CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id c1ca
authors Daru, Roel
year 1991
title Sketch as Sketch Can - Design Sketching with Imperfect Aids and Sketchpads of the Future
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary Sketching plays a manifold role in design and design education now as much as it did in the computerless days. Design sketching is indispensable during the early phases of the architectural design process. But if we ask architects and design educators alike what they are doing with computers, idea sketching is the least mentioned answer if not left out entirely. It is not because they are computer-illiterates, as the computer industry would tend to imply, but because their computers are not offering an adequate environment for design sketching. In education this means that those trying to create computeraided design sketching courses are confronted with the choice of either working with imperfect tools, or waiting for better tools. But by exploring the possibilities in available surrogates we will build the necessary experiences for specifying what is really useful for idea-sketching. Without such exercises, we will never go beyond the electronic metaphor of the sketchbook with pencil or marker.

series eCAADe
email mdaru@IAEhv.nl
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 870b
authors Sivaloganathan, Sangarappillai
year 1991
title Sketching input for computer aided engineering
source City University, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics
summary The design process often begins with a graphical description of the proposed device or system and sketching is the physical expression of the design engineer's thinking process. Computer Aided Design is a technique in which man and machine are blended into a problem solving team, intimately coupling the best characteristics of each. Solid modelling is developed to act as the common medium between man and the computer. At present it is achieved mainly by designing with volumes and hence does not leave much room for sketching input, the traditional physical expression of the thinking process of the design engineer. This thesis describes a method of accepting isometric free hand sketching as the input to a solid model. The design engineer is allowed to make a sketch on top of a digitizer indicating (i) visible lines; (ii) hidden lines; (iii) construction lines; (iv) centre lines; (v) erased lines; and (vi) redundant lines as the input. The computer then processes this sketch by identifying the line segments, fitting the best possible lines, removing the erased lines, ignoring the redundant lines and finally merging the hidden lines and visible lines to form the lines in the solid in an interactive manner. The program then uses these lines and the information about the three dimensional origin of the object and produces three dimensional information such as the faces, loops, holes, rings, edges and vertices which are sufficient to build a solid model. This is achieved in the following manner. The points in the sketch are first written into a file. The computer than reads this file, breaks the group of points into sub-groups belonging to individual line segments, fits the best lines and identify the vertices in two dimensions. These improved lines in two dimensions are then merged to form the lines and vertices in the solid. These lines are then used together with the three dimensional origin (or any other point) to produce the wireframe model in three dimensions. The loops in the wireframe models are then identified and surface equations are fitted to these loops. Finally all the necessary inputs to build a B-rep solid model are produced.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ecaade2010_040
id ecaade2010_040
authors Akdag, Suzan Girginkaya; Cagdas, Gulen; Guney, Caner
year 2010
title Analyzing the Changes of Bosphorus Silhouette
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.815-823
summary Due to improving technology and global competition today sky is the only limit for high towers of metropolitan areas. The increase in number of high rise has been ruining the silhouette of cities all over the world like Istanbul, whose identity and image have also been destroyed by skyscrapers dominating the seven slopes on which it was once built. The urbanization in Istanbul has somehow become homogenous and destructive over the topography. Despite of raising debates on the critical issue now and then, no analytical approach has ever been introduced. The research therefore, aims to analyze the change of Bosphorus silhouette caused by the emergence of high rise blocks in Zincirlikuyu-Maslak route since it was defined as a Central Business District and a high rise development area by Bosphorus Conservation Law in 1991. ArcGIS Desktop software and its analyst extensions are used for mapping, analyzing and evaluating the urban development within years. The application is considered to be the initial step for a decision support system which will assist in assigning ground for high rise buildings in Istanbul.
wos WOS:000340629400087
keywords GIS; Bosphorus; Silhouette analysis; High rise buildings
series eCAADe
email sgirginkaya@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 2560
authors Alkhoven, Patricia
year 1991
title The Reconstruction of the Past: The Application of New Techniques for Visualization and Research in Architectural History
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 549-566
summary This paper focuses on the visualization of historical architecture. The application of new Computer-Aided- Architectural-Design techniques for visualization on micro computers provides a technique for reconstructing and analyzing architectural objects from the past. The pilot project describes a case study in which the historical transformation of a town will be analyzed by using three- dimensional CAD models in combination with bitmap textures. The transformation of the historic town will be visualized in a space-time computer model in which bitmap textures enable us to display complex and relatively large architectural objects in detail. This three-dimensional descriptive model allows us to survey and analyze the history of architecture in its reconstructed context. It also provides a medium for researching the dynamics of urban management, since new combinations and arrangements with the individual architectural objects can be created. In this way, a new synthesis of the graphic material can reveal typologies and the architectural ordering system of a town.
keywords 3D City modeling
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 849b
authors Amiel, Maurice
year 1991
title NOTES ON IN-SITU – FULL-SCALE EXPERIMENTATION AND THE DESIGN PROFESSIONS
source Proceedings of the 3rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / ISBN 91-7740044-5 / Lund (Sweden) 13-16 September 1990, pp. 40-43
summary In the north american academic context a workshop is different from a paper session in that it is simply an opportunity to exchange ideas and to raise questions among colleagues who can bring to bear in their discussion various points of view and experiences otherwise unavailable.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:18

_id 0ab2
authors Amor, R., Hosking, J., Groves, L. and Donn, M.
year 1993
title Design Tool Integration: Model Flexibility for the Building Profession
source Proceedings of Building Systems Automation - Integration, University of Wisconsin-Madison
summary The development of ICAtect, as discussed in the Building Systems Automation and Integration Symposium of 1991, provides a way of integrating simulation tools through a common building model. However, ICAtect is only a small step towards the ultimate goal of total integration and automation of the building design process. In this paper we investigate the next steps on the path toward integration. We examine how models structured to capture the physical attributes of the building, as required by simulation tools, can be used to converse with knowledge-based systems. We consider the types of mappings that occur in the often different views of a building held by these two classes of design tools. This leads us to examine the need for multiple views of a common building model. We then extend our analysis from the views required by simulation and knowledge-based systems, to those required by different segments of the building profession (e.g. architects, engineers, developers, etc.) to converse with such an integrated system. This indicates a need to provide a flexible method of accessing data in the common building model to facilitate use by different building professionals with varying specialities and levels of expertise.
series journal paper
email john@cs.auckland.ac.nz
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id f9bd
authors Amor, R.W.
year 1991
title ICAtect: Integrating Design Tools for Preliminary Architectural Design
source Wellington, New Zealand: Computer Science Department, Victoria University
summary ICAtect is a knowledge based system that provides an interface between expert systems, simulation packages and CAD systems used for preliminary architectural design. This thesis describes its structure and development.The principal work discussed in this thesis involves the formulation of a method for representing a building. This is developed through an examination of a number of design tools used in architectural design, and the ways in which each of these describe a building.Methods of enabling data to be transferred between design tools are explored. A Common Building Model (CBM), forming the core of the ICAtect system, is developed to represent the design tools knowledge of a building. This model covers the range of knowledge required by a large set of disparate design tools used by architects at the initial design stage.Standard methods of integrating information from the tools were examined, but required augmentation to encompass the unusual constraints found in some of the design tools. The integration of the design tools and the CBM is discussed in detail, with example methods developed for each type of design tool. These example methods provide a successful way of moving information between the different representations. Some problems with mapping data between very different representations were encountered in this process, and the solutions or ideas for remedies are detailed. A model for control and use of ICAtect is developed in the thesis, and the extensions to enable a graphical user interface are discussed.The methods developed in this thesis demonstrate the feasibility of an integrated system of this nature, while the discussion of future work indicates the scope and potential power of ICAtect.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id a620
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 1991
title Unde et Quo
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary To begin with, I would like to say a few words about the problem of alienation of modern technologies which we also inevitably faced while starting teaching CAD at our department. Quite often nowadays a technology becomes a fetish as a result of lack of clear goals in human mind. There are multiple technologies without sense of purpose which turned into pure experiments. There is always the danger of losing purposeness and drifting toward alienation. The cause of the danger lies in forgetting about original goals while mastering and developing the technology. Eventually the original idea is ignored and a great gap appears between technical factors and creativity. We had the danger of alienation in mind when preparing the CAAD curriculum. Trying to avoid the tension between technical and creative elements we agreed not to introduce CAD too soon then the fourth year of studies and continue it for two semesters. One thing was clear - we should not teach the technique of CAD but how to design using a computer as a medium. Then we specified projects. The first was called "The bathroom I dream of" and meant to be a 2D drawing. The four introductory meetings were in fact teaching foundations of DOS, then a specific design followed with the help of AutoCAD program. In the IX semester, for example, it was "A family house" (plans, facades, perspective). "I have to follow them - I am their leader" said L.J. Peter in "The Peter's Prescription". This quotation reflects exactly the situation we find ourselves in teaching CAAD at our department. It means that ever growing students interest in CAAD made us introduce changes in the curriculum. According to the popular saying, "The more one gets the more one wants", so did we and the students feel after the first semester of teaching CAD. From autumn 1991 CAAD classes will be carried from the third year of studying for two consecutive years. But before further planning one major steep had to be done - we decided to reverse the typical of the seventies approach to the problem when teaching programming languages preceded practical goals hence discouraging many learners.

series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 9964
authors Augenbroe, G. and Winkelmann, F.
year 1991
title Integration of Simulation into the Building Design Process
source J.A. Clarke, J.W. Mitchell, and R.C. Van de Perre (eds.), Proceedings, Building Simulation '91 IBPSA Conference, pp. 367-374
summary We describe the need for a joint effort between design researchers and simulation tool developers in formulating procedures and standards for integrating simulation into the building design process. We review and discuss current efforts in the US and Europe in the development of next-generation simulation tools and design integration techniques. In particular, we describe initiatives in object-oriented simulation environments (including the US Energy 'Kernel System, the Swedish Ida system, the UK Energy Kernel System, and the French ZOOM program.) and consider the relationship of these environments to recent R&D initiatives in design integration (the COMBINE project in Europe and the AEDOT project in the US).
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ca50
authors Ayrle, Hartmut
year 1991
title XNET2 - Methodical Design of Local Area Networks in Buildings - An Application of the A4 Intelligent Design Tool
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 443-450
summary XNET2 is a prototype program, that helps network planners to design Ethernet-conform data-networks for sites and buildings. It is implemented as an example application of the ARMILLA4 Intelligent Design Tool under Knowledge Craft. It is based on a knowledge acquisition phase with experts from DECsite, the network-branch of DEC. The ARMILLA Design Tool is developed on the basis of Fritz Haller's ARMILLA ' a set of geometrical and operational rules for the integration of technical ductwork into a building's construction.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 27d2
authors Ayrle, Hartmut
year 1991
title Computers for Architects - Only a Tool?
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary The paper states that, as a result of the schism between architecture as art and engineering as rationalism, the architectural community underestimates the computer as tool with a potential to substantially enlarge the possibilities of building design. It is claimed that the computer could serve as coordination tool for the ruptured design process, as a virtual workbench where all design disciplines sit together and develop their designs in enhanced conscience of what the whole design demands. The paper then concludes, that to develop such software tools, architects must participate in the development of software and may no longer be restricted to the role of applicants, especially during their universitary instruction. The corresponding research and training facilities at the University of Karlsruhe, Faculty of Architecture are described.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 22d6
authors Ballheim, F. and Leppert, J.
year 1991
title Architecture with Machines, Principles and Examples of CAAD-Education at the Technische Universität München
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary "Design tools affect the results of the design process" - this is the starting point of our considerations about the efficient use of CAAD within architecture. To give you a short overview about what we want to say with this thesis lets have a short - an surely incomplete - trip through the fourth dimension back into the early time of civil engineering. As CAD in our faculty is integrated in the "Lehrstuhl für Hochbaustatik und Tragwerksplanung" (if we try to say it in English it would approximately be "institute of structural design"), we chose an example we are very familiar with because of its mathematical background - the cone sections: Circle, ellipse, parabola and hyperbola. If we start our trip two thousand years ago we only find the circle - or in very few cases the ellipse - in their use for the ground plan of greek or roman theaters - if you think of Greek amphitheaters or the Colosseum in Rome - or for the design of the cross section of a building - for example the Pantheon, roman aqueducts or bridges. With the rediscovery of the perspective during the Renaissance the handling of the ellipse was brought to perfection. May be the most famous example is the Capitol in Rome designed by Michelangelo Buonarotti with its elliptical ground plan that looks like a circle if the visitor comes up the famous stairway. During the following centuries - caused by the further development of the natural sciences and the use of new construction materials, i.e. cast-iron, steel or concrete - new design ideas could be realized. With the growing influence of mathematics on the design of buildings we got the division into two professions: Civil engineering and architecture. To the regret of the architects the most innovative constructions were designed by civil engineers, e.g. the early iron bridges in Britain or the famous bridges of Robert Maillard. Nowadays we are in the situation that we try to reintegrate the divided professions. We will return to that point later discussing possible solutions of this problem. But let us continue our 'historical survey demonstrating the state of the art we have today. As the logical consequence of the parabolic and hyperbolic arcs the hyperbolic parabolic shells were developed using traditional design techniques like models and orthogonal sections. Now we reach the point where the question comes up whether complex structures can be completely described by using traditional methods. A question that can be answered by "no" if we take the final step to the completely irregular geometry of cable- net-constructions or deconstructivistic designs. What we see - and what seems to support our thesis of the connection between design tools and the results of the design process - is, that on the one hand new tools enabled the designer to realize new ideas and on the other hand new ideas affected the development of new tools to realize them.

series eCAADe
more http://www.mediatecture.at/ecaade/91/ballheim_leppert.pdf
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4eed
authors Benedickt, Michael (ed.)
year 1991
title Cyberspace: First Steps
source The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA and London, UK
summary Cyberspace has been defined as "an infinite artificial world where humans navigate in information-based space" and as "the ultimate computer-human interface." These original contributions take up the philosophical basis for cyberspace in virtual realities, basic communications principles, ramifications of cyberspace for future workplaces, and more.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 019c
authors Beyer, Horst A. and Streilein, André
year 1991
title Data Generation for CAAD with Digital Photogrammetry
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 583-594
summary The rapid advances in sensor technology and processing hardware make the development of a Digital Photogrammetric System for Architectural Photogrammetry possible. This system is able to acquire images with sufficient resolution for Architectural Photogrammetry. Geometric and topologic information for a CAAD-System can be derived with manual and/or semi-automated methods. This paper describes the current status of such a system which is under development at the Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry in cooperation with the Chair of Architecture and CAAD, both at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8db6
authors Bijl, Aart
year 1991
title On Knowing - Feeling and Expression
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 157-176
summary The basic assumptions for CAD, and for any use of computers, are re-examined. They refer to how we know things, how we think of knowledge being represented, and the impact of representation techniques on evolution of knowledge. Japan offers stimulating clues on how we might regard the usefulness of computers, and these are explained. Evocative illustrations are presented, to show a direction for future developments.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 792a
authors Blaschke, Thomas and Tiede, Dirk
year 2003
title Bridging GIS-based landscape analysis/modelling and 3D-simulation.Is this already 4D?
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary Several studies have used remote sensing to map patterns of e.g. deforestation or to analyse the rates of land use change. Thesestudies have proven useful for interpreting the causes of urbanization, deforestation etc. and the impact of such changes on theregion. Monitoring of change (e.g. deforestation or reforestation) is frequently perceived as one of the most important contributionsof remote sensing technology to the study of global ecological and environmental change (Roughgarden et al. 1991). Manyresearchers believe that the integration of remote sensing techniques within analysis of environmental change is essential if ecologistsare to meet the challenges of the future, specifically issues relating to global change; however, in practice, this integration has so farbeen limited (Griffiths & Mather 2000). Considerable difficulties are encountered in linking, on the one hand, the biologies oforganisms and the ecologies of populations to the fluxes of material and energy quantifiable at the level of ecosystems. In this paper,we concentrate on the methodological aspects of the delineation of landscape objects and touch the ecological application onlysuperficially but we elucidate the potential of the proposed methodology for several ecological applications briefly.
series other
email thomas.blaschke@uni-tuebingen.de
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8b1e
authors Blinn, James F.
year 1991
title A Trip Down the Graphics Pipeline: Line Clipping
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications January, 1991. vol. 11: pp. 98-105 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The classic computer graphics pipeline is an assembly-line like process that geometric objects must experience on their journey to becoming pixels on the screen. This is a first of a series of columns on the graphics pipeline. In this column the author concentrate on the algorithm aspects of the line- clipping part of the pipeline
keywords clipping, algorithms, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ea6b
authors Boeve, Eddy
year 1991
title Modelling Interaction Tools in the Views Architecture IV. Design Tools
source First Moscow International HCI'91 Workshop Proceedings 1991 p.183
summary Views is a user-interface system in which the user interface is a layer above applications, guaranteeing consistency of the interface, and with a data-layer implementing external object representations, allowing exchange of objects between applications without loss of structure. Although Views offers an architecture to deal with user-interface aspects on a high level, in this report is shown that also low level interaction can be modelled with the architecture provided.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 227a
authors Bourdeau, L., Dubois, A.-M. and Poyet, P.
year 1991
title A Common Data Model for Computer Integrated Building
source computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991. Unnumbered : some ill. includes bibliography
summary The connection of various building performance evaluation tools in a collaborative way is an essential request to develop true CAD systems. It is a basic requirement for the future of integrated information systems for building projects, where data concerning multiple aspects of the project can be exchanged during the different design steps. This paper deals with the on-going research concerning the generation of a common data model in the framework of a European collaborative action, the COMBINE Project, which is supported by the CEC, General Directorate XII for Research Science and Development, within the JOULE programme. The first step of the research concerns the progressive construction of a conceptual model and the paper focuses on the development of this Integrated Data Model (IDM). The paper reports on the definition of the architecture of the IDM. The main issues and the methodology of the IDM development are presented. The IDM development methodology is based on successive steps dealing with the identification of the data and context which are considered by the Design Tool Prototypes (DTP) to be connected through the IDM, the conceptual integration of this knowledge, and the implementation of the model on an appropriate software environment
keywords standards, integration, communication, building, evaluation, modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

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