CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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References

Hits 1 to 20 of 187

_id 0ab2
authors Amor, R., Hosking, J., Groves, L. and Donn, M.
year 1993
title Design Tool Integration: Model Flexibility for the Building Profession
source Proceedings of Building Systems Automation - Integration, University of Wisconsin-Madison
summary The development of ICAtect, as discussed in the Building Systems Automation and Integration Symposium of 1991, provides a way of integrating simulation tools through a common building model. However, ICAtect is only a small step towards the ultimate goal of total integration and automation of the building design process. In this paper we investigate the next steps on the path toward integration. We examine how models structured to capture the physical attributes of the building, as required by simulation tools, can be used to converse with knowledge-based systems. We consider the types of mappings that occur in the often different views of a building held by these two classes of design tools. This leads us to examine the need for multiple views of a common building model. We then extend our analysis from the views required by simulation and knowledge-based systems, to those required by different segments of the building profession (e.g. architects, engineers, developers, etc.) to converse with such an integrated system. This indicates a need to provide a flexible method of accessing data in the common building model to facilitate use by different building professionals with varying specialities and levels of expertise.
series journal paper
email john@cs.auckland.ac.nz
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id f9bd
authors Amor, R.W.
year 1991
title ICAtect: Integrating Design Tools for Preliminary Architectural Design
source Wellington, New Zealand: Computer Science Department, Victoria University
summary ICAtect is a knowledge based system that provides an interface between expert systems, simulation packages and CAD systems used for preliminary architectural design. This thesis describes its structure and development.The principal work discussed in this thesis involves the formulation of a method for representing a building. This is developed through an examination of a number of design tools used in architectural design, and the ways in which each of these describe a building.Methods of enabling data to be transferred between design tools are explored. A Common Building Model (CBM), forming the core of the ICAtect system, is developed to represent the design tools knowledge of a building. This model covers the range of knowledge required by a large set of disparate design tools used by architects at the initial design stage.Standard methods of integrating information from the tools were examined, but required augmentation to encompass the unusual constraints found in some of the design tools. The integration of the design tools and the CBM is discussed in detail, with example methods developed for each type of design tool. These example methods provide a successful way of moving information between the different representations. Some problems with mapping data between very different representations were encountered in this process, and the solutions or ideas for remedies are detailed. A model for control and use of ICAtect is developed in the thesis, and the extensions to enable a graphical user interface are discussed.The methods developed in this thesis demonstrate the feasibility of an integrated system of this nature, while the discussion of future work indicates the scope and potential power of ICAtect.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 85f9
authors Brisson, E., Debras, P. and Poyet, Patrice
year 1991
title A First Step Towards an Intelligent Integrated Design System in the Building Field
source computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991. Unnumbered pages : ill. includes bibliography
summary This article presents the work the Knowledge Base Group is achieving towards the integration of Artificial Intelligence based facilities in the Building design process. After an overview of the current state of the integrated design process, the context and the technical guidelines to realize computer integrated software in the building design field is described. Then some tools are presented to model the knowledge (the HBDS method) and to implement such model in our Mips home-made knowledge modeling software platform (including object-oriented database management facilities, expert system reasoning facilities, hypertext edition facilities, 3D-design and 3D-view modules...). Finally the authors describe the Quakes application devoted to assess detached house anti-seismic capabilities during the design process. A deep conceptual model considers all the semantic entities (columns, resistant panels, openings, ...) involved in the anti-seismic expertise. Using both this conceptual model description of a detached house and the 3D design tool, they input the project. Then the seismic expertise is driven in a divide and conquer approach and records the alleged configuration recognized automatically linked to the corresponding section of the building regulation
keywords AI, design, knowledge, software, integration, building, CAD, structures
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 227a
authors Bourdeau, L., Dubois, A.-M. and Poyet, P.
year 1991
title A Common Data Model for Computer Integrated Building
source computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991. Unnumbered : some ill. includes bibliography
summary The connection of various building performance evaluation tools in a collaborative way is an essential request to develop true CAD systems. It is a basic requirement for the future of integrated information systems for building projects, where data concerning multiple aspects of the project can be exchanged during the different design steps. This paper deals with the on-going research concerning the generation of a common data model in the framework of a European collaborative action, the COMBINE Project, which is supported by the CEC, General Directorate XII for Research Science and Development, within the JOULE programme. The first step of the research concerns the progressive construction of a conceptual model and the paper focuses on the development of this Integrated Data Model (IDM). The paper reports on the definition of the architecture of the IDM. The main issues and the methodology of the IDM development are presented. The IDM development methodology is based on successive steps dealing with the identification of the data and context which are considered by the Design Tool Prototypes (DTP) to be connected through the IDM, the conceptual integration of this knowledge, and the implementation of the model on an appropriate software environment
keywords standards, integration, communication, building, evaluation, modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 00bc
authors Chen, Chen-Cheng
year 1991
title Analogical and inductive reasoning in architectural design computation
source Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich
summary Computer-aided architectural design technology is now a crucial tool of modern architecture, from the viewpoint of higher productivity and better products. As technologies advance, the amount of information and knowledge that designers can apply to a project is constantly increasing. This requires development of more advanced knowledge acquisition technology to achieve higher functionality, flexibility, and efficient performance of the knowledge-based design systems in architecture. Human designers do not solve design problems from scratch, they utilize previous problem solving episodes for similar design problems as a basis for developmental decision making. This observation leads to the starting point of this research: First, we can utilize past experience to solve a new problem by detecting the similarities between the past problem and the new problem. Second, we can identify constraints and general rules implied by those similarities and the similar parts of similar situations. That is, by applying analogical and inductive reasoning we can advance the problem solving process. The main objective of this research is to establish the theory that (1) design process can be viewed as a learning process, (2) design innovation involves analogical and inductive reasoning, and (3) learning from a designer's previous design cases is necessary for the development of the next generation in a knowledge-based design system. This thesis draws upon results from several disciplines, including knowledge representation and machine learning in artificial intelligence, and knowledge acquisition in knowledge engineering, to investigate a potential design environment for future developments in computer-aided architectural design. This thesis contains three parts which correspond to the different steps of this research. Part I, discusses three different ways - problem solving, learning and creativity - of generating new thoughts based on old ones. In Part II, the problem statement of the thesis is made and a conceptual model of analogical and inductive reasoning in design is proposed. In Part III, three different methods of building design systems for solving an architectural design problem are compared rule-based, example-based, and case-based. Finally, conclusions are made based on the current implementation of the work, and possible future extensions of this research are described. It reveals new approaches for knowledge acquisition, machine learning, and knowledge-based design systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email arch@mail.tku.edu.tw
last changed 2003/05/10 03:42

_id c886
authors Graham, Ian
year 1991
title Object oriented methods
source Addison Wesley
summary This is another book aimed at helping those making decisions to arrive at better informed ones. This is a second (and substantially updated)edition of a book that was deservedly well reviewed when it was originally published. Those who have to give advice on the choice of any aspect of OO technology from design to programming and testing will know that they are faced with attempting to make decisions based on ill-informed and often biased sources of information. Ian Graham attempts to survey the whole field, laying out your choices for you rather than making them for you. In each aspect of the subject the result of reading Object-Oriented Methods will be to allow you to reach decisions based on an understanding of the problems and the current range of tools aimed at helping you solve them. If you have a serious decision to make this would be a good place to start before proceeding to a more detailed investigation of what seem the potentially best choices for you and your needs. The other group of people who will benefit from reading this book are those that want or need a general overview of the OO arena. This is a good text that should be read by students of Computing, those who recognise that good advice is based on a comprehensive knowledge of the field and those who have to make a practical commercial decision about which OO route to take.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2eb4
authors Johnson, Robert E.
year 1991
title ESP - An Expert System for Property Revitalization
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 425-442
summary This paper reports on the development of a knowledge based system that can help to assess the reuse potential of idle industrial property. It does not take the place of the architect or engineer, but allows for strategic design factors to be considered in very early and important property redesign and revitalization decisions. The idea is predicated on the judgment that there is a relatively systematic approach to evaluating the reuse potential of vacant property. A frame based approach together with a series of "if-then" rules are used to represent the knowledge domain and procedures required to perform a feasibility analysis. Rules for assessing the impact of the regional economy, industrial market trends, building configuration, building design strategies and the impact of building codes are included in this manner. A prototype of this system system has been implemented on both an Apple Macintosh computer using AAIS Prolog and an IBM AT compatible using Arity/Prolog.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 6064
authors Kramel, Herbert and Chen, Chen-Cheng
year 1991
title BAU: A Knowledge-Based System for the Investigation of a Basic Architectural Unit
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 329-346
summary The control of incremental complexities within an evolutionary design process has been a serious concern in both architectural education and practice. One method of examining this problem is to first define a "basic architectural unit" and a design environment which is composed of multiple units. Different levels of detail will be added to the unit as the design process continues. Secondly, a related computer program called BAU is introduced, which demonstrates that a computer is a meaningful tool for helping the architect to investigate the consequence of a design problem. Thirdly, both the domain expert's and the knowledge engineer's experiences during the development of BAU are described. Finally, the future direction of this research will be discussed.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id diss_kuo
id diss_kuo
authors Kuo, C.J.
year 1999
title Unsupervised Dynamic Concurrent Computer-Aided Design Assistant
source Los Angeles: UCLA
summary The increasing capability of computer-aided architectural design systems has strengthened the role that the computer plays in the workplace. Due to the complexity of developing new techniques and research, these systems are undertaken mostly by scientists and engineers without significant architectural input (Willey, 1991). The design concept of these systems may be based on a well-defined and well-understood process, which is not yet realized in architectural design (Galle, 1994). The output of such research may not be easily adapted into the design process. Most of the techniques assume a complete understanding of the design space (Gero and Maher, 1987) (Willey, 1991). The description or construction of the design space is always time and space consuming, and the result can never be complete due to the ever-changing nature of architectural design. This research intends to initiate a solution for the above problems. The proposed system is an unsupervised-dynamic-concurrent-computer-aided-design assistant. The “unsupervised” means the learning process is not supervised by the user because it is against the designer's nature to “think-aloud” in the design studio and it also increases the work load. It is dynamic because the size of the knowledge base is constantly changing. Concurrent means that there are multiple procedures active simultaneously. This research focuses on learning the operational knowledge from an individual designer and reapplying it in future designs. A computer system for this experiment is constructed. It is capable of The preliminary result shows a positive feedback from test subjects. The purpose of this research is to suggest a potent computational frame within which future developments may flourish.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/11/28 06:37

_id ead3
authors Meinecke, Christoph and Scherer, Raimar J.
year 1991
title Architecture of a Knowledge- Based -System for the Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 451-464
summary This paper presents the hypothesis part of an expert-system for detailing reinforced concrete structures. The structural members on which the work is focused are columns. To generate a hypothesis - that means to configurate the reinforcement for a given structural member with an almost fixed geometry - needs different kinds of information, i.e. knowledge and a strategy to apply this knowledge. Therefore a hybrid system is chosen which combines object oriented organization to represent the fixed knowledge and a rule base to model the strategy and the dynamic knowledge.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id ga0010
id ga0010
authors Moroni, A., Zuben, F. Von and Manzolli, J.
year 2000
title ArTbitrariness in Music
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Evolution is now considered not only powerful enough to bring about the biological entities as complex as humans and conciousness, but also useful in simulation to create algorithms and structures of higher levels of complexity than could easily be built by design. In the context of artistic domains, the process of human-machine interaction is analyzed as a good framework to explore creativity and to produce results that could not be obtained without this interaction. When evolutionary computation and other computational intelligence methodologies are involved, every attempt to improve aesthetic judgement we denote as ArTbitrariness, and is interpreted as an interactive iterative optimization process. ArTbitrariness is also suggested as an effective way to produce art through an efficient manipulation of information and a proper use of computational creativity to increase the complexity of the results without neglecting the aesthetic aspects [Moroni et al., 2000]. Our emphasis will be in an approach to interactive music composition. The problem of computer generation of musical material has received extensive attention and a subclass of the field of algorithmic composition includes those applications which use the computer as something in between an instrument, in which a user "plays" through the application's interface, and a compositional aid, which a user experiments with in order to generate stimulating and varying musical material. This approach was adopted in Vox Populi, a hybrid made up of an instrument and a compositional environment. Differently from other systems found in genetic algorithms or evolutionary computation, in which people have to listen to and judge the musical items, Vox Populi uses the computer and the mouse as real-time music controllers, acting as a new interactive computer-based musical instrument. The interface is designed to be flexible for the user to modify the music being generated. It explores evolutionary computation in the context of algorithmic composition and provides a graphical interface that allows to modify the tonal center and the voice range, changing the evolution of the music by using the mouse[Moroni et al., 1999]. A piece of music consists of several sets of musical material manipulated and exposed to the listener, for example pitches, harmonies, rhythms, timbres, etc. They are composed of a finite number of elements and basically, the aim of a composer is to organize those elements in an esthetic way. Modeling a piece as a dynamic system implies a view in which the composer draws trajectories or orbits using the elements of each set [Manzolli, 1991]. Nonlinear iterative mappings are associated with interface controls. In the next page two examples of nonlinear iterative mappings with their resulting musical pieces are shown.The mappings may give rise to attractors, defined as geometric figures that represent the set of stationary states of a non-linear dynamic system, or simply trajectories to which the system is attracted. The relevance of this approach goes beyond music applications per se. Computer music systems that are built on the basis of a solid theory can be coherently embedded into multimedia environments. The richness and specialty of the music domain are likely to initiate new thinking and ideas, which will have an impact on areas such as knowledge representation and planning, and on the design of visual formalisms and human-computer interfaces in general. Above and bellow, Vox Populi interface is depicted, showing two nonlinear iterative mappings with their resulting musical pieces. References [Manzolli, 1991] J. Manzolli. Harmonic Strange Attractors, CEM BULLETIN, Vol. 2, No. 2, 4 -- 7, 1991. [Moroni et al., 1999] Moroni, J. Manzolli, F. Von Zuben, R. Gudwin. Evolutionary Computation applied to Algorithmic Composition, Proceedings of CEC99 - IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation, Washington D. C., p. 807 -- 811,1999. [Moroni et al., 2000] Moroni, A., Von Zuben, F. and Manzolli, J. ArTbitration, Las Vegas, USA: Proceedings of the 2000 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference Workshop Program – GECCO, 143 -- 145, 2000.
series other
email artemis@ia.cti.br
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 1839
authors Papamichael, Konstantinos Michael
year 1991
title Design process and knowledge possibilities and limitations of computer-aided design
source University of California, Berkeley
summary An attempt to determine how computers can be used to assist designers resulted in the development of a design theory, according to which design is 'feeling and thinking while acting.' Design is theorized as living through one's imagination, however being continuously affected by real life itself. The design process is decomposed into elementary activities that are characterized with respect to the nature of knowledge requirements and the degree to which they can be specified and delegated to computers. The results are considered as criteria to determine possibilities and limitations of computer-aided design. An integration of a variety of computer applications tools is proposed towards the design and development of a computer-based Design Support Environment (DSE), that is applicable to any design domain. The proposed DSE automates all specifiable and delegable design activities, while assisting with the nondelegable ones through appropriate user interface. A DSE demonstration prototype is also presented in the Appendix. This prototype addresses the design of fenestration and electric lighting systems of office spaces with respect to comfort, energy and cost.
series thesis:PhD
email K_Papamichael@lbl.gov
last changed 2003/02/24 19:32

_id ef46
authors Petrovic, I.
year 1991
title Integrative Knowledge-Based Design Systems : A View
source The Computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar September, 1991. Unnumbered : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The paper describes a recent project whose objective was to redesign GIMSEX-PERT, an existing architectural knowledge- based design system developed in 1987. Its critical generative problems appeared to be the rigid structure and limited evaluation criteria. The project's outcome is DESTOOLS, based on the 'object-oriented-methodology' inspired by the traditional trial-and-error approach. It includes a set of interchangeable design methods that can be applied interactively by any desired sequence, producing or transforming a GIMS Building System object. Such 'moderately- loose' system structure offers flexibility in use, avoids pitfalls of knowledge-based design systems with rigid structure, and is applicable in design research, education and practice
keywords knowledge base, design, architecture, methods, systems, education, practice, integration, evaluation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c5ad
authors Shaviv, Edna and Peleg, Uriel J.
year 1991
title An Integrated KB-CAAD System for the Design of Solar and Low Energy Buildings
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 465-484
summary A knowledge-based computer-aided architectural design system (KB-CAAD) for the design and evaluation of solar and low energy buildings is presented. The KB-CAAD system is based on the, integration of knowledge-based and procedural simulation methods with any available CAAD system for building representation. The knowledge base contains the heuristic rules for the design of passive solar buildings. Whenever possible, the knowledge base guides the designer through the decision making process. Yet, if the rules of thumb are not acceptable for the particular design problem, the KB-CAAD system guides the architect by using a procedural simulation model. We demonstrate by means of a case study, that not only does the KB-CAAD system lead to the design of better solar buildings, but that this process requires less time and labor than the process of building presentations by means of standard available CAAD systems.
series CAAD Futures
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 86c1
authors Shih, Shen-Guan
year 1991
title Case-based Representation and Adaptation in Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 301-312
summary By attempting to model the raw memory of experts, case-based reasoning is distinguished from traditional expert systems, which compile experts' knowledge into rules before new problems are given. A case-based reasoning system processes new problems with the most similar prior experiences available, and adapts the prior solutions to solve new problems. Case-based representation, of design knowledge utilizes the desirable features of the selected case as syntax rules to adapt the case to a new context. As a central issue of the paper, three types of adaptation aimed at topological modifications are described. The first type - casebased search - can be viewed as a localized search process. It follows the syntactical structure of the case to search for variations which provide the required functionality. Regarding the complexity of computation, it is recognized that when a context sensitive grammar is used to describe the desirable features, the search process become intractable. The second type of adaptation can be viewed as a process of self-organization, in which context-sensitive grammars play an essential role. Evaluations have to be simulated by local interaction among design primitives. The third type is called direct transduction. A case is translated directly to another structure according to its syntax by some translation functions. A direct transduction is not necessarily a composition of design operators and thus, a crosscontextual mapping is possible. As a perspective use of these adaptation methods, a CAD system which provides designers with the ability to modify the syntactical structure of a group of design elements, according to some concerned semantics, would support designers better than current CAD systems.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 241f
authors Van Wyk, C.S.G., Bhat, R., Gauchel, J. and Hartkopf, V.
year 1991
title A Knowledge-based Approach to Building Design and Performance Evaluation
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 1-14
summary The introduction of physically-based description and simulation methods to issues of building performance (i.e., acoustic, visual, and air quality; thermal comfort, cost, and long-term system integrity) began in the early 1960s as one of the first examples of computer-aided design in architecture. Since that time, the development of commercially-available computer-aided design systems has largely been oriented towards the visualization and representation of the geometry of buildings, while the development of building performance applications has been concerned with approaches to mathematical and physics-based modeling for predictive purposes.
series ACADIA
email vanwyk@swcp.com
last changed 2003/04/20 17:20

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ad7b
authors Hannus, Matti
year 1991
title Implementation of Object Oriented Product Model Applications
source The Computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991. Unnumbered : ill. includes bibliography
summary The paper describes implementation aspects of object oriented applications using different software tools such as a CAD- system, a relational data base management system and an object oriented programming language. The different implementations are based on a common generic product model and are integrated by means of neutral file transfer. The modules make up a toolbox from which various specific applications can be derived by adding application specific subclasses. The described development aims to provide steps along an evolutionary path from the dominating design tools of today towards the envisioned object oriented systems of tomorrow
keywords integration, OOPS, CAD, product modeling
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id diss_hensen
id diss_hensen
authors Hensen, J.L.M.
year 1991
title On the Thermal Interaction of Building Structure and Heating and Ventilating System
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary In this dissertation, developments in the field of building performance evaluation tools are described. The subject of these tools is the thermal interaction of building structure and heating and ventilating system. The employed technique is computer simulation of the integrated, dynamic system comprising the occupants, the building and its heating and ventilating system. With respect to buildings and the heating and ventilating systems which service them, the practical objective is ensuring thermal comfort while using an optimum amount of fuel. While defining the optimum had to be left for other workers, the issue of thermal comfort is addressed here. The conventional theory of thermal comfort in conditions characteristic for dwellings and offices assumes steady-state conditions. Yet thermal conditions in buildings are seldom steady, due to the thermal interaction between building structure, climate, occupancy, and auxiliary systems. A literature rewiew is presented regarding work on thermal comfort specifically undertaken to examine what fluctuations in indoor climate may be acceptable. From the results, assessment criteria are defined. Although its potentials reach beyond the area of Computer Aided Building Design, a description is given of building and plant energy simulation within the context of the CABD field of technology. Following an account of the present state-of-the-art, the choice for starting from an existing energy simulation environment (ESPR) is justified. The main development areas of this software platform - within the present context - are identified as: fluid flow simulation, plant simulation, and their integration with the building side of the overall problem domain. In the field of fluid flow simulation, a fluid flow network simulation module is described. The module is based on the mass balance approach, and may be operated either in standalone mode or from within the integrated building and plant energy simulation system. The program is capable of predicting pressures and mass flows in a user-defined building / plant network comprising nodes (ie building zones, plant components, etc) and connections (ie air leakages, fans, pipes, ducts, etc), when subjected to flow control (eg thermostatic valves) and / or to transient boundary conditions (eg due to wind). The modelling and simulation techniques employed to predict the dynamic behaviour of the heating and ventilating system, are elaborated. The simultaneous approach of the plant and its associated control is described. The present work involved extensions to the ESPR energy simulation environment with respect to robustness of the program, and with respect to additional plant simulation features, supported plant component models and control features. The coupling of fluid flow, plant side energy and mass, and building side energy simulation into one integrated program is described. It is this "modular-simultaneous" technique for the simulation of combined heat and fluid flow in a building / plant context, which enables an integral approach of the thermal interaction of building structure and heating and ventilating system.

A multi stage verification and validation methodology is described, and its applicability to the present work is demonstrated by a number of examples addressing each successive step of the methodology. A number of imaginary and real world case studies are described to demonstrate application of the present work both in a modelling orientated context and in a building engineering context. Then the general conclusions of the present work are summarized. Next and finally, there are recommendations towards possible future work in the areas of: theory, user interface, software structure, application, and technology transfer.

series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/12/15 13:43

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