasser H. and Johnson, Robert E.
year 1991
title Computer-Aided Architectural Design Strategies: One Size Does Not Fit All
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 15-31
summary The practice of architecture is in the midst of significant change and an increasingly uncertain future. Socio-economic factors external to the profession are forcing firms to develop new strategies for delivering design services. Overlaying these external changes is the uncertainty resulting from the inevitable introduction of information technology, which is only beginning to have an impact on the profession. Some advocates see the emergence of a new form of design firm -the computerized design firm - as an intelligent organization structured around electronic work groups with powerful computation and communications tools (Catalano 1990). On the other hand, many practitioners still see CADD as an expensive technology whose primary result leads to an increase in overhead costs. But some practitioners and researchers (Coyne, 1991) recognize both the potential and, problems that computer-aided design presents to the profession. This research presents a framework for understanding how changing information technology might be appropriately integrated into the design firm. It argues that design is an increasingly diverse enterprise, and that this diversity must be understood in order to effectively integrate information technology. The study is divided into three sections. The first section develops an overview of major social, economic, and structural changes within the profession. The second section discusses two alternative approaches that have been utilized to integrate information technology into firms. The third part presents a framework for understanding how information technology may have an impact on strategies for structuring and organizing architectural firms.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:27

_id 241f
authors Van Wyk, C.S.G., Bhat, R., Gauchel, J. and Hartkopf, V.
year 1991
title A Knowledge-based Approach to Building Design and Performance Evaluation
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 1-14
summary The introduction of physically-based description and simulation methods to issues of building performance (i.e., acoustic, visual, and air quality; thermal comfort, cost, and long-term system integrity) began in the early 1960s as one of the first examples of computer-aided design in architecture. Since that time, the development of commercially-available computer-aided design systems has largely been oriented towards the visualization and representation of the geometry of buildings, while the development of building performance applications has been concerned with approaches to mathematical and physics-based modeling for predictive purposes.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/04/20 17:20

_id 227a
authors Bourdeau, L., Dubois, A.-M. and Poyet, P.
year 1991
title A Common Data Model for Computer Integrated Building
source computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991. Unnumbered : some ill. includes bibliography
summary The connection of various building performance evaluation tools in a collaborative way is an essential request to develop true CAD systems. It is a basic requirement for the future of integrated information systems for building projects, where data concerning multiple aspects of the project can be exchanged during the different design steps. This paper deals with the on-going research concerning the generation of a common data model in the framework of a European collaborative action, the COMBINE Project, which is supported by the CEC, General Directorate XII for Research Science and Development, within the JOULE programme. The first step of the research concerns the progressive construction of a conceptual model and the paper focuses on the development of this Integrated Data Model (IDM). The paper reports on the definition of the architecture of the IDM. The main issues and the methodology of the IDM development are presented. The IDM development methodology is based on successive steps dealing with the identification of the data and context which are considered by the Design Tool Prototypes (DTP) to be connected through the IDM, the conceptual integration of this knowledge, and the implementation of the model on an appropriate software environment
keywords standards, integration, communication, building, evaluation, modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 00bc
authors Chen, Chen-Cheng
year 1991
title Analogical and inductive reasoning in architectural design computation
source Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich
summary Computer-aided architectural design technology is now a crucial tool of modern architecture, from the viewpoint of higher productivity and better products. As technologies advance, the amount of information and knowledge that designers can apply to a project is constantly increasing. This requires development of more advanced knowledge acquisition technology to achieve higher functionality, flexibility, and efficient performance of the knowledge-based design systems in architecture. Human designers do not solve design problems from scratch, they utilize previous problem solving episodes for similar design problems as a basis for developmental decision making. This observation leads to the starting point of this research: First, we can utilize past experience to solve a new problem by detecting the similarities between the past problem and the new problem. Second, we can identify constraints and general rules implied by those similarities and the similar parts of similar situations. That is, by applying analogical and inductive reasoning we can advance the problem solving process. The main objective of this research is to establish the theory that (1) design process can be viewed as a learning process, (2) design innovation involves analogical and inductive reasoning, and (3) learning from a designer's previous design cases is necessary for the development of the next generation in a knowledge-based design system. This thesis draws upon results from several disciplines, including knowledge representation and machine learning in artificial intelligence, and knowledge acquisition in knowledge engineering, to investigate a potential design environment for future developments in computer-aided architectural design. This thesis contains three parts which correspond to the different steps of this research. Part I, discusses three different ways - problem solving, learning and creativity - of generating new thoughts based on old ones. In Part II, the problem statement of the thesis is made and a conceptual model of analogical and inductive reasoning in design is proposed. In Part III, three different methods of building design systems for solving an architectural design problem are compared rule-based, example-based, and case-based. Finally, conclusions are made based on the current implementation of the work, and possible future extensions of this research are described. It reveals new approaches for knowledge acquisition, machine learning, and knowledge-based design systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/05/10 03:42

_id 43
authors Horacio A. Torres. Lic. Geog. Cesira Morano. Guillermo Tella
year 1998
title Utilización de un Sig Para la Formulacion de un Diagnostico Socioterritorial de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Use of a GIS for the Formulation of a Socio-territorial Diagnostic of the City of Buenos Aires)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 324-331
summary The use of a GIS to assist the elaboration of a socioterritorial diagnosis of the City of Buenos Aires. This paper is based on the result of two research projects sponsored by the University of Buenos Aires (Project AR01 0 and Project Cl-94). From the beginning of 1998 onwards these results have been applied to the development of a "socio-territorial diagnosis" of the City of Buenos Aires, an applied research project funded by the Government of the City of Buenos Aires and carried out by the Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseho y Urbanismo, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Research Unit: PROHAB). The main goal of the analysis was the identification of the spatial distribution pattern of of the selected variables, directed to the delimitation of "social areas". The facilities provided by the GIS allowed us to perform this task in an exploratory manner. An analysis of the 3405 census tracts of the City of Buenos Aires (the central part of the agglomeration) is presented here. A great number of indices were constructed based on variables of the Argentine National Census of Population and Housing referred to housing conditions, housing type, provision of services, origin of the population, educational level, etc. This paper describes the various steps necessary for the application of a GIS, including the digitizing of the cartographic base and the statistical elaboration of the census information (provided by the INDEC in magnetic medium). A colour cartographic output that can be considered a first approximation of the "social map" of the city in 1991 is presented.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id a40d
authors Paoluzzi, Alberto and Sansoni, Claudio
year 1991
title Solid Modeling of Architectural Design with PLASM Language
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 203-224
summary PLASM (Programming LAnguage for Solid Modeling) is a prototype, high level, user oriented, functional design language currently being developed at the University of Rome "La Sapienza". A PLASM "program" is the symbolic definition of a complex of variational polyhedra depending on some unbound variable, and therefore allows for the description of a whole set of geometric solutions to a design problem. In our view the language should be used, possibly with the assistance of a graphical user interface, both in the first steps of the design process as well in the detailed design. In the paper the guide-lines are shown for the preliminary definition of the syntax of the language. The paper also contains the definition of some new and very powerful solid operators.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id e924
authors Willems, P.H., Kuiper, P. and Luiten, G.T. (et al)
year 1991
title A Framework for Evolutionary Information Model Development
source The Computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991. Unnumbered :ill. includes bibliography
summary Large scale information modelling projects, like the development of ISO/STEP, require a modelling approach that does not develop a new model from scratch, but rather base it on a more generic model which, in turn, is based on an even more abstract model, etc. The resulting structure shows a layered framework. On top of which can be found the most generic concepts and downward the more specific concepts with increased semantics. The benefits of such a model development approach are improvements in: version management, object orientated modelling, concurrent model development, controlled change, standardized interfaces, conformance testing etc. This paper describes an environment which supports the development of a new model out of one or more generic parent models. The generation process consists of two steps. In the first step entities of the parent models can be instanciated while constraining the inherited behavior and introducing new behavior. In fact this process is identical with instanciating run time objects from class templates in the object oriented paradigm. However, in the authors' development environment an important (inherited) property of each entity is self-reproduction. In the second step, therefore, each instance is forced to represent its run time state into some kind of information modelling language specification. Appropriate measures are taken to guarantee that the resulting model will conform the behavior of its parent model(s). The paper demonstrates this approach in a multi-layered example currently being implemented and explores several implementation issues
keywords product modeling, standards, integration, abstraction, OOPS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a1dc
authors Budd, T.
year 1991
title An introduction to Object Oriented programming
source Addison-Wesley
summary In An Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming, Timothy Budd provides a language-independent presentation of object-oriented principles, such as objects, methods, inheritance (including multiple inheritance) and polymorphism. Examples are drawn from several different languages, including (among others) C++, C#, Java, CLOS, Delphi, Eiffel, Objective-C and Smalltalk. By examining many languages, the reader is better able to appreciate the general principles that lie beyond the syntax of the individual languages.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id eae1
authors Mitchell, William J.
year 1991
title Functional Grammars: An Introduction
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 167-176
summary A practical design must be realizable using available materials and fabrication processes, and it must meet specified functional requirements; these are necessary (though not always sufficient) conditions for solution of a design problem. It is possible to write shape grammars that produce designs which satisfy these two conditions.
series ACADIA
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id c00e
authors Tolman, F. P. and Kuiper, P.
year 1991
title Some Integration Requirements for Computer Integrated Building
source The Computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. september, 1991. Unnumbered : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary Introduction of computer technology in the Building and Construction industries follows a bottom-up approach. Bottom up approaches always lead to (1) communication problems on higher levels -- in this case recognized as 'islands of automation' -- subsequently followed by more recently (2) a plea for integration. Although the word 'integration' quickly became in vogue, it is not clear what it really means and what it is that we are supposed to integrate. Another interesting and pressing question is: 'How to integrate the different integration efforts'? The paper discusses five hierarchical technical levels of integration. Each level is elaborated in some detail. Also the relations between the levels are brought into perspective. Non-technical integration requirements (e.g. social, organizational, or legal) are not discussed
keywords integration, systems, CAD, building, construction
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id aefc
authors Van Zutphen, R., De Vries, M. and Wagter, Harry
year 1991
title The Development of an Architects Oriented Product Model
source The Computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991
summary Unnumbered : ill. includes bibliography. In this paper various aspects of the development and introduction of product-models in the building industry are discussed. Management and design information are discussed more in depth
keywords product modeling, architecture, building, database, management, information
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id sigradi2003_026
id sigradi2003_026
authors Flanagan, Robert
year 2003
title Persistence of Perception: Encoding Reality
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary "Liquid architecture makes liquid cities, cities that change at the shift of value, where visitors with different backgrounds see different landmarks, where neighborhoods vary with ideas held in common, and evolve as the ideas mature or dissolve." In 1991, Marcos Novak in 'Liquid Architectures in Cyberspace' projected a future of individual and blended realities of things perceived and perceived things - a place of "fertile dreams". In the cathedral, "The dream and making were one." In the present he concludes, "Curiously the practice of architecture has become increasingly disengaged from those dreams." This paper addresses inherent limitations in today's digital technology that restrict its ability to participate in the future design of the "fertile dream." It does not address the technology required, but the requirements of the technology.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id c900
authors Wake, Warren K. and McCullough, Malcolm
year 1991
title Architectural Tours through Texture Space
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 53-62
summary One challenge to the computer-aided designer is to portray physical realities using only visual, logical, or numerical representations. Recently there has been a lot of speculation about meeting this challenge with a new dimension of tools which couples physical interaction to animated output: cyberspace. However, so long as certain inherent limitations remain in the physical part of cyberspace prototypes, there is more to be gained in improving our graphics independently. One aspect of graphics for portraying physicality which we can address right now is texture.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id a620
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 1991
title Unde et Quo
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary To begin with, I would like to say a few words about the problem of alienation of modern technologies which we also inevitably faced while starting teaching CAD at our department. Quite often nowadays a technology becomes a fetish as a result of lack of clear goals in human mind. There are multiple technologies without sense of purpose which turned into pure experiments. There is always the danger of losing purposeness and drifting toward alienation. The cause of the danger lies in forgetting about original goals while mastering and developing the technology. Eventually the original idea is ignored and a great gap appears between technical factors and creativity. We had the danger of alienation in mind when preparing the CAAD curriculum. Trying to avoid the tension between technical and creative elements we agreed not to introduce CAD too soon then the fourth year of studies and continue it for two semesters. One thing was clear - we should not teach the technique of CAD but how to design using a computer as a medium. Then we specified projects. The first was called "The bathroom I dream of" and meant to be a 2D drawing. The four introductory meetings were in fact teaching foundations of DOS, then a specific design followed with the help of AutoCAD program. In the IX semester, for example, it was "A family house" (plans, facades, perspective). "I have to follow them - I am their leader" said L.J. Peter in "The Peter's Prescription". This quotation reflects exactly the situation we find ourselves in teaching CAAD at our department. It means that ever growing students interest in CAAD made us introduce changes in the curriculum. According to the popular saying, "The more one gets the more one wants", so did we and the students feel after the first semester of teaching CAD. From autumn 1991 CAAD classes will be carried from the third year of studying for two consecutive years. But before further planning one major steep had to be done - we decided to reverse the typical of the seventies approach to the problem when teaching programming languages preceded practical goals hence discouraging many learners.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8b1e
authors Blinn, James F.
year 1991
title A Trip Down the Graphics Pipeline: Line Clipping
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications January, 1991. vol. 11: pp. 98-105 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The classic computer graphics pipeline is an assembly-line like process that geometric objects must experience on their journey to becoming pixels on the screen. This is a first of a series of columns on the graphics pipeline. In this column the author concentrate on the algorithm aspects of the line- clipping part of the pipeline
keywords clipping, algorithms, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ea6b
authors Boeve, Eddy
year 1991
title Modelling Interaction Tools in the Views Architecture IV. Design Tools
source First Moscow International HCI'91 Workshop Proceedings 1991 p.183
summary Views is a user-interface system in which the user interface is a layer above applications, guaranteeing consistency of the interface, and with a data-layer implementing external object representations, allowing exchange of objects between applications without loss of structure. Although Views offers an architecture to deal with user-interface aspects on a high level, in this report is shown that also low level interaction can be modelled with the architecture provided.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 85f9
authors Brisson, E., Debras, P. and Poyet, Patrice
year 1991
title A First Step Towards an Intelligent Integrated Design System in the Building Field
source computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991. Unnumbered pages : ill. includes bibliography
summary This article presents the work the Knowledge Base Group is achieving towards the integration of Artificial Intelligence based facilities in the Building design process. After an overview of the current state of the integrated design process, the context and the technical guidelines to realize computer integrated software in the building design field is described. Then some tools are presented to model the knowledge (the HBDS method) and to implement such model in our Mips home-made knowledge modeling software platform (including object-oriented database management facilities, expert system reasoning facilities, hypertext edition facilities, 3D-design and 3D-view modules...). Finally the authors describe the Quakes application devoted to assess detached house anti-seismic capabilities during the design process. A deep conceptual model considers all the semantic entities (columns, resistant panels, openings, ...) involved in the anti-seismic expertise. Using both this conceptual model description of a detached house and the 3D design tool, they input the project. Then the seismic expertise is driven in a divide and conquer approach and records the alleged configuration recognized automatically linked to the corresponding section of the building regulation
keywords AI, design, knowledge, software, integration, building, CAD, structures
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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