CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

PDF papers
References

Hits 1 to 20 of 216

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 2560
authors Alkhoven, Patricia
year 1991
title The Reconstruction of the Past: The Application of New Techniques for Visualization and Research in Architectural History
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 549-566
summary This paper focuses on the visualization of historical architecture. The application of new Computer-Aided- Architectural-Design techniques for visualization on micro computers provides a technique for reconstructing and analyzing architectural objects from the past. The pilot project describes a case study in which the historical transformation of a town will be analyzed by using three- dimensional CAD models in combination with bitmap textures. The transformation of the historic town will be visualized in a space-time computer model in which bitmap textures enable us to display complex and relatively large architectural objects in detail. This three-dimensional descriptive model allows us to survey and analyze the history of architecture in its reconstructed context. It also provides a medium for researching the dynamics of urban management, since new combinations and arrangements with the individual architectural objects can be created. In this way, a new synthesis of the graphic material can reveal typologies and the architectural ordering system of a town.
keywords 3D City modeling
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 849b
authors Amiel, Maurice
year 1991
title NOTES ON IN-SITU – FULL-SCALE EXPERIMENTATION AND THE DESIGN PROFESSIONS
source Proceedings of the 3rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / ISBN 91-7740044-5 / Lund (Sweden) 13-16 September 1990, pp. 40-43
summary In the north american academic context a workshop is different from a paper session in that it is simply an opportunity to exchange ideas and to raise questions among colleagues who can bring to bear in their discussion various points of view and experiences otherwise unavailable.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:18

_id 0ab2
authors Amor, R., Hosking, J., Groves, L. and Donn, M.
year 1993
title Design Tool Integration: Model Flexibility for the Building Profession
source Proceedings of Building Systems Automation - Integration, University of Wisconsin-Madison
summary The development of ICAtect, as discussed in the Building Systems Automation and Integration Symposium of 1991, provides a way of integrating simulation tools through a common building model. However, ICAtect is only a small step towards the ultimate goal of total integration and automation of the building design process. In this paper we investigate the next steps on the path toward integration. We examine how models structured to capture the physical attributes of the building, as required by simulation tools, can be used to converse with knowledge-based systems. We consider the types of mappings that occur in the often different views of a building held by these two classes of design tools. This leads us to examine the need for multiple views of a common building model. We then extend our analysis from the views required by simulation and knowledge-based systems, to those required by different segments of the building profession (e.g. architects, engineers, developers, etc.) to converse with such an integrated system. This indicates a need to provide a flexible method of accessing data in the common building model to facilitate use by different building professionals with varying specialities and levels of expertise.
series journal paper
email john@cs.auckland.ac.nz
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id f9bd
authors Amor, R.W.
year 1991
title ICAtect: Integrating Design Tools for Preliminary Architectural Design
source Wellington, New Zealand: Computer Science Department, Victoria University
summary ICAtect is a knowledge based system that provides an interface between expert systems, simulation packages and CAD systems used for preliminary architectural design. This thesis describes its structure and development.The principal work discussed in this thesis involves the formulation of a method for representing a building. This is developed through an examination of a number of design tools used in architectural design, and the ways in which each of these describe a building.Methods of enabling data to be transferred between design tools are explored. A Common Building Model (CBM), forming the core of the ICAtect system, is developed to represent the design tools knowledge of a building. This model covers the range of knowledge required by a large set of disparate design tools used by architects at the initial design stage.Standard methods of integrating information from the tools were examined, but required augmentation to encompass the unusual constraints found in some of the design tools. The integration of the design tools and the CBM is discussed in detail, with example methods developed for each type of design tool. These example methods provide a successful way of moving information between the different representations. Some problems with mapping data between very different representations were encountered in this process, and the solutions or ideas for remedies are detailed. A model for control and use of ICAtect is developed in the thesis, and the extensions to enable a graphical user interface are discussed.The methods developed in this thesis demonstrate the feasibility of an integrated system of this nature, while the discussion of future work indicates the scope and potential power of ICAtect.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id a620
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 1991
title Unde et Quo
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary To begin with, I would like to say a few words about the problem of alienation of modern technologies which we also inevitably faced while starting teaching CAD at our department. Quite often nowadays a technology becomes a fetish as a result of lack of clear goals in human mind. There are multiple technologies without sense of purpose which turned into pure experiments. There is always the danger of losing purposeness and drifting toward alienation. The cause of the danger lies in forgetting about original goals while mastering and developing the technology. Eventually the original idea is ignored and a great gap appears between technical factors and creativity. We had the danger of alienation in mind when preparing the CAAD curriculum. Trying to avoid the tension between technical and creative elements we agreed not to introduce CAD too soon then the fourth year of studies and continue it for two semesters. One thing was clear - we should not teach the technique of CAD but how to design using a computer as a medium. Then we specified projects. The first was called "The bathroom I dream of" and meant to be a 2D drawing. The four introductory meetings were in fact teaching foundations of DOS, then a specific design followed with the help of AutoCAD program. In the IX semester, for example, it was "A family house" (plans, facades, perspective). "I have to follow them - I am their leader" said L.J. Peter in "The Peter's Prescription". This quotation reflects exactly the situation we find ourselves in teaching CAAD at our department. It means that ever growing students interest in CAAD made us introduce changes in the curriculum. According to the popular saying, "The more one gets the more one wants", so did we and the students feel after the first semester of teaching CAD. From autumn 1991 CAAD classes will be carried from the third year of studying for two consecutive years. But before further planning one major steep had to be done - we decided to reverse the typical of the seventies approach to the problem when teaching programming languages preceded practical goals hence discouraging many learners.

series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 9964
authors Augenbroe, G. and Winkelmann, F.
year 1991
title Integration of Simulation into the Building Design Process
source J.A. Clarke, J.W. Mitchell, and R.C. Van de Perre (eds.), Proceedings, Building Simulation '91 IBPSA Conference, pp. 367-374
summary We describe the need for a joint effort between design researchers and simulation tool developers in formulating procedures and standards for integrating simulation into the building design process. We review and discuss current efforts in the US and Europe in the development of next-generation simulation tools and design integration techniques. In particular, we describe initiatives in object-oriented simulation environments (including the US Energy 'Kernel System, the Swedish Ida system, the UK Energy Kernel System, and the French ZOOM program.) and consider the relationship of these environments to recent R&D initiatives in design integration (the COMBINE project in Europe and the AEDOT project in the US).
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ca50
authors Ayrle, Hartmut
year 1991
title XNET2 - Methodical Design of Local Area Networks in Buildings - An Application of the A4 Intelligent Design Tool
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 443-450
summary XNET2 is a prototype program, that helps network planners to design Ethernet-conform data-networks for sites and buildings. It is implemented as an example application of the ARMILLA4 Intelligent Design Tool under Knowledge Craft. It is based on a knowledge acquisition phase with experts from DECsite, the network-branch of DEC. The ARMILLA Design Tool is developed on the basis of Fritz Haller's ARMILLA ' a set of geometrical and operational rules for the integration of technical ductwork into a building's construction.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 27d2
authors Ayrle, Hartmut
year 1991
title Computers for Architects - Only a Tool?
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary The paper states that, as a result of the schism between architecture as art and engineering as rationalism, the architectural community underestimates the computer as tool with a potential to substantially enlarge the possibilities of building design. It is claimed that the computer could serve as coordination tool for the ruptured design process, as a virtual workbench where all design disciplines sit together and develop their designs in enhanced conscience of what the whole design demands. The paper then concludes, that to develop such software tools, architects must participate in the development of software and may no longer be restricted to the role of applicants, especially during their universitary instruction. The corresponding research and training facilities at the University of Karlsruhe, Faculty of Architecture are described.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 22d6
authors Ballheim, F. and Leppert, J.
year 1991
title Architecture with Machines, Principles and Examples of CAAD-Education at the Technische Universität München
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary "Design tools affect the results of the design process" - this is the starting point of our considerations about the efficient use of CAAD within architecture. To give you a short overview about what we want to say with this thesis lets have a short - an surely incomplete - trip through the fourth dimension back into the early time of civil engineering. As CAD in our faculty is integrated in the "Lehrstuhl für Hochbaustatik und Tragwerksplanung" (if we try to say it in English it would approximately be "institute of structural design"), we chose an example we are very familiar with because of its mathematical background - the cone sections: Circle, ellipse, parabola and hyperbola. If we start our trip two thousand years ago we only find the circle - or in very few cases the ellipse - in their use for the ground plan of greek or roman theaters - if you think of Greek amphitheaters or the Colosseum in Rome - or for the design of the cross section of a building - for example the Pantheon, roman aqueducts or bridges. With the rediscovery of the perspective during the Renaissance the handling of the ellipse was brought to perfection. May be the most famous example is the Capitol in Rome designed by Michelangelo Buonarotti with its elliptical ground plan that looks like a circle if the visitor comes up the famous stairway. During the following centuries - caused by the further development of the natural sciences and the use of new construction materials, i.e. cast-iron, steel or concrete - new design ideas could be realized. With the growing influence of mathematics on the design of buildings we got the division into two professions: Civil engineering and architecture. To the regret of the architects the most innovative constructions were designed by civil engineers, e.g. the early iron bridges in Britain or the famous bridges of Robert Maillard. Nowadays we are in the situation that we try to reintegrate the divided professions. We will return to that point later discussing possible solutions of this problem. But let us continue our 'historical survey demonstrating the state of the art we have today. As the logical consequence of the parabolic and hyperbolic arcs the hyperbolic parabolic shells were developed using traditional design techniques like models and orthogonal sections. Now we reach the point where the question comes up whether complex structures can be completely described by using traditional methods. A question that can be answered by "no" if we take the final step to the completely irregular geometry of cable- net-constructions or deconstructivistic designs. What we see - and what seems to support our thesis of the connection between design tools and the results of the design process - is, that on the one hand new tools enabled the designer to realize new ideas and on the other hand new ideas affected the development of new tools to realize them.

series eCAADe
more http://www.mediatecture.at/ecaade/91/ballheim_leppert.pdf
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 019c
authors Beyer, Horst A. and Streilein, André
year 1991
title Data Generation for CAAD with Digital Photogrammetry
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 583-594
summary The rapid advances in sensor technology and processing hardware make the development of a Digital Photogrammetric System for Architectural Photogrammetry possible. This system is able to acquire images with sufficient resolution for Architectural Photogrammetry. Geometric and topologic information for a CAAD-System can be derived with manual and/or semi-automated methods. This paper describes the current status of such a system which is under development at the Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry in cooperation with the Chair of Architecture and CAAD, both at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8db6
authors Bijl, Aart
year 1991
title On Knowing - Feeling and Expression
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 157-176
summary The basic assumptions for CAD, and for any use of computers, are re-examined. They refer to how we know things, how we think of knowledge being represented, and the impact of representation techniques on evolution of knowledge. Japan offers stimulating clues on how we might regard the usefulness of computers, and these are explained. Evocative illustrations are presented, to show a direction for future developments.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ea6b
authors Boeve, Eddy
year 1991
title Modelling Interaction Tools in the Views Architecture IV. Design Tools
source First Moscow International HCI'91 Workshop Proceedings 1991 p.183
summary Views is a user-interface system in which the user interface is a layer above applications, guaranteeing consistency of the interface, and with a data-layer implementing external object representations, allowing exchange of objects between applications without loss of structure. Although Views offers an architecture to deal with user-interface aspects on a high level, in this report is shown that also low level interaction can be modelled with the architecture provided.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 227a
authors Bourdeau, L., Dubois, A.-M. and Poyet, P.
year 1991
title A Common Data Model for Computer Integrated Building
source computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991. Unnumbered : some ill. includes bibliography
summary The connection of various building performance evaluation tools in a collaborative way is an essential request to develop true CAD systems. It is a basic requirement for the future of integrated information systems for building projects, where data concerning multiple aspects of the project can be exchanged during the different design steps. This paper deals with the on-going research concerning the generation of a common data model in the framework of a European collaborative action, the COMBINE Project, which is supported by the CEC, General Directorate XII for Research Science and Development, within the JOULE programme. The first step of the research concerns the progressive construction of a conceptual model and the paper focuses on the development of this Integrated Data Model (IDM). The paper reports on the definition of the architecture of the IDM. The main issues and the methodology of the IDM development are presented. The IDM development methodology is based on successive steps dealing with the identification of the data and context which are considered by the Design Tool Prototypes (DTP) to be connected through the IDM, the conceptual integration of this knowledge, and the implementation of the model on an appropriate software environment
keywords standards, integration, communication, building, evaluation, modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 0b1c
authors Bridges, Alan
year 1991
title Computer Exercises in Architectural Design Theory
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary This paper discusses how architectural theory may be taught using computer based exercises to explore the practical application of those theories. The particular view of architecture developed is, necessarily, a restricted one but the objectives behind the exercises are slightly different to those that a pure architectural theorist or historian might have The formal teaching of architectural theory and composition has not been very fashionable in Schools of Architecture for several years now: indeed there is a considerable inbuilt resistance in students to the application of any form of rules or procedures. There is however a general interest in computing and this can be utilised to advantage. In concentrating on computer applications in design eclectic use has been made of a number of architectural examples ranging from Greek temples to the work of modern deconstructionists. Architectural theory since Vitruvius is littered with attempts to define universal theories of design and this paper certainly does not presume to anything so grand: I have merely looked at buildings, compared them and noted what they have in common and how that might relate to computer-aided design. I have ignored completely any sociological, philosophical or phenomenological questions but would readily agree with the criticism that Cartesian rationality is not, on its own, a sufficient base upon which to build a theory of design. However I believe there is merit in articulating design by separating it from other concerns and making it a subject of study in its own right. Work in design research will provide the models and intellectual structures to facilitate discourse about design and might be expected to benefit the development of design skills by providing material that could be formally taught and debated in a way that is removed from the ephemeral "fashionable designer" debate. Of course, some of the ideas discussed here may prove to be equally ephemeral but that does not entirely negate their value.

series eCAADe
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8fb9
authors Bridges, Alan H.
year 1991
title DAC or Design and Computers
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 65-76
summary This paper describes the use of simple computer draughting techniques to explore elements of architectural design theory and suggests that this relatively neglected subject could be liberated by computing to once again play an important part in architectural design education.
series CAAD Futures
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 85f9
authors Brisson, E., Debras, P. and Poyet, Patrice
year 1991
title A First Step Towards an Intelligent Integrated Design System in the Building Field
source computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991. Unnumbered pages : ill. includes bibliography
summary This article presents the work the Knowledge Base Group is achieving towards the integration of Artificial Intelligence based facilities in the Building design process. After an overview of the current state of the integrated design process, the context and the technical guidelines to realize computer integrated software in the building design field is described. Then some tools are presented to model the knowledge (the HBDS method) and to implement such model in our Mips home-made knowledge modeling software platform (including object-oriented database management facilities, expert system reasoning facilities, hypertext edition facilities, 3D-design and 3D-view modules...). Finally the authors describe the Quakes application devoted to assess detached house anti-seismic capabilities during the design process. A deep conceptual model considers all the semantic entities (columns, resistant panels, openings, ...) involved in the anti-seismic expertise. Using both this conceptual model description of a detached house and the 3D design tool, they input the project. Then the seismic expertise is driven in a divide and conquer approach and records the alleged configuration recognized automatically linked to the corresponding section of the building regulation
keywords AI, design, knowledge, software, integration, building, CAD, structures
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ascaad2014_002
id ascaad2014_002
authors Burry, Mark
year 2014
title BIM and the Building Site: Assimilating digital fabrication within craft traditions
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 27-36
summary This paper outlines a particular component of very well known project: Antoni Gaudí’s Sagrada Família Basilica in Barcelona (1882– on-going but scheduled for completion in 2026). At the time of writing the realisation of the project has proceeded for 87 years since Gaudí's death (1852-1926). As a building site it has been a living laboratory for the nexus between traditional construction offsite manufacturing and digital fabrication since the computers were first introduced to the project:CAD in 1989 closely followed by CAAD two years later. More remarkably CAD/CAM commenced its significant influence in 1991 with the take-up of sem robotised stone cutting and carving. The subject of this paper is an elevated auditorium space that is one of the relatively few ‘sketchy’ areas that Gaudí bequeathed the successors for the design of his magnum opus.
series ASCAAD
email mburry@rmit.edu.au
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id 0aba
authors Carrara, Gianfranco, Kalay, Yehuda E. and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1991
title Intelligent Systems for Supporting Architectural Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 191-202
summary Design can be considered a process leading to the definition of a physical form that achieves a certain predefined set of objectives. The process comprises three distinct operations: (1) definition of the desired set of performance criteria (design goals); (2) production of alternative design solutions; (3) evaluation of the expected performances of alternative design solutions, and comparing them to predefined criteria. Difficulties arise in performing each one of the three operations, as well as in combining them into a purposeful, unified process. First, it is difficult to define the desired performance criteria prior to and independently of, the search for an acceptable solution that achieves them, since many aspects of the desired criteria can only be discovered through the search for an acceptable solution. Furthermore, the search for such a solution may well alter the definition of these criteria, as new criteria and incompatibilities between existing criteria are discovered. Second the generation of a design solution is a task demanding creativity, judgement, and experience, all three of which are difficult to define, teach, and otherwise capture in some explicit manner. Third, it is difficult to evaluate the expected performances of alternative design solutions and to compare them to the predefined criteria. Design parameters interact with each other in complex ways, which cause effects and side effects. Predicting the expected performances of even primary effects involves extrapolating non-physical characteristics from the proposed solution's physical organization, a process which relies on a host of assumptions (physical, sociological, psychological, etc.) and hence is seldom a reliable measure. A fourth problem arises from the need to coordinate the three operations in an iterative process that will converge on an acceptable design solution in reasonable time. Computational techniques that were developed in the past to assist designers in performing the above mentioned activities have shown limitations and proved inadequate to a large degree. In this paper we discuss the work in progress aimed at developing an intelligent support system for building and architectural design, which will be able to play a decisive role in the definition, evaluation and putting into effect of the design choices.
series CAAD Futures
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 00bc
authors Chen, Chen-Cheng
year 1991
title Analogical and inductive reasoning in architectural design computation
source Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich
summary Computer-aided architectural design technology is now a crucial tool of modern architecture, from the viewpoint of higher productivity and better products. As technologies advance, the amount of information and knowledge that designers can apply to a project is constantly increasing. This requires development of more advanced knowledge acquisition technology to achieve higher functionality, flexibility, and efficient performance of the knowledge-based design systems in architecture. Human designers do not solve design problems from scratch, they utilize previous problem solving episodes for similar design problems as a basis for developmental decision making. This observation leads to the starting point of this research: First, we can utilize past experience to solve a new problem by detecting the similarities between the past problem and the new problem. Second, we can identify constraints and general rules implied by those similarities and the similar parts of similar situations. That is, by applying analogical and inductive reasoning we can advance the problem solving process. The main objective of this research is to establish the theory that (1) design process can be viewed as a learning process, (2) design innovation involves analogical and inductive reasoning, and (3) learning from a designer's previous design cases is necessary for the development of the next generation in a knowledge-based design system. This thesis draws upon results from several disciplines, including knowledge representation and machine learning in artificial intelligence, and knowledge acquisition in knowledge engineering, to investigate a potential design environment for future developments in computer-aided architectural design. This thesis contains three parts which correspond to the different steps of this research. Part I, discusses three different ways - problem solving, learning and creativity - of generating new thoughts based on old ones. In Part II, the problem statement of the thesis is made and a conceptual model of analogical and inductive reasoning in design is proposed. In Part III, three different methods of building design systems for solving an architectural design problem are compared rule-based, example-based, and case-based. Finally, conclusions are made based on the current implementation of the work, and possible future extensions of this research are described. It reveals new approaches for knowledge acquisition, machine learning, and knowledge-based design systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email arch@mail.tku.edu.tw
last changed 2003/05/10 03:42

For more results click below:

this is page 0show page 1show page 2show page 3show page 4show page 5... show page 10HOMELOGIN (you are user _anon_237907 from group guest) CUMINCAD Papers Powered by SciX Open Publishing Services 1.002