CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 22d6
authors Ballheim, F. and Leppert, J.
year 1991
title Architecture with Machines, Principles and Examples of CAAD-Education at the Technische Universität München
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary "Design tools affect the results of the design process" - this is the starting point of our considerations about the efficient use of CAAD within architecture. To give you a short overview about what we want to say with this thesis lets have a short - an surely incomplete - trip through the fourth dimension back into the early time of civil engineering. As CAD in our faculty is integrated in the "Lehrstuhl für Hochbaustatik und Tragwerksplanung" (if we try to say it in English it would approximately be "institute of structural design"), we chose an example we are very familiar with because of its mathematical background - the cone sections: Circle, ellipse, parabola and hyperbola. If we start our trip two thousand years ago we only find the circle - or in very few cases the ellipse - in their use for the ground plan of greek or roman theaters - if you think of Greek amphitheaters or the Colosseum in Rome - or for the design of the cross section of a building - for example the Pantheon, roman aqueducts or bridges. With the rediscovery of the perspective during the Renaissance the handling of the ellipse was brought to perfection. May be the most famous example is the Capitol in Rome designed by Michelangelo Buonarotti with its elliptical ground plan that looks like a circle if the visitor comes up the famous stairway. During the following centuries - caused by the further development of the natural sciences and the use of new construction materials, i.e. cast-iron, steel or concrete - new design ideas could be realized. With the growing influence of mathematics on the design of buildings we got the division into two professions: Civil engineering and architecture. To the regret of the architects the most innovative constructions were designed by civil engineers, e.g. the early iron bridges in Britain or the famous bridges of Robert Maillard. Nowadays we are in the situation that we try to reintegrate the divided professions. We will return to that point later discussing possible solutions of this problem. But let us continue our 'historical survey demonstrating the state of the art we have today. As the logical consequence of the parabolic and hyperbolic arcs the hyperbolic parabolic shells were developed using traditional design techniques like models and orthogonal sections. Now we reach the point where the question comes up whether complex structures can be completely described by using traditional methods. A question that can be answered by "no" if we take the final step to the completely irregular geometry of cable- net-constructions or deconstructivistic designs. What we see - and what seems to support our thesis of the connection between design tools and the results of the design process - is, that on the one hand new tools enabled the designer to realize new ideas and on the other hand new ideas affected the development of new tools to realize them.

series eCAADe
more http://www.mediatecture.at/ecaade/91/ballheim_leppert.pdf
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id f14c
authors Sariyildiz, Sevil
year 1991
title Conceptual Design by Means of Islamic-Geometric-Patterns within a CAAD-Environment
source Delft University of Technology
summary The starting point in this research was to develop a 3D grammar theory on top of existing 2D Islamic-geometric-patterns, trying to rescue their fundamental geometry contents to be applied in contemporary architecture without compromising any architectural style. As it is self evident the architectural design process consists of clearly distinct stages namely conceptual design, materialisation and further completion. A this conceptual stage the innovative item of the research deals with pattern grammars on 3D complex geometrical patterns, considering them as polyhedra and polytopes, for their use as an underlayer to a concept design, like architects use 2D rectangular and triangular grids by the conventional way. Handling these complex 3D patterns requires a special environment which is possible with CAAD. Within the CAAD environment, the handling of these complex patterns is easily done by means of 3D tools, because the 3D tools permit the user to make any possible manipulations and geometrical transformations in an easier way in space. To a geometrical patterns, there is some attention paid during the last 50 years by some scholars. The most complex geometrical patterns are highly developed in Islamic architecture because it is forbidden in Muslim religion to use man's portraits or sculptures of human beings in the religious buildings. All these approaches to complex patterns are analysed and studied as 2D elements. The question was how could we consider them in 3rd dimensions and use them instead of 2D underlayer, as 3D underlayers in the conceptual phase of the CAAD design. Pattern grammar is a generally employable aid (underlying pattern) for conceptual and material designs. On the basis of rules of symmetry and substitution, ordering principles have been worked out, which can be used for formal design methods as well as detailing systems (e.g. modular coordination). Through the realization of a pattern grammar a wider range of underlying patterns can be offered and a choice from these can be made in a more fundamental manner. At a subsequent stage the collection of "empty boxes" can be filled with (architectural) elements in such a way that another option is created between either filling up the boxes completely, filling them partly, or filling them in such a way that they overflow. It is self-evident that underlying patterns can also be used for details and decoration in a design. Concerning the materialisation of the concept design, within the 3D CAAD environment, substitution methods are partially developed. Further theoretical developments concerning the materialisation phase constantly backed up through feed-back with specialist matters (such as e.g. by means of expert systems, decision-support systems), must be worked out. As feed-back of the research, the possibilities of the design with 3D patterns have been tested and the procedures are explained. (*) Working with 3D patterns gives a designer more inspirations to develop new ideas and new concepts and gives the opportunity to handle the complexity. (*) The formal, structural and symmetrical qualities of geometrical patterns has a positive influence on the industrialisation of the building components. (*) Working with 3D tools which are able to handle complex geometry have a result because of the accuracy of the information, that there has hardly been a mistake made during the preparation and the assembly of the building components. This has also positive results concerning the financial aspects of the building process.
series thesis:PhD
email i.s.Sariyildiz@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ascaad2007_026
id ascaad2007_026
authors Sarji, E.A.; A. Rafi and R. Mat Rani
year 2007
title Preparing a multimedia-based gallery for institute of higher learning: A case study of Malaysian experience
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 305-316
summary While the majority of medium and small sized institutions still rely on their physical or traditional content, it has been observed a pre-disposition usually by major, recently founded or contemporary art institutions to display net-based projects (Buiani, 2001) and to some extent established as a permanent display. This changing of exhibitions has penetrated in many Asian galleries and as a result many schools trying to re-position and present in such a way that it can be easily changed and adapted to host multimedia, Internet, interactive and computer-based content. This funded research project investigates the functions of gallery in IHL in Malaysia. A triangulated study was conducted to understand the potentials and issues faced by galleries in public and private universities focusing on design schools that include art and design, and architecture. This research starts with the understanding of gallery design theories. It is then followed by a qualitative method survey to all galleries in the IHL. This research continues with an in depth study and a survey on Electronic Gallery (e-Gallery), Faculty of Creative Multimedia (FCM), Multimedia University (MMU) to understand between the theories and design ideas. A set of questionnaires was developed based on Mathews (1991) and Stewart’s (2002) principles and guidelines on research methods and distributed to visitors throughout a period of time consisting of open-ended, close-ended, Likert Summated Rating Scale and Multiple-choice. This involved a controlled group of visitors comprises students and staff of the faculty. The results of these studies will be used as a reference to further conduct a wider scope of galleries worldwide towards designing a multimedia-based gallery framework for Institute of Higher Learning.
series ASCAAD
email elyna.amir@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id 26ef
authors Seebohm, Thomas
year 1991
title A Possible Palladian Villa
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 135-166
summary Ever since Wittkower published Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism in 1949, in which he showed that Palladio's villa plans are based on a tartan grid, it seemed that Palladio's design principles had been encapsulated. When subsequently, in 1978, Mitchell and Stiny enunciated all the topological possibilities for Palladian villa plans, it appeared that the case was closed. Freedman and Hersey have since shown that it is precisely in the application of specific building dimensions and proportions that additional design rules come into play, however. The present study builds on the work of Freedman and Hersey. It uses and extends their method which involves incorporation of the known design principles for Palladian villas, as given implicitly in Palladio's Four Books of Architecture and in his built works, into a computer program capable of generating schematic plans and elevations based on those principles and visually comparing the generated plans and elevations with the known works of Palladio. In cases of disagreement, the reasons for the disagreement help formulate further design rules.
series ACADIA
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 85c5
authors Strauss, Wolfgang
year 1991
title Organization Principles in Virtual Space - Digital Casa in Media City
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary Omitting the "virtual": the organization of the space - that is architecture. How the design process itself has been changed by the new media, is the topic of this discussion - the process of designing in its penetration and extension into other techniques and media, for example video montage or image data banks. The process of designing becomes an electronic working of images differing substantially from the traditional process by the employed electronic devices.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/23 07:50

_id 87bb
authors Turk, Ziga
year 1991
title Integration of Existing Programs Using Frames
source The Computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar September, 1991. Unnumbered : ill. includes bibliography.
summary A prototype for computer integrated design/analysis environment is being developed. Due to the nature and size of the author's institution, he opted for compatibility with existing and third party products as well for future developments. Frames are used in Minsky's sense to insulate knowledge and semantics of the tools being integrated. Frames are used again in a more traditional sense insulating components physically. Standards like STEP or AIS were not applied explicitly, but principles behind those standards are reflected in the solution. In the paper an architecture of shallow integration of the tools for integrated structural design is explained in greater detail. Some of the solutions are suggested from the blending of the Object Oriented approach and AI techniques
keywords integration, systems, frames, building, OOPS, AI
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 0d59
authors Vaupel, Jesper
year 1991
title Reference Architecture for Computer Integration in Denmark
source The Computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991. Unnumbered : ill
summary This paper gives an overview of the principles and the existing integration framework for a new set of projects in Denmark, intended to develop a common reference architecture for the integration of design, construction, distribution and use of building products. The budget for these projects is 6 million dkr. The new projects are based upon existing reference architectures from previous projects - called 'DIGIDOK' (Digital building documents) and 'EITI' (Contractors Association IT-initiative) - which over the past 4 years have provided a set of generic application models, data models and EDIFACT specifications. The total budget was around 15 million dkr. New projects serve as a coordinating link and part of a greater IT-initiative 'data interchange in the construction sector' comprising 15-20 subprojects with a budget or around 30 million dkr
keywords integration, systems, standards, research, building, construction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 86ce
authors Gianni, Benjamin
year 1991
title BUILDING, SEEING, THINKING: THE USE OF THE COMPUTER IN THE INVESTIGATION OF VISUAL LOGIC
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 87-112
summary A body of speculative work, produced with a solid modeling program, demonstrates how the use of the computer can radically transform the range of questions asked by the designer, affects the type of work produced, and questions the foundations of design logic and visual perception. Reality is a function of the tools and conventions used to describe it.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email bgianni@ccs.carleton.ca
last changed 2006/03/14 21:27

_id 4eed
authors Benedickt, Michael (ed.)
year 1991
title Cyberspace: First Steps
source The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA and London, UK
summary Cyberspace has been defined as "an infinite artificial world where humans navigate in information-based space" and as "the ultimate computer-human interface." These original contributions take up the philosophical basis for cyberspace in virtual realities, basic communications principles, ramifications of cyberspace for future workplaces, and more.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id a1dc
authors Budd, T.
year 1991
title An introduction to Object Oriented programming
source Addison-Wesley
summary In An Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming, Timothy Budd provides a language-independent presentation of object-oriented principles, such as objects, methods, inheritance (including multiple inheritance) and polymorphism. Examples are drawn from several different languages, including (among others) C++, C#, Java, CLOS, Delphi, Eiffel, Objective-C and Smalltalk. By examining many languages, the reader is better able to appreciate the general principles that lie beyond the syntax of the individual languages.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 098a
authors Perron, Richard and Miller, Deron
year 1991
title Landscape of the Mind
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 71-86
summary The focus of this article is the exploration of landscape and the question of representation, more specifically how landscape principles can be represented through computation. It is a quest for essential qualities, through an application of philosophical questioning, and a response to a human perception of reality. Reality, as an invention of the human mind, is often thought of as a set of accepted conventions and constructs. Such a reality has an inherent dependency upon cognition where spatial and temporal principles may be defined within the natural and built environment, and further embraced within a cultural context. However, there also exist rules or relations that are neither invented nor formulated by the participants understanding. In effect these relations may not have been effectively articulated, a result perhaps of unfamiliar cues. Therefore, to the participant, these relations reside in the realm of the unknown or even the mystic. The aesthetic often resides in the realm of the mystic. The discovery of the aesthetic, is often an experience that comes from encountering physical and essential beauty where it has been produced through unconscious relations, perceived, yet transcending human understanding. The aspects of space and time, spatial and temporal properties and relations of things and events, are generally accepted conventions. Yet, the existence of a time order, is often not perceived. An understanding of spatial temporal properties may involve a temporal detachment from convention, allowing the release of previously unknown patterns and relations. Virtual realities are well constructed simulations of our environments, yet they may lack the embedded essential qualities of place. Virtual reality should transcend human perception and traditional modes of understanding, and most importantly our limited notions of the temporal nature of our environment. A desire to reach beyond the limits of perceived time order, may take us beyond existing sets of cultural values, and lead to the realization of new spatial/temporal conventions with the assistance of the computer.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:27

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 2560
authors Alkhoven, Patricia
year 1991
title The Reconstruction of the Past: The Application of New Techniques for Visualization and Research in Architectural History
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 549-566
summary This paper focuses on the visualization of historical architecture. The application of new Computer-Aided- Architectural-Design techniques for visualization on micro computers provides a technique for reconstructing and analyzing architectural objects from the past. The pilot project describes a case study in which the historical transformation of a town will be analyzed by using three- dimensional CAD models in combination with bitmap textures. The transformation of the historic town will be visualized in a space-time computer model in which bitmap textures enable us to display complex and relatively large architectural objects in detail. This three-dimensional descriptive model allows us to survey and analyze the history of architecture in its reconstructed context. It also provides a medium for researching the dynamics of urban management, since new combinations and arrangements with the individual architectural objects can be created. In this way, a new synthesis of the graphic material can reveal typologies and the architectural ordering system of a town.
keywords 3D City modeling
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 849b
authors Amiel, Maurice
year 1991
title NOTES ON IN-SITU – FULL-SCALE EXPERIMENTATION AND THE DESIGN PROFESSIONS
source Proceedings of the 3rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / ISBN 91-7740044-5 / Lund (Sweden) 13-16 September 1990, pp. 40-43
summary In the north american academic context a workshop is different from a paper session in that it is simply an opportunity to exchange ideas and to raise questions among colleagues who can bring to bear in their discussion various points of view and experiences otherwise unavailable.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:18

_id 0ab2
authors Amor, R., Hosking, J., Groves, L. and Donn, M.
year 1993
title Design Tool Integration: Model Flexibility for the Building Profession
source Proceedings of Building Systems Automation - Integration, University of Wisconsin-Madison
summary The development of ICAtect, as discussed in the Building Systems Automation and Integration Symposium of 1991, provides a way of integrating simulation tools through a common building model. However, ICAtect is only a small step towards the ultimate goal of total integration and automation of the building design process. In this paper we investigate the next steps on the path toward integration. We examine how models structured to capture the physical attributes of the building, as required by simulation tools, can be used to converse with knowledge-based systems. We consider the types of mappings that occur in the often different views of a building held by these two classes of design tools. This leads us to examine the need for multiple views of a common building model. We then extend our analysis from the views required by simulation and knowledge-based systems, to those required by different segments of the building profession (e.g. architects, engineers, developers, etc.) to converse with such an integrated system. This indicates a need to provide a flexible method of accessing data in the common building model to facilitate use by different building professionals with varying specialities and levels of expertise.
series journal paper
email john@cs.auckland.ac.nz
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id f9bd
authors Amor, R.W.
year 1991
title ICAtect: Integrating Design Tools for Preliminary Architectural Design
source Wellington, New Zealand: Computer Science Department, Victoria University
summary ICAtect is a knowledge based system that provides an interface between expert systems, simulation packages and CAD systems used for preliminary architectural design. This thesis describes its structure and development.The principal work discussed in this thesis involves the formulation of a method for representing a building. This is developed through an examination of a number of design tools used in architectural design, and the ways in which each of these describe a building.Methods of enabling data to be transferred between design tools are explored. A Common Building Model (CBM), forming the core of the ICAtect system, is developed to represent the design tools knowledge of a building. This model covers the range of knowledge required by a large set of disparate design tools used by architects at the initial design stage.Standard methods of integrating information from the tools were examined, but required augmentation to encompass the unusual constraints found in some of the design tools. The integration of the design tools and the CBM is discussed in detail, with example methods developed for each type of design tool. These example methods provide a successful way of moving information between the different representations. Some problems with mapping data between very different representations were encountered in this process, and the solutions or ideas for remedies are detailed. A model for control and use of ICAtect is developed in the thesis, and the extensions to enable a graphical user interface are discussed.The methods developed in this thesis demonstrate the feasibility of an integrated system of this nature, while the discussion of future work indicates the scope and potential power of ICAtect.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id a620
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 1991
title Unde et Quo
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary To begin with, I would like to say a few words about the problem of alienation of modern technologies which we also inevitably faced while starting teaching CAD at our department. Quite often nowadays a technology becomes a fetish as a result of lack of clear goals in human mind. There are multiple technologies without sense of purpose which turned into pure experiments. There is always the danger of losing purposeness and drifting toward alienation. The cause of the danger lies in forgetting about original goals while mastering and developing the technology. Eventually the original idea is ignored and a great gap appears between technical factors and creativity. We had the danger of alienation in mind when preparing the CAAD curriculum. Trying to avoid the tension between technical and creative elements we agreed not to introduce CAD too soon then the fourth year of studies and continue it for two semesters. One thing was clear - we should not teach the technique of CAD but how to design using a computer as a medium. Then we specified projects. The first was called "The bathroom I dream of" and meant to be a 2D drawing. The four introductory meetings were in fact teaching foundations of DOS, then a specific design followed with the help of AutoCAD program. In the IX semester, for example, it was "A family house" (plans, facades, perspective). "I have to follow them - I am their leader" said L.J. Peter in "The Peter's Prescription". This quotation reflects exactly the situation we find ourselves in teaching CAAD at our department. It means that ever growing students interest in CAAD made us introduce changes in the curriculum. According to the popular saying, "The more one gets the more one wants", so did we and the students feel after the first semester of teaching CAD. From autumn 1991 CAAD classes will be carried from the third year of studying for two consecutive years. But before further planning one major steep had to be done - we decided to reverse the typical of the seventies approach to the problem when teaching programming languages preceded practical goals hence discouraging many learners.

series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 9964
authors Augenbroe, G. and Winkelmann, F.
year 1991
title Integration of Simulation into the Building Design Process
source J.A. Clarke, J.W. Mitchell, and R.C. Van de Perre (eds.), Proceedings, Building Simulation '91 IBPSA Conference, pp. 367-374
summary We describe the need for a joint effort between design researchers and simulation tool developers in formulating procedures and standards for integrating simulation into the building design process. We review and discuss current efforts in the US and Europe in the development of next-generation simulation tools and design integration techniques. In particular, we describe initiatives in object-oriented simulation environments (including the US Energy 'Kernel System, the Swedish Ida system, the UK Energy Kernel System, and the French ZOOM program.) and consider the relationship of these environments to recent R&D initiatives in design integration (the COMBINE project in Europe and the AEDOT project in the US).
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ca50
authors Ayrle, Hartmut
year 1991
title XNET2 - Methodical Design of Local Area Networks in Buildings - An Application of the A4 Intelligent Design Tool
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 443-450
summary XNET2 is a prototype program, that helps network planners to design Ethernet-conform data-networks for sites and buildings. It is implemented as an example application of the ARMILLA4 Intelligent Design Tool under Knowledge Craft. It is based on a knowledge acquisition phase with experts from DECsite, the network-branch of DEC. The ARMILLA Design Tool is developed on the basis of Fritz Haller's ARMILLA ' a set of geometrical and operational rules for the integration of technical ductwork into a building's construction.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 27d2
authors Ayrle, Hartmut
year 1991
title Computers for Architects - Only a Tool?
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary The paper states that, as a result of the schism between architecture as art and engineering as rationalism, the architectural community underestimates the computer as tool with a potential to substantially enlarge the possibilities of building design. It is claimed that the computer could serve as coordination tool for the ruptured design process, as a virtual workbench where all design disciplines sit together and develop their designs in enhanced conscience of what the whole design demands. The paper then concludes, that to develop such software tools, architects must participate in the development of software and may no longer be restricted to the role of applicants, especially during their universitary instruction. The corresponding research and training facilities at the University of Karlsruhe, Faculty of Architecture are described.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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