CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id a113
authors Milne, Murray
year 1991
title Design Tools: Future Design Environments for Visualizing Building Performance
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 485-496
summary In the future of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD), architects clearly need more than just computer aided design and drafting systems (CAD). Unquestionably CAD systems continue to become increasingly powerful, but there is more to designing a good building than its three-dimensional existence, especially in the eyes of all the non-architects of the world: users, owners, contractors, regulators, environmentalists. The ultimate measure of a building's quality has something to do with how well it behaves over time. Predictions about its performance have many different dimensions; how much it costs to build, to operate, and to demolish; how comfortable it is; how effectively people can perform their functions in it; how much energy it uses or wastes. Every year dozens of building performance simulation programs are being written that can predict performance over time along any of these dimensions. That is why the need for both CAD systems and performance predictors can be taken for granted, and why instead it may be more interesting to speculate about the need for 'design tools'. A design tool can be defined as a piece of software that is easy and natural for architects to use, that easily accommodates three-dimensional representations of the building, and that-predicts something useful about a building's performance. There are at least five different components of design tools that will be needed for the design environment of the future.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 241f
authors Van Wyk, C.S.G., Bhat, R., Gauchel, J. and Hartkopf, V.
year 1991
title A Knowledge-based Approach to Building Design and Performance Evaluation
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 1-14
summary The introduction of physically-based description and simulation methods to issues of building performance (i.e., acoustic, visual, and air quality; thermal comfort, cost, and long-term system integrity) began in the early 1960s as one of the first examples of computer-aided design in architecture. Since that time, the development of commercially-available computer-aided design systems has largely been oriented towards the visualization and representation of the geometry of buildings, while the development of building performance applications has been concerned with approaches to mathematical and physics-based modeling for predictive purposes.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/04/20 17:20

_id e7fb
authors Leclercq, Pierre
year 1991
title Students in Efficient Energy Management
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary The LEMA presents Strategy II, the new version of his CAL software in thermal design of building. Based on his latest experiences using the first prototypes, the present programme provides an complete human interface and interesting tools for decision taking. A first educational experience with this software is described. Strategy II has been studied in 1990 by two twin teams: one is the LEMA (Laboratoire d'Etudes Méthodologiques Architecturales) and the other one is the CTE (Centre des Technologies de l'Education), parts of the University of Liège, in Belgium.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/23 07:44

_id a9bc
authors Ronchi, Alfredo
year 1991
title CAAD Technical Information Management by Hypertext
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary The research of applications concerning design, sizing and building of computer models have been, during the last years, undoubtedly of great importance and interest. Therefore, analyzing in detail the graphic packages concerning drafting and solid modelling we can undoubtedly say that these are nowadays an integral part of our daily work. In the near future, we can of course expect from those applications, new studies and research mainly concerning an easier start up and the standardization of the graphic interface; if we analyze, for example the well known package AutoCAD we can consider a new real data-base and the redesign of the interface on a graphic base (graphic choice of drawings and blocks, icons for commands, better capability of text editing, pattern editing and stretching, loading capability and visualization of various drawings in graphic windows, full compatibility with MS WINDOWS, etc. etc.). As above mentioned, these studies work on updating well known existing applications aiming to consolidate their uses; one specific section of design not yet supported by computer application is that related to the management of technical and non-technical information, nowadays still written and stored on paper.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:11

_id 2e56
authors Coyne, Robert Francis
year 1991
title ABLOOS : an evolving hierarchical design framework
source Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Architecture
summary The research reported in this thesis develops an approach toward a more effective use of hierarchical decomposition in computational design systems. The approach is based on providing designers a convenient interactive means to specify and experiment with the decompositional structure of design problems, rather than having decompositions pre-specified and encoded in the design system. Following this approach, a flexible decomposition capability is combined with an underlying design method to form the basis for an extensible and evolving framework for cooperative (humdcomputer) design. As a testbed for this approach, the ABLOOS framework for layout design is designed and constructed as a hierarchical extension of LOOS.’The framework enables a layout task to be hierarchically decomposed, and for the LOOS methodology to be applied recursively to layout subtasks at appropriate levels of abstraction within the hierarchy; layout solutions for the subtasks are then recomposed to achieve an overall solution, Research results thus far are promising: ABLOOS has produced high quality solutions for a class of industrial layout design tasks (an analog power board layout with 60 components that have multiple complex constraints on their placement); the adaptability of the framework across domains and disciplines has been demonstrated; and, further development of ABLOOS is underway including its extension to layouts in 2 1/2D space and truly 3D arrangements. The contribution of this work is in demonstrating an effective, flexible and extensible capability for hierarchical decomposition in design. It has also produced a more comprehensive layout system that can serve as a foundation for the further investigation of hierarchical decomposition in a variety of design domains.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id e949
authors Eastman, Charles M.
year 1991
title Modeling of Buildings : Evolution and Concepts
source Computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar September, 1991. Unnumbered : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This presentation reviews the concepts of building modeling as they evolved historically, through research and previous and current products. It points out some limitations of current systems and concepts and identifies some additional ones that will probably be integrated into an eventual production quality building model
keywords building, modeling, architecture, design, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 2d77
authors Korte, Michael
year 1991
title CASOB - Simultaneous Surveying and Drawing
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary Accurate planning and economical building within an existing structure require a complex building analysis based upon detailed scale plans. Work has shown unsatisfactory of measuring tools: (1.) Recording of measurements with meterrule and measuring tape often results in mistakes and wasted time. Since the data is not digitalized the measurements cannot be used by a CAD system. (2.) Commercially available CAD software is made only for new planning but not for planning with an existing structure. Up till now architects who predominantly work with existing structures were not able to take advantage of products in the software- and hardware market which would satisfy their needs. The problems already begin with the search for appropriate tools for the surveying of existing structures and the simplest possible transfer of the data to a CAD System. There is an increased demand for quality surveying of existing structures. In Germany, far more than 60 % of all construction planning is related to existing structures. Due to the special situation in the five new states this percentage will grow significantly. Other countries will find themselves in a similar situation. A large number of precise and analytical surveys of existing structures will be needed in a relative short time. Time pressure and stress factors at construction sites call for quality planning and economical construction which can only be accomplished with reliable and exact surveying of structures. Frustrating experiences in the field have led me to develop systems for the surveying of existing structures. With CASOB (Computer Aided Surveying of Buildings) we have a tool today that simultaneously surveys and creates a CAD compatible drawing.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/23 07:54

_id e573
authors McLaughlin, Sally
year 1991
title Reading Architectural Plans: A Computable Model
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 347-364
summary A fundamental aspect of the expertise of the architectural designer is the ability to assess the quality of existing and developing proposals from schematic representations such as plans, elevations and sections. In this paper I present a computable model of those aspects of the evaluation of architectural floor plans that I believe to be amenable to rule-like formulation. The objective behind the development of this model is twofold: 1) to articulate a belief about the role of simple symbolic representations in the task of evaluation, a task which relies primarily on uniquely human capabilities; and 2) to explore the possible uses of such representations in the development of design expertise. // Input to the model consists of a specification of a design proposal in terms of walls, doors, windows, openings and spaces together with a specification of the context in which the proposal has been developed. Information about context is used to retrieve the goal packages relevant to the evaluation of the proposal. The goal packages encode information about requirements such as circulation, visual privacy and thermal performance. Generic associations between aspects of a plan and individual goals are used to establish if and how each of the goals have been achieved in the given proposal. These associations formalize relationships between aspects of the topology of the artefact, such as the existence of a door between two rooms, and a goal, in this case the goal of achieving circulation between those two rooms. Output from the model consists of both a graphic representation of the way in which goals are achieved and a list of those goals that have not been achieved. The list of goals not achieved provides a means of accessing appropriate design recommendations. What the model provides is essentially a computational tool for exploring the value judgements made in a particular proposal given a set of predefined requirements such as those to be found in design recommendation literature.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 2914
authors Mortola, Elena and Giangrande, Alessandro
year 1991
title An Evaluation Module for "An Interface for Designing" (AID)- A Procedure based on Trichotomic Segmentation
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 139-154
summary The paper illustrates a model used to construct the evaluation module for "An Interface for Designing" (AID), a system to aid architectural design. The model can be used at the end of every cycle of analysis-synthesis-evaluation in the intermediate phases of design development. With the aid of this model it is possible to evaluate the quality of a project in overall terms to establish whether the project is acceptable, whether it should be elaborated ex-novo or whether it is necessary to begin a new cycle to improve it. In this last case it is also possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the possible actions and strategies for improvement. T he model is based on a procedure of trichotomic segmentation, developed within the MCDA (Multi- Criteria Decision Aid), which uses the outranking relation to compare the project with some evaluation profiles taken as projects for reference. In the paper an example of the application of the model in the teaching field will also be described.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 56d5
authors Paranandi, Murali
year 1991
title Observations on daylighting as demonstrated by the work of Alvar Aalto
source Kent State University
summary Daylight plays a dominant role in the works of Finnish architect Alvar Aalto. This thesis project investigates the role played by the natural light in his architectural works. One of the major concerns of this paper is to discover his intent behind the use of daylight, as well as to identify some of the techniques he devised to handle daylight. Literature research and physical model simulation studies have been incorporated as a method for the study. Significant works of Aalto have been surveyed. It has been observed that the use of daylight has been one of the preoccupations of Aalto since the design of Viipuri Library and Paimio Sanatorium. It was also observed that skylights play a prominent role in Aalto's architecture and that they are well developed and sophisticated devices. Some of the technical components and contributing factors of Aalto's skylights have been identified. Three case-studies were conducted through literature research and simulations. It was concluded that Aalto treats daylighting as one of the elements to embody sufficient psychological factors in man's built environment. It was discovered that the selection and the detailing of the skylights in each case has been predominantly guided by the climate, function, personal relationships, and the visual task of the individual space. Physical model simulations proved to be extremely helpful in understanding the modeling of the daylight and the spatial quality.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/03/03 08:14

_id e40f
authors Van Bakergem, Davis W. and Obata, Gen
year 1991
title Free Hand Plotting - Is It Live or Is It Digital?
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 567-582
summary Free hand plotting is a technique for creating the illusion of hand drawn sketches by means of a CAD system. Utilizing a single pen plotter and altering the holding device, squiggly line drawings can be produced which have a hand made quality and character. In addition, a software technique using postscript can be used to create images that appear to be hand drawn. This paper describes and illustrates both the pen and software techniques for creating these squiggly line drawings. It further proposes several explanations for the unusual viewer response and suggests potential applications.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 2560
authors Alkhoven, Patricia
year 1991
title The Reconstruction of the Past: The Application of New Techniques for Visualization and Research in Architectural History
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 549-566
summary This paper focuses on the visualization of historical architecture. The application of new Computer-Aided- Architectural-Design techniques for visualization on micro computers provides a technique for reconstructing and analyzing architectural objects from the past. The pilot project describes a case study in which the historical transformation of a town will be analyzed by using three- dimensional CAD models in combination with bitmap textures. The transformation of the historic town will be visualized in a space-time computer model in which bitmap textures enable us to display complex and relatively large architectural objects in detail. This three-dimensional descriptive model allows us to survey and analyze the history of architecture in its reconstructed context. It also provides a medium for researching the dynamics of urban management, since new combinations and arrangements with the individual architectural objects can be created. In this way, a new synthesis of the graphic material can reveal typologies and the architectural ordering system of a town.
keywords 3D City modeling
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 85f9
authors Brisson, E., Debras, P. and Poyet, Patrice
year 1991
title A First Step Towards an Intelligent Integrated Design System in the Building Field
source computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991. Unnumbered pages : ill. includes bibliography
summary This article presents the work the Knowledge Base Group is achieving towards the integration of Artificial Intelligence based facilities in the Building design process. After an overview of the current state of the integrated design process, the context and the technical guidelines to realize computer integrated software in the building design field is described. Then some tools are presented to model the knowledge (the HBDS method) and to implement such model in our Mips home-made knowledge modeling software platform (including object-oriented database management facilities, expert system reasoning facilities, hypertext edition facilities, 3D-design and 3D-view modules...). Finally the authors describe the Quakes application devoted to assess detached house anti-seismic capabilities during the design process. A deep conceptual model considers all the semantic entities (columns, resistant panels, openings, ...) involved in the anti-seismic expertise. Using both this conceptual model description of a detached house and the 3D design tool, they input the project. Then the seismic expertise is driven in a divide and conquer approach and records the alleged configuration recognized automatically linked to the corresponding section of the building regulation
keywords AI, design, knowledge, software, integration, building, CAD, structures
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2e03
authors Diederiks, H.J. and van Staveren, R.J.
year 1991
title Dynamic Information System for Modelling of Design Processes
source Computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. september, 1991
summary Unnumbered : ill. DINAMO is a Dynamic Information System for Modelling of Design Processes. It is intended for use along with product models, data management systems and existing applications. In DINAMO a programming user can define processes. These processes are represented by graphs. The graphs are characterized by nodes and relations between nodes. Each node in a graph represents a task, and each relation can be restricted to conditions. So the way in which a process is actually being performed, that is, the actual path to be evaluated through the graph, can depend on certain conditions. Processes and functions (=software modules) are available to the user as tasks. A consuming user can activate tasks; the DINAMO system regulates the dispatch of the tasks, conform the process and function definitions. Tasks are collected on sheets; sheets are collected in a task box. A task box can be regarded as a certain environment, determined by the programming user. A consuming user can choose between the environments which are available at that moment. With the DINAMO system software and process definitions can be re-used in a simple way
keywords design process, modeling, graphs, information, relations, software
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 218a
authors Ervin, Stephen M.
year 1991
title Intra-Medium and Inter-Media Constraints
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 365-380
summary Designers work with multiple representations in a variety of media to express and explore different kinds of knowledge. The advantages of multi-media in design are well- known, and exemplified by the current interest in 'hyper-media' approaches to knowledge exploration. A principal activity in working between views in one medium (e.g. plan, section and perspective drawings), or between different representations (diagrams, maps, graphs, pictures, e.g.) is extrapolating decisions made in one view or medium over to others, so that some consistency is maintained, and implications can be explored. The former kind of consistency maintenance (intra-medium) is beginning to be well understood techniques for constraint expression., satisfaction and propagation are starting to appear in 'smart CAD' systems. The latter kind of consistency maintenance inter-media.) is different, less well understood, and will require new mechanisms for constraint management and exploration. Experiments, hypotheses, and solutions in this direction will be central to any effort that seeks to explain, emulate or assist the integrative, synthetic reasoning that characterizes environmental design and planning. This paper examines some of the characteristics and advantages of intra and inter-media constraint exploration, describes a prototype "designers workstation" and some experiments in the context of landscape planning and design, and lays out some directions for development of these ideas in future computer aided design systems.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id f85d
authors Geraedts, Rob P and Pollalis, Spiro N.
year 2001
title Remote Teaching in Design Education - Educational and Organizational Issues and Experiences
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 305-310
summary The Department of Real Estate and Project Management (BMVB) of the Faculty of Architecture at the Delft University of Technology has been working closely with Professor Spiro N. Pollalis of Harvard University, Graduate School of Design in Cambridge, USA since 1991. His case-based interactive seminars about the management of the design & construction process have been highly appreciated by many generations of students. In Spring 2000, Pollalis suggested to extend the scope of his involvement by introducing a remote teaching component, the subject of his research in the last few years. As Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Design and Construction Industry is part of his lectures, it was appropriate to provide the students with a first hand experience on the subject. In the following experiment, the teacher would remain in his office at Harvard while the interactive work and discussion sessions with 130 students in a full lecture room would take place in Delft as planned. The consequences this experiment has had for the course, for the techniques and facilities used, how teachers and students experienced these, and which conclusions and recommendations can be made, are the topics of this paper.
keywords Remote Teaching, Design & Construction Education, And ICT
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 8c8c
authors Richter, Peter
year 1991
title Integrating Planning Systems
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary Goals and concepts of integrating different computeraided design and administration systems for many tasks in design and management of buildings were reported from the viewpoint of research and software development. They are presented by example of the ISYBAU-project.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/23 07:51

_id 4133
authors Van Nederveenm, G.A. and Tolman, F.P.
year 1991
title Modelling Multiple Views on Buildings
source The Computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991. Unnumbered : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary The building practice is characterized by its loose organization of the different participants, each of whom performs a specific role in a building project and has a specific view on the building project data. When modelling building information it is useful to base the structure of a building model on these views. This can be done by the use of aspect models. This paper presents an approach in which aspect models are used to store view-specific information. The approach is illustrated with an outline of a building reference model. The building reference model consists of a general kernel and view-dependent aspect models. This model is first worked out for one decomposition level, the space unit level. After that the model is extended with other decomposition levels
keywords product modeling, building, database, integration, construction, practice, management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id aefc
authors Van Zutphen, R., De Vries, M. and Wagter, Harry
year 1991
title The Development of an Architects Oriented Product Model
source The Computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991
summary Unnumbered : ill. includes bibliography. In this paper various aspects of the development and introduction of product-models in the building industry are discussed. Management and design information are discussed more in depth
keywords product modeling, architecture, building, database, management, information
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ae74
authors Zamanian, Kiumarse and Fenves, Steven J.
year 1991
title A Framework for Modeling and Communicating Abstractions of Constructed Facilities
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 245-260
summary Management of information about constructed facilities in a computer-integrated environment is a challenging task because this information evolves from, and is viewed by many different disciplines throughout the facility's lifecycle. We present a general framework for modeling and reasoning about the components of a constructed facility at any desired level of abstraction, and communicating the information across disciplines at any stage in the lifecycle of the facility, as well as across stages. Our research has been motivated by an objective similar to that of STEP, which intends to establish an international protocol for the exchange of CAD data. The descriptive information about a facility is divided into two separate but linked groups: spatial and non-spatial attributes. The primary emphasis of this research is to provide a single, uniform representation and reasoning paradigm for dealing with the various spatial abstractions of the facility components regardless of their geometric dimensionalities.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/11/23 18:42

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