CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 221

_id 9b34
authors Butterworth, J. (et al.)
year 1992
title 3DM: A three-dimensional modeler using a head-mounted display
source Proceedings of the 1992 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics (Cambridge, Mass., March 29- April 1, 1992.), 135-138
summary 3dm is a three dimensional (3D) surface modeling program that draws techniques of model manipulation from both CAD and drawing programs and applies them to modeling in an intuitive way. 3dm uses a head-mounted display (HMD) to simplify the problem of 3D model manipulation and understanding. A HMD places the user in the modeling space, making three dimensional relationships more understandable. As a result, 3dm is easy to learn how to use and encourages experimentation with model shapes.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id bdbb
authors Pugh, D.
year 1992
title Designing solid objects using interactive sketch interpretation
source Computer Graphics (1992 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics), 25(2):117-126, Mar. 1992
summary Before the introduction of Computer Aided Design and solid modeling systems, designers had developed a set of techniques for designing solid objects by sketching their ideas on pencil and paper and refining them into workable designs. Unfortunately, these techniques are different from those for designing objects using a solid modeler. Not only does this waste avast reserve of talent and experience (people typically start drawing from the moment they can hold a crayon), but it also has a more fundamental problem: designers can use their intuition more effectively when sketching than they can when using a solid modeler. Viking is a solid modeling system whose user-interface is based on interactive sketch interpretation. Interactive sketch interpretation lets the designer create a line-drawing of a de- sired object while Viking generates a three-dimensional ob- ject description. This description is consistent with both the designer's line-drawing, and a set of geometric constraints either derived from the line-drawing or placed by the de- signer. Viking's object descriptions are fully compatible with the object descriptions used by traditional solid modelers. As a result, interactive sketch interpretation can be used with traditional solid modeling techniques, combining the advan- tages of both sketching and solid modeling.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 3ff5
authors Abbo, I.A., La Scalea, L., Otero, E. and Castaneda, L.
year 1992
title Full-Scale Simulations as Tool for Developing Spatial Design Ability
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part C, pp. 7-10
summary Spatial Design Ability has been defined as the capability to anticipate effects (psychological impressions on potential observers or users) produced by mental manipulation of elements of architectural or urban spaces. This ability, of great importance in choosing the appropriate option during the design process, is not specifically developed in schools of architecture and is partially obtained as a by-product of drawing, designing or architectural criticism. We use our Laboratory as a tool to present spaces to people so that they can evaluate them. By means of a series of exercises, students confront their anticipations with the psychological impressions produced in other people. For this occasion, we present an experience in which students had to propose a space for an exhibition hag in which architectural projects (student thesis) were to be shown. Following the Spatial Design Ability Development Model which we have been using for several years, students first get acquainted with the use of evaluation instruments for psychological impressions as well as with research methodology. In this case, due to the short period available, we reduced research to investigate the effects produced by the manipulation of only 2 independents variables: students manipulated first the form of the roof, walls and interiors elements, secondly, color and texture of those elements. They evaluated spatial quality, character and the other psychological impressions that manipulations produced in people. They used three dimensional scale models 1/10 and 1/1.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
email iabadi@ceea.arq.ucv.ve
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2003/08/25 08:12

_id 5c74
authors HCIL
year 1997
title Spatial Perception in Perspective Displays
source Report Human-Computer Interaction Lab, Virginia
summary Increasingly, computer displays are being used as the interface "window" between complex systems and their users. In addition, it is becoming more common to see computer interfaces represented by spatial metaphors, allowing users to apply their vast prior knowledge and experience in dealing with the three-dimensional (3D) world (Wickens, 1992). Desktop VR or window on a world (WoW), as it is sometimes called, uses a conventional computer monitor to display the virtual environment (VE). The 3D display applies perspective geometry to provide the illusion of 3D space.
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 65aa
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 1992
title From Sketches to Computer Images: A Strategy for the Application of Computers in Architectural Design
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 331-350
summary The use of computer tools in architectural practice has been steadily increasing in recent years. Many architectural offices are already using computer tools, mostly for production tasks. Hardly any design is being done with the computer. With the new computer tools, architects are confronted with the challenge to use computers to express their design ideas right from conception.

This paper describes a project made for a competition which recently took place in Spain. Sketches and computer models were the only tools used in designing this project. A variety of computer tools were used in different stages of this project: two dimensional drawing tools were used in the early stages, then a three-dimensional modeling program for the development of the design and for the production of final drawings, and a rendering program for final presentation images.

series eCAADe
email madrazo@salleURL.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id e0ee
authors Martens, Bob
year 1992
title Tools for Visual Simulation of Space and their Use by Students
source Architecture & Behaviour vol. 8, no. 3:175-187
summary Most visual representations of architectural space are still done using drawings of ground plan, section and view. Yet, when experience is lacking - as with students or laypeople these two-dimensional representations hardly show their correspondence to a three-dimensional reality. This article examines the various visual techniques for spatial simulation available today and their implementation by students involved with architectural projects.
series journal paper
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 9092
authors Martens, Bob
year 1992
title TOOLS FOR VISUAL SIMULATION OF SPACE AND THEIR USE BY STUDENTS
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part B, pp. 33-38
summary Most visual representations of architectural space are still done using drawings of ground plan, section and view. Yet, when experience is lacking - as with students or laypeople - these two-dimensional representations hardly show their correspondence to a three-dimensional reality. This article examines the various visual techniques for spatial simulation available today and their implementation by students involved with architectural projects.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:39

_id 831d
authors Seebohm, Thomas
year 1992
title Discoursing on Urban History Through Structured Typologies
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 157-175
summary How can urban history be studied with the aid of three-dimensional computer modeling? One way is to model known cities at various times in history, using historical records as sources of data. While such studies greatly enhance the understanding of the form and structure of specific cities at specific points in time, it is questionable whether such studies actually provide a true understanding of history. It can be argued that they do not because such studies only show a record of one of many possible courses of action at various moments in time. To gain a true understanding of urban history one has to place oneself back in historical time to consider all of the possible courses of action which were open in the light of the then current situation of the city, to act upon a possible course of action and to view the consequences in the physical form of the city. Only such an understanding of urban history can transcend the memory of the actual and hence the behavior of the possible. Moreover, only such an understanding can overcome the limitations of historical relativism, which contends that historical fact is of value only in historical context, with the realization, due to Benedetto Croce and echoed by Rudolf Bultmann, that the horizon of "'deeper understanding" lies in "'the actuality of decision"' (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990).

One cannot conduct such studies on real cities except, perhaps, as a point of departure at some specific point in time to provide an initial layout for a city knowing that future forms derived by the studies will diverge from that recorded in history. An entirely imaginary city is therefore chosen. Although the components of this city at the level of individual buildings are taken from known cities in history, this choice does not preclude alternative forms of the city. To some degree, building types are invariants and, as argued in the Appendix, so are the urban typologies into which they may be grouped. In this imaginary city students of urban history play the role of citizens or groups of citizens. As they defend their interests and make concessions, while interacting with each other in their respective roles, they determine the nature of the city as it evolves through the major periods of Western urban history in the form of threedimensional computer models.

My colleague R.J. van Pelt and I presented this approach to the study of urban history previously at ACADIA (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990). Yet we did not pay sufficient attention to the manner in which such urban models should be structured and how the efforts of the participants should be coordinated. In the following sections I therefore review what the requirements are for three-dimensional modeling to support studies in urban history as outlined both from the viewpoint of file structure of the models and other viewpoints which have bearing on this structure. Three alternative software schemes of progressively increasing complexity are then discussed with regard to their ability to satisfy these requirements. This comparative study of software alternatives and their corresponding file structures justifies the present choice of structure in relation to the simpler and better known generic alternatives which do not have the necessary flexibility for structuring the urban model. Such flexibility means, of course, that in the first instance the modeling software is more timeconsuming to learn than a simple point and click package in accord with the now established axiom that ease of learning software tools is inversely related to the functional power of the tools. (Smith 1987).

series ACADIA
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id ce98
authors Anderson, Lee
year 1992
title Virtual Graffiti Three-Dimensional Paint Tools for Conceptual Modeling in Upfront
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 127-133
summary This chapter describes several limitations present in current 3-D programs used for conceptual design and then introduces a new threedimensional paint tool, as implemented in a beta version of Alias Upfront, that attempts to deal with some of those limitations.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id caadria2006_617
id caadria2006_617
authors CHING-CHIEN LIN
year 2006
title A GREATER SENSE OF PRESENCE: SPATIAL INTERFACE IN VR CAVE
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 617-619
summary Virtual environments are three–dimensional spaces presented visually. They combine the user’s experience and sense of 'being there' in the virtual environment. Presence is a central element of virtual reality that it is seen as a part of its definition (Steuer, 1992). Direct interactions between participants and the virtual environment generate a more enhanced sense of immersion, thus making the participants feels they are part of that environment (Witmer & Singer, 1998).
series CAADRIA
email karenlin@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id 68c8
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R. and Fenves, S. (et al.)
year 1994
title SEED: A Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design
source Proceeding of IKM '94, Weimar, Germany, pp. 5-10
summary The SEED project intends to develop a software environment that supports the early phases in building design (Flemming et al., 1993). The goal is to provide support, in principle, for the preliminary design of buildings in all aspects that can gain from computer support. This includes using the computer not only for analysis and evaluation, but also more actively for the generation of designs, or more accurately, for the rapid generation of design representations. A major motivation for the development of SEED is to bring the results of two multi-generational research efforts focusing on `generative' design systems closer to practice: 1. LOOS/ABLOOS, a generative system for the synthesis of layouts of rectangles (Flemming et al., 1988; Flemming, 1989; Coyne and Flemming, 1990; Coyne, 1991); 2. GENESIS, a rule-based system that supports the generation of assemblies of 3-dimensional solids (Heisserman, 1991; Heisserman and Woodbury, 1993). The rapid generation of design representations can take advantage of special opportunities when it deals with a recurring building type, that is, a building type dealt with frequently by the users of the system. Design firms - from housing manufacturers to government agencies - accumulate considerable experience with recurring building types. But current CAD systems capture this experience and support its reuse only marginally. SEED intends to provide systematic support for the storing and retrieval of past solutions and their adaptation to similar problem situations. This motivation aligns aspects of SEED closely with current work in Artificial Intelligence that focuses on case-based design (see, for example, Kolodner, 1991; Domeshek and Kolodner, 1992; Hua et al., 1992).
series other
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id d919
authors Heckbert, P.S.
year 1992
title Discontinuity Meshing for Radiosity
source Eurographics Workshop on Rendering. May 1992, pp. 203-216
summary The radiosity method is the most popular algorithm for simulating interreflection of light between diffuse surfaces. Most existing radiosity algorithms employ simple meshes and piecewise constant approximations, thereby constraining the radiosity function to be constant across each polygonal element. Much more accurate simulations are possible if linear, quadratic, or higher degree approximations are used. In order to realize the potential accuracy of higher-degree approximations, however, it is necessary for the radiosity mesh to resolve discontinuities such as shadow edges in the radiosity function. A discontinuity meshing algorithm is presented that places mesh boundaries directly along discontinuities. Such algorithms offer the potential of faster, more accurate simulations. Results are shown for three-dimensional scenes.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 130d
authors Hoinkes, R. and Mitchell, R.
year 1994
title Playing with Time - Continuous Temporal Mapping Strategies for Interactive Environments
source 6th Canadian GIS Conference, (Ottawa Natura Resources Canada), pp. 318-329
summary The growing acceptance of GIS technology has had far- reaching effects on many fields of research. The recent developments in the area of dynamic and temporal GIS open new possibilities within the realm of historical research where temporal relationship analysis is as important as spatial relationship analysis. While topological structures have had wide use in spatial GIS and have been the subject of most temporal GIS endeavours, the different demands of many of these temporally- oriented analytic processes questions the choice of the topological direction. In the fall of 1992 the Montreal Research Group (MRG) of the Canadian Centre for Architecture mounted an exhibition dealing with the development of the built environment in 18th- century Montreal. To aid in presenting the interpretive messages of their data, the MRG worked with the Centre for Landscape Research (CLR) to incorporate the interactive capabilities of the CLR's PolyTRIM research software with the MRG's data base to produce a research tool as well as a public- access interactive display. The interactive capabilities stemming from a real- time object- oriented structure provided an excellent environment for both researchers and the public to investigate the nature of temporal changes in such aspects as landuse, ethnicity, and fortifications of the 18th century city. This paper describes the need for interactive real- time GIS in such temporal analysis projects and the underlying need for object- oriented vs. topologically structured data access strategies to support them.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id b784
authors Krishnamurti, R. and Earl, C.F.
year 1992
title Shape recognition in three dimensions
source Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 19 : 585-603
summary The subshape recognition problem for three-dimensional shapes under linear transformations is considered. The problem is analysed in a series of cases, some that provide a determinate number of solutions and others that have indeterminately many solutions. Procedures for its solution for general shapes are developed. Difficulties posed by strict adherence to rational transformations are examined. As a corollary, an outline of a procedure for determining the symmetries of a shape is presented. Subject
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 181b
authors Liou, Shuenn-Ren
year 1992
title A computer-based framework for analyzing and deriving the morphological structure of architectural designs
source University of Michigan
summary An approach to the acquisition and utilization of knowledge about the morphological structure of notable orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is formulated and tested. This approach consists of two levels of abstraction within which the analysis and comparison of existing designs and the derivation of new designs can be undertaken systematically and efficiently. Specifically, the morphological structure of orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is conceived as a language defined by shape grammar and architectural grammar corresponding to the geometric and spatial structures of the compositions. Lines constitute the shape grammar and walls and columns the architectural grammar. A computer program named ANADER is designed and implemented using the C++ object-oriented language to describe feasible compositions. It is argued that the gap between morphological analysis and synthesis is bridged partially because the proposed framework facilitates systematic comparisons of the morphological structures of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions and provides insight into the form-making process used to derive them. As an analytical system, the framework contributes to the generation of new and the assessment of existing morphological knowledge. Specifically, it is demonstrated that it is feasible to specify an existing architectural design by a set of universal rule schemata and the sequence of their application. As a generative system, the framework allows many of the tasks involved in the derivation of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions to be carried out. As well, it promotes the use of analytical results. In conclusion, it is argued that the proposed computer-based framework will provide the research and the educator with increasing opportunities for addressing persistent architectural questions in new ways. Of particular interest to this author are questions concerning the decision-making activities involved in form- and space-making as well as the description, classification, and derivation of architecutural form and space. It is suggested that, at least in reference to the cases examined, but probably also in reference to many other morphological classes, these and other related questions can be addressed systematically, efficiently, and fruitfully by using the proposed framework.  
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 8cf3
authors Müller, Volker
year 1992
title Reint-Ops: A Tool Supporting Conceptual Design
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 221-232
summary Reasoning is influenced by our perception of the environment. New aspects of our environment help to provoke new thoughts. Thus, changes of what is perceived can be assumed to stimulate the generation of new ideas, as well. In CAD, computerized three-dimensional models of physical entities are produced. Their representation on the monitor is determined by our viewing position and by the rendering method used. Especially the wire-frame representations of views lend themselves to a variety of readings, due to coincident and intersecting lines. Methods by which wire-frame views can be processed to extract the shapes that they contain have been investigated and developed. The extracted shapes can be used as a base for the generation of derived entities through various operations that are called Reinterpretation Operations. They have been implemented as a prototypical extension (named Reint-Ops) to an existing modeling shell. ReintOps is a highly interactive exploratory CAD tool, which allows the user to customize criteria and factors which are used in the reinterpretation process. This tool can be regarded as having a potential to support conceptual design investigations.
keywords CAD, Three-dimensional Model, Wireframe Representation, Shape Extraction, Generation of Derived Entities, Reinterpretation, Conceptual Design
series ACADIA
email vmueller@nbbj.com
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id aa6d
authors Nichols, Foster Jr., Canete, Isabel J. and Tuladhar, Sagun
year 1992
title Designing for Pedestrians : A CAD-Network Analysis Approach
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 379-398 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary Microcomputer techniques have been developed that combine CAD drawings with transportation network analysis software that uses spreadsheets and stand-alone programs activated from the DOS operating system. The CAD feature simplifies and improves the methods used to design pedestrian circulation facilities and evaluate the impact of new development on existing pedestrian flows. Through the use of customized software, the need for manual data entry is reduced, and the graphical display of analysis results in most intermediate steps in the process are automated. Three hypothetical case studies are presented, concentrating on proposed pedestrian circulation improvements at Penn Station, New York
keywords evaluation, networks, management, CAD, analysis, applications, planning, transportation, prediction, simulation, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c804
authors Richens, P.
year 1994
title Does Knowledge really Help?
source G. Carrara and Y.E. Kalay (Eds.), Knowledge-Based Computer-Aided Architectural Design, Elsevier
summary The Martin Centre CADLAB has recently been established to investigate software techniques that could be of practical importance to architects within the next five years. In common with most CAD researchers, we are interested in the earlier, conceptual, stages of design, where commercial CAD systems have had little impact. Our approach is not Knowledge-Based, but rather focuses on using the computer as a medium for design and communication. This leads to a concentration on apparently superficial aspects such as visual appearance, the dynamics of interaction, immediate feedback, plasticity. We try to avoid building-in theoretical attitudes, and to reduce the semantic content of our systems to a low level on the basis that flexibility and intelligence are inversely related; and that flexibility is more important. The CADLAB became operational in January 1992. First year work in three areas – building models, experiencing architecture, and making drawings – is discussed.
series other
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2003/03/05 12:19

_id daff
authors Richens, P.
year 1994
title CAD Research at the Martin Centre
source Automation in Construction, No. 3
summary The Martin Centre CADLAB has recently been established to investigate software techniques that could be of practical importance to architects within the next five years. In common with most CAD researchers, we are interested in the earlier, conceptual, stages of design, where commercial CAD systems have had little impact. Our approach is not Knowledge-Based, but rather focuses on using the computer as a medium for design and communication. This leads to a concentration on apparently superficial aspects such as visual appearance, the dynamics of interaction, immediate feedback, plasticity. We try to avoid building-in theoretical attitudes, and to reduce the semantic content of our systems to a low level on the basis that flexibility and intelligence are inversely related; and that flexibility is more important. The CADLAB became operational in January 1992. First year work in three areas – building models, experiencing architecture, and making drawings – is discussed.
series journal
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/pdfs/rich94a.pdf
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 1992
authors Russell, Peter
year 2002
title Using Higher Level Programming in Interdisciplinary teams as a means of training for Concurrent Engineering
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 14-19
summary The paper explains a didactical method for training students that has been run three times to date. The premise of the course is to combine students from different faculties into interdisciplinary teams. These teams then have a complex problem to resolve within an extremely short time span. In light of recent works from Joy and Kurzweil, the theme Robotics was chosen as an exercise that is timely, interesting and related, but not central to the studies of the various faculties. In groups of 3 to 5, students from faculties of architecture, computer science and mechanical engineering are entrusted to design, build and program a robot which must successfully execute a prescribed set of actions in a competitive atmosphere. The entire course lasts ten days and culminates with the competitive evaluation. The robots must navigate a labyrinth, communicate with on another and be able to cover longer distances with some speed. In order to simplify the resources available to the students, the Lego Mindstorms Robotic syshed backgrounds instaed of synthetic ones. The combination of digitally produced (scanned) sperical images together with the use of HDR open a wide range of new implementation in the field of architecture, especially in combining synthetic elements in existing buildings, e.g. new interior elements in an existing historical museum).ural presentations in the medium of computer animation. These new forms of expression of design thoughts and ideas go beyond mere model making, and move more towards scenemaking and storytelling. The latter represents new methods of expression within computational environments for architects and designers.its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosg and programming a winning robot. These differences became apparent early in the sessions and each group had to find ways to communicate their ideas and to collectively develop them by building on the strengths of each team member.
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2013/02/04 06:17

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