CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 2560
authors Alkhoven, Patricia
year 1991
title The Reconstruction of the Past: The Application of New Techniques for Visualization and Research in Architectural History
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 549-566
summary This paper focuses on the visualization of historical architecture. The application of new Computer-Aided- Architectural-Design techniques for visualization on micro computers provides a technique for reconstructing and analyzing architectural objects from the past. The pilot project describes a case study in which the historical transformation of a town will be analyzed by using three- dimensional CAD models in combination with bitmap textures. The transformation of the historic town will be visualized in a space-time computer model in which bitmap textures enable us to display complex and relatively large architectural objects in detail. This three-dimensional descriptive model allows us to survey and analyze the history of architecture in its reconstructed context. It also provides a medium for researching the dynamics of urban management, since new combinations and arrangements with the individual architectural objects can be created. In this way, a new synthesis of the graphic material can reveal typologies and the architectural ordering system of a town.
keywords 3D City modeling
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id f9bd
authors Amor, R.W.
year 1991
title ICAtect: Integrating Design Tools for Preliminary Architectural Design
source Wellington, New Zealand: Computer Science Department, Victoria University
summary ICAtect is a knowledge based system that provides an interface between expert systems, simulation packages and CAD systems used for preliminary architectural design. This thesis describes its structure and development.The principal work discussed in this thesis involves the formulation of a method for representing a building. This is developed through an examination of a number of design tools used in architectural design, and the ways in which each of these describe a building.Methods of enabling data to be transferred between design tools are explored. A Common Building Model (CBM), forming the core of the ICAtect system, is developed to represent the design tools knowledge of a building. This model covers the range of knowledge required by a large set of disparate design tools used by architects at the initial design stage.Standard methods of integrating information from the tools were examined, but required augmentation to encompass the unusual constraints found in some of the design tools. The integration of the design tools and the CBM is discussed in detail, with example methods developed for each type of design tool. These example methods provide a successful way of moving information between the different representations. Some problems with mapping data between very different representations were encountered in this process, and the solutions or ideas for remedies are detailed. A model for control and use of ICAtect is developed in the thesis, and the extensions to enable a graphical user interface are discussed.The methods developed in this thesis demonstrate the feasibility of an integrated system of this nature, while the discussion of future work indicates the scope and potential power of ICAtect.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 22d6
authors Ballheim, F. and Leppert, J.
year 1991
title Architecture with Machines, Principles and Examples of CAAD-Education at the Technische Universität München
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary "Design tools affect the results of the design process" - this is the starting point of our considerations about the efficient use of CAAD within architecture. To give you a short overview about what we want to say with this thesis lets have a short - an surely incomplete - trip through the fourth dimension back into the early time of civil engineering. As CAD in our faculty is integrated in the "Lehrstuhl für Hochbaustatik und Tragwerksplanung" (if we try to say it in English it would approximately be "institute of structural design"), we chose an example we are very familiar with because of its mathematical background - the cone sections: Circle, ellipse, parabola and hyperbola. If we start our trip two thousand years ago we only find the circle - or in very few cases the ellipse - in their use for the ground plan of greek or roman theaters - if you think of Greek amphitheaters or the Colosseum in Rome - or for the design of the cross section of a building - for example the Pantheon, roman aqueducts or bridges. With the rediscovery of the perspective during the Renaissance the handling of the ellipse was brought to perfection. May be the most famous example is the Capitol in Rome designed by Michelangelo Buonarotti with its elliptical ground plan that looks like a circle if the visitor comes up the famous stairway. During the following centuries - caused by the further development of the natural sciences and the use of new construction materials, i.e. cast-iron, steel or concrete - new design ideas could be realized. With the growing influence of mathematics on the design of buildings we got the division into two professions: Civil engineering and architecture. To the regret of the architects the most innovative constructions were designed by civil engineers, e.g. the early iron bridges in Britain or the famous bridges of Robert Maillard. Nowadays we are in the situation that we try to reintegrate the divided professions. We will return to that point later discussing possible solutions of this problem. But let us continue our 'historical survey demonstrating the state of the art we have today. As the logical consequence of the parabolic and hyperbolic arcs the hyperbolic parabolic shells were developed using traditional design techniques like models and orthogonal sections. Now we reach the point where the question comes up whether complex structures can be completely described by using traditional methods. A question that can be answered by "no" if we take the final step to the completely irregular geometry of cable- net-constructions or deconstructivistic designs. What we see - and what seems to support our thesis of the connection between design tools and the results of the design process - is, that on the one hand new tools enabled the designer to realize new ideas and on the other hand new ideas affected the development of new tools to realize them.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0b1c
authors Bridges, Alan
year 1991
title Computer Exercises in Architectural Design Theory
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary This paper discusses how architectural theory may be taught using computer based exercises to explore the practical application of those theories. The particular view of architecture developed is, necessarily, a restricted one but the objectives behind the exercises are slightly different to those that a pure architectural theorist or historian might have The formal teaching of architectural theory and composition has not been very fashionable in Schools of Architecture for several years now: indeed there is a considerable inbuilt resistance in students to the application of any form of rules or procedures. There is however a general interest in computing and this can be utilised to advantage. In concentrating on computer applications in design eclectic use has been made of a number of architectural examples ranging from Greek temples to the work of modern deconstructionists. Architectural theory since Vitruvius is littered with attempts to define universal theories of design and this paper certainly does not presume to anything so grand: I have merely looked at buildings, compared them and noted what they have in common and how that might relate to computer-aided design. I have ignored completely any sociological, philosophical or phenomenological questions but would readily agree with the criticism that Cartesian rationality is not, on its own, a sufficient base upon which to build a theory of design. However I believe there is merit in articulating design by separating it from other concerns and making it a subject of study in its own right. Work in design research will provide the models and intellectual structures to facilitate discourse about design and might be expected to benefit the development of design skills by providing material that could be formally taught and debated in a way that is removed from the ephemeral "fashionable designer" debate. Of course, some of the ideas discussed here may prove to be equally ephemeral but that does not entirely negate their value.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ascaad2014_002
id ascaad2014_002
authors Burry, Mark
year 2014
title BIM and the Building Site: Assimilating digital fabrication within craft traditions
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 27-36
summary This paper outlines a particular component of very well known project: Antoni Gaudí’s Sagrada Família Basilica in Barcelona (1882– on-going but scheduled for completion in 2026). At the time of writing the realisation of the project has proceeded for 87 years since Gaudí's death (1852-1926). As a building site it has been a living laboratory for the nexus between traditional construction offsite manufacturing and digital fabrication since the computers were first introduced to the project:CAD in 1989 closely followed by CAAD two years later. More remarkably CAD/CAM commenced its significant influence in 1991 with the take-up of sem robotised stone cutting and carving. The subject of this paper is an elevated auditorium space that is one of the relatively few ‘sketchy’ areas that Gaudí bequeathed the successors for the design of his magnum opus.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id bd3b
id bd3b
authors Clayton, Mark J. and Weisenthal, Howard
year 1991
title Enhancing the Sketchbook
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 113-125
summary The architect's sketchbook has been virtually untouched by the march of fashions and theories throughout history. The sketchbook, from its modem beginnings in guild lodge books through the travel journals of Beaux-Arts and Modern architects, has remained the repository for observations and ideas waiting to be synthesized into architecture. However, new opportunities offered by computing technology provide ways to advance the sketchbook, transforming it from a personal log of experiences slowly being buried under a lifetime of work, into a vital, interactive information environment supporting design activity. This is not to argue that the computer may replace the artist's hand and pencil, but that the computer can be used to organize and structure the artifacts of design activities Commonly embodied in sketches and notes.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/12/06 07:54

_id cdb1
authors Cornick, T., Noble, B. and Hallahan, C.
year 1991
title The Limitations of Current Working Practices on the Development of Computer Integrating Modelling in Construction
source computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. Calibre, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, september, 1991. Unnumbered. includes bibliography
summary For the construction Industry to improve its processes through the application computer-based systems, traditional working practices must first change to support the integrated control of design and construction. Current manual methods of practice accept the limitations of man to process a wide range of building performance and production information simultaneously. However when these limitations are removed, through the applications of computer systems, the constraints of manual methods need no longer apply. The first generation of computer applications to the Construction Industry merely modelled the divided and sequential processes of manual methods i.e. drafting, specification writing, engineering and quantity calculations, estimating, billing, material ordering data-bases and activity planning. Use of these systems raises expectations that connections within the computer between the processes modelled can actually be made and faster and more integrated information processing be achieved. 'Linking' software is then developed. The end result of this approach was that users were able to produce information faster, present it in an impressive manner but, in reality, no perceived improvement in actual building performance, production economy or efficiency was realized. A current government sponsored Teaching Company Programme with a UK design and build company is addressing the problem of how real economic benefit can be realized through improvement in, amongst other things, their existing computer applications. This work is being carried out by both considering an academic conceptual model of how 'designing for production' can be achieved in computer applications and what is immediately realizable in practice by modelling the integration of a limited number of knowledge domains to which computers are already being applied. i.e. billing from design, estimating and buying. This paper describes each area of work and how they are impacting on each other
keywords construction, building process, integration
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2e56
authors Coyne, Robert Francis
year 1991
title ABLOOS : an evolving hierarchical design framework
source Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Architecture
summary The research reported in this thesis develops an approach toward a more effective use of hierarchical decomposition in computational design systems. The approach is based on providing designers a convenient interactive means to specify and experiment with the decompositional structure of design problems, rather than having decompositions pre-specified and encoded in the design system. Following this approach, a flexible decomposition capability is combined with an underlying design method to form the basis for an extensible and evolving framework for cooperative (humdcomputer) design. As a testbed for this approach, the ABLOOS framework for layout design is designed and constructed as a hierarchical extension of LOOS.’The framework enables a layout task to be hierarchically decomposed, and for the LOOS methodology to be applied recursively to layout subtasks at appropriate levels of abstraction within the hierarchy; layout solutions for the subtasks are then recomposed to achieve an overall solution, Research results thus far are promising: ABLOOS has produced high quality solutions for a class of industrial layout design tasks (an analog power board layout with 60 components that have multiple complex constraints on their placement); the adaptability of the framework across domains and disciplines has been demonstrated; and, further development of ABLOOS is underway including its extension to layouts in 2 1/2D space and truly 3D arrangements. The contribution of this work is in demonstrating an effective, flexible and extensible capability for hierarchical decomposition in design. It has also produced a more comprehensive layout system that can serve as a foundation for the further investigation of hierarchical decomposition in a variety of design domains.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id eaca
authors Davis, L. (ed.)
year 1991
title Handbook of genetic algorithms
source Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York
summary This book sets out to explain what genetic algorithms are and how they can be used to solve real-world problems. The first objective is tackled by the editor, Lawrence Davis. The remainder of the book is turned over to a series of short review articles by a collection of authors, each explaining how genetic algorithms have been applied to problems in their own specific area of interest. The first part of the book introduces the fundamental genetic algorithm (GA), explains how it has traditionally been designed and implemented and shows how the basic technique may be applied to a very simple numerical optimisation problem. The basic technique is then altered and refined in a number of ways, with the effects of each change being measured by comparison against the performance of the original. In this way, the reader is provided with an uncluttered introduction to the technique and learns to appreciate why certain variants of GA have become more popular than others in the scientific community. Davis stresses that the choice of a suitable representation for the problem in hand is a key step in applying the GA, as is the selection of suitable techniques for generating new solutions from old. He is refreshingly open in admitting that much of the business of adapting the GA to specific problems owes more to art than to science. It is nice to see the terminology associated with this subject explained, with the author stressing that much of the field is still an active area of research. Few assumptions are made about the reader's mathematical background. The second part of the book contains thirteen cameo descriptions of how genetic algorithmic techniques have been, or are being, applied to a diverse range of problems. Thus, one group of authors explains how the technique has been used for modelling arms races between neighbouring countries (a non- linear, dynamical system), while another group describes its use in deciding design trade-offs for military aircraft. My own favourite is a rather charming account of how the GA was applied to a series of scheduling problems. Having attempted something of this sort with Simulated Annealing, I found it refreshing to see the authors highlighting some of the problems that they had encountered, rather than sweeping them under the carpet as is so often done in the scientific literature. The editor points out that there are standard GA tools available for either play or serious development work. Two of these (GENESIS and OOGA) are described in a short, third part of the book. As is so often the case nowadays, it is possible to obtain a diskette containing both systems by sending your Visa card details (or $60) to an address in the USA.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id a607
authors Durisch, Peter and Anderheggen, Edoardo
year 1991
title Leaving the Planar Universe
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 521-534
summary A computer program is presented which generates realistic images of planned buildings embedded in their future environment through photomontage. The planar universe of conventional photomontaging is extended to three dimensions. During an interactive preprocessing step, a three- dimensional model of the building's environment is created: Geometrical data is retrieved photogrammetrically from a number of site photographs. Atmospheric parameters and the relative weights of the components of natural daylight are also retrieved from the photographs. The final image, combining the artificial model of the building and the photographs of its surroundings, is rendered by an extended ray-tracing algorithm in three-dimensional object space.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 6f3e
authors Eastman, Charles M. and Lang, Jurg
year 1991
title Experiments in Architectural Design Development Using CAD
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 49-64
summary The need to explore development techniques in computer-based design is reviewed. Some premises are given for design development using computers, including integrating multiple representations, the use of object-based modeling and the importance of visual analysis and 3-D modeling. We then present techniques used in a UCLA design studio that explored methods of computer-based design development based on these premises. The two main methods used were hierarchical object structures and multi-representational coordination. They were applied using conventional CAD systems. Some lessons learned from this class are reviewed.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id sigradi2003_026
id sigradi2003_026
authors Flanagan, Robert
year 2003
title Persistence of Perception: Encoding Reality
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary "Liquid architecture makes liquid cities, cities that change at the shift of value, where visitors with different backgrounds see different landmarks, where neighborhoods vary with ideas held in common, and evolve as the ideas mature or dissolve." In 1991, Marcos Novak in 'Liquid Architectures in Cyberspace' projected a future of individual and blended realities of things perceived and perceived things - a place of "fertile dreams". In the cathedral, "The dream and making were one." In the present he concludes, "Curiously the practice of architecture has become increasingly disengaged from those dreams." This paper addresses inherent limitations in today's digital technology that restrict its ability to participate in the future design of the "fertile dream." It does not address the technology required, but the requirements of the technology.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 68c8
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R. and Fenves, S. (et al.)
year 1994
title SEED: A Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design
source Proceeding of IKM '94, Weimar, Germany, pp. 5-10
summary The SEED project intends to develop a software environment that supports the early phases in building design (Flemming et al., 1993). The goal is to provide support, in principle, for the preliminary design of buildings in all aspects that can gain from computer support. This includes using the computer not only for analysis and evaluation, but also more actively for the generation of designs, or more accurately, for the rapid generation of design representations. A major motivation for the development of SEED is to bring the results of two multi-generational research efforts focusing on `generative' design systems closer to practice: 1. LOOS/ABLOOS, a generative system for the synthesis of layouts of rectangles (Flemming et al., 1988; Flemming, 1989; Coyne and Flemming, 1990; Coyne, 1991); 2. GENESIS, a rule-based system that supports the generation of assemblies of 3-dimensional solids (Heisserman, 1991; Heisserman and Woodbury, 1993). The rapid generation of design representations can take advantage of special opportunities when it deals with a recurring building type, that is, a building type dealt with frequently by the users of the system. Design firms - from housing manufacturers to government agencies - accumulate considerable experience with recurring building types. But current CAD systems capture this experience and support its reuse only marginally. SEED intends to provide systematic support for the storing and retrieval of past solutions and their adaptation to similar problem situations. This motivation aligns aspects of SEED closely with current work in Artificial Intelligence that focuses on case-based design (see, for example, Kolodner, 1991; Domeshek and Kolodner, 1992; Hua et al., 1992).
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ecaade2007_073
id ecaade2007_073
authors Francis, Sabu
year 2007
title Web Based Collaborative Architectural Practice Using a Fractal System
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 727-734
summary I have been working on an architecture representation system in India since 1991; that markedly deviates from the need of traditional drawings as we know. Over three million square feet of work has been done that took advantage of this system as it was being developed. The system has now matured sufficiently to be put into practice as a comprehensive architectural system of practice. It takes advantage of creation of just-in-time dynamic multi-organizations that can get formed (and dismantled) over the Internet on a project to project basis. The raison d’être of the representation system is that it would expose the “source-code” (metaphorically) of any work of architecture to stakeholders, much the same way as an open-source software project exposes the internal representation to fellow developers. I believe the design of architecture must go through an “open source” process in order to produce socially responsible designs. Such a stance is explained in this paper. The paper also explains the system in detail; its mathematical basis and justifies the need for such an approach. It also explores how a collaborative practice can be put into place using the system in the context of Internet technologies.
keywords Collaborative practice, fractals, representation system
series eCAADe
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id f586
authors Gabriel, G. and Maher, M.L.
year 2000
title Analysis of design communication with and without computer mediation
source Proceedings of Co-designing 2000, pp. 329-337
summary With recent developments in CAD and communication technologies, the way we visualise and communicate design representations is changing. A matter of great interest to architects, practitioners and researchers alike, is how computer technology might affect the way they think and work. The concern is not about the notion of 'support' alone, but about ensuring that computers do not disrupt the design process and collaborative activity already going on (Bannon and Schmidt, 1991). Designing new collaborative tools will then have to be guided by a better understanding of how collaborative work is accomplished and by understanding what resources the collaborators use and what hindrances they encounter in their work (Finholt et al., 1990). Designing, as a more abstract notion, is different than having a business meeting using video conferencing. In design it is more important to 'see' what is being discussed rather than 'watch' the other person(s) involved in the discussion. In other words the data being conveyed might be of more importance than the method with which it is communicated (See Kvan, 1994). Similarly, we believe that by using text instead of audio as a medium for verbal communication, verbal representations can then be recorded alongside graphical representations for later retrieval and use. In this paper we present the results of a study on collaborative design in three different environments: face-to-face (FTF), computer-mediated using video conferencing (CMCD-a), and computer-mediated using "talk by typing" (CMCD-b). The underlying aim is to establish a clearer notion of the collaborative needs of architects using computer-mediation. In turn this has the potential in assisting developers when designing new collaborative tools and in assisting designers when selecting an environment for a collaborative session.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id diss_hensen
id diss_hensen
authors Hensen, J.L.M.
year 1991
title On the Thermal Interaction of Building Structure and Heating and Ventilating System
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary In this dissertation, developments in the field of building performance evaluation tools are described. The subject of these tools is the thermal interaction of building structure and heating and ventilating system. The employed technique is computer simulation of the integrated, dynamic system comprising the occupants, the building and its heating and ventilating system. With respect to buildings and the heating and ventilating systems which service them, the practical objective is ensuring thermal comfort while using an optimum amount of fuel. While defining the optimum had to be left for other workers, the issue of thermal comfort is addressed here. The conventional theory of thermal comfort in conditions characteristic for dwellings and offices assumes steady-state conditions. Yet thermal conditions in buildings are seldom steady, due to the thermal interaction between building structure, climate, occupancy, and auxiliary systems. A literature rewiew is presented regarding work on thermal comfort specifically undertaken to examine what fluctuations in indoor climate may be acceptable. From the results, assessment criteria are defined. Although its potentials reach beyond the area of Computer Aided Building Design, a description is given of building and plant energy simulation within the context of the CABD field of technology. Following an account of the present state-of-the-art, the choice for starting from an existing energy simulation environment (ESPR) is justified. The main development areas of this software platform - within the present context - are identified as: fluid flow simulation, plant simulation, and their integration with the building side of the overall problem domain. In the field of fluid flow simulation, a fluid flow network simulation module is described. The module is based on the mass balance approach, and may be operated either in standalone mode or from within the integrated building and plant energy simulation system. The program is capable of predicting pressures and mass flows in a user-defined building / plant network comprising nodes (ie building zones, plant components, etc) and connections (ie air leakages, fans, pipes, ducts, etc), when subjected to flow control (eg thermostatic valves) and / or to transient boundary conditions (eg due to wind). The modelling and simulation techniques employed to predict the dynamic behaviour of the heating and ventilating system, are elaborated. The simultaneous approach of the plant and its associated control is described. The present work involved extensions to the ESPR energy simulation environment with respect to robustness of the program, and with respect to additional plant simulation features, supported plant component models and control features. The coupling of fluid flow, plant side energy and mass, and building side energy simulation into one integrated program is described. It is this "modular-simultaneous" technique for the simulation of combined heat and fluid flow in a building / plant context, which enables an integral approach of the thermal interaction of building structure and heating and ventilating system.

A multi stage verification and validation methodology is described, and its applicability to the present work is demonstrated by a number of examples addressing each successive step of the methodology. A number of imaginary and real world case studies are described to demonstrate application of the present work both in a modelling orientated context and in a building engineering context. Then the general conclusions of the present work are summarized. Next and finally, there are recommendations towards possible future work in the areas of: theory, user interface, software structure, application, and technology transfer.

series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/12/15 13:43

_id eee5
authors Luczak, H., Beitz, W., Springer, J. and Langner, T.
year 1991
title Frictions and Frustrations in Creative-Informatory Work with Computer Aided Design -- CAD-Systems -- Congress I: Work with Terminals: HEALTH ASPECTS: WORKLOAD, STRESS AND STRAIN AND IRREGULAR WORKING HOURS; Causes and Measures of Stress
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1991 v.1 pp. 175-179
summary The effects of computer aided design work on the design process are analysed by field experiments. The study focuses on the influence of 3 different design tasks (standard tasks) and 11 CAD-systems (2D and 3D), taking into account the performance and strain measurements of 43 subjects (15 design engineers, 8 technicians, 17 draughtsmen, 3 trainees). The 3 standard tasks differ in performance measurements, especially in time spent on task, quantity of generated elements, not in the quality of the solution. The kind of CAD-system influences the time spent on task as well as the design performance, with significant differences of up to 100%. The same tendency can be diagnosed in a comparison of 2D and 3D systems. During the use of different functions of the CAD-system, strain effects are identified by cross-correlation with continuously measured physiological parameters, even with CAD-functions which should reduce stresses of routine work. Deficits and complications in the handling of CAD-systems increase with the complexity of the system and thus cause an antinome effect on performance and strain of its operators: creativity is reduced by frictions and frustrations in system handling even if operators are highly trained.
keywords Stressor Analysis; Performance Measurement; Field-Experiment; Design Process
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 8658
authors Matas, Bellot
year 1991
title BECOC : A Knowledge Bank and its Use in Construction and CAD Systems
source The Computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991. Unnumbered : ill. include some bibliographical references
summary The Development of the BECOC prototype (Structured Knowledge Bank for Construction Elements) was undertaken in order to test the integration of Data and Knowledge using the SITEC model (Construction Technology Information System). After the graphical definition of a building exterior, the assignment of the construction solutions is dynamically controlled using the Knowledge Bank for real time decision making. To represent the knowledge that acts on the data the knowledge bank consists of an Object Oriented Data Base and a Rule System, developed using the NEXPERT/OBJECT package. In this manner it is possible to establish relationships among properties, concepts, restrictions in values, structural relations and the control of standards compliance, which in this case has been limited to thermal, acoustic and weight requirements. The system helps the user to make decisions and it analyzes the context in order to make the deductions needed to maintain internal data consistency. The positive results of this work indicate the way for further developments, and demonstrate that expert systems and traditional technologies coupled together can be effective and give the desired answers in monitoring design in the everyday problems in construction technology
keywords construction, expert systems, knowledge base, design, building, envelope, applications, integration, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a113
authors Milne, Murray
year 1991
title Design Tools: Future Design Environments for Visualizing Building Performance
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 485-496
summary In the future of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD), architects clearly need more than just computer aided design and drafting systems (CAD). Unquestionably CAD systems continue to become increasingly powerful, but there is more to designing a good building than its three-dimensional existence, especially in the eyes of all the non-architects of the world: users, owners, contractors, regulators, environmentalists. The ultimate measure of a building's quality has something to do with how well it behaves over time. Predictions about its performance have many different dimensions; how much it costs to build, to operate, and to demolish; how comfortable it is; how effectively people can perform their functions in it; how much energy it uses or wastes. Every year dozens of building performance simulation programs are being written that can predict performance over time along any of these dimensions. That is why the need for both CAD systems and performance predictors can be taken for granted, and why instead it may be more interesting to speculate about the need for 'design tools'. A design tool can be defined as a piece of software that is easy and natural for architects to use, that easily accommodates three-dimensional representations of the building, and that-predicts something useful about a building's performance. There are at least five different components of design tools that will be needed for the design environment of the future.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 2619
authors Otero, E.
year 1996
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary In the production of low-income housing, one of the factors that most affects the low cost of each unit is its mass production. When it comes to building a proposed design it must have been sufficiently studied and evaluated. When designing low-income housing it is convenient to exhaust all the possibilities of simulation in order to produce a prototype that, once built, has reduced the risk of errors. Simulations allow to improve the prototype before proceeding to build it. The Real Scale Model (RSM) has proved to be a better simulation tool than computer generated models or 1:10 scale models. It allows to reproduce and evaluate perceptual experiences as well as being user friendly because most of the spatial variables can be represented. This research is another example of the use and effectiveness of the RSM in the field of design and architectural research.

A Real Scale Model of the basic unit was built by the students of the course Spatial Design Ability dictated by the LEE. The model was first evaluated empty and then a furnishing solution was proposed, built and evaluated. These evaluations were done by another group of students of the Faculty of Architecture and Planning using the Psychological Impressions Measuring Test (IMIP) developed by Luis La Scalea (1991). This test was designed to measure people’s psychological impressions produced by a space, and consists of a semantic differential structured by eleven pairs of opposing adjectives set on a scale of seven levels. The results of this first evaluation were analysed used to modify the prototype which was evaluated again in order to produce a final layout.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 12:41

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