CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 7ce5
authors Gal, Shahaf
year 1992
title Computers and Design Activities: Their Mediating Role in Engineering Education
source Sociomedia, ed. Edward Barret. MIT Press
summary Sociomedia: With all the new words used to describe electronic communication (multimedia, hypertext, cyberspace, etc.), do we need another one? Edward Barrett thinks we do; hence, he coins the term "sociomedia." It is meant to displace a computing economy in which technicity is hypostasized over sociality. Sociomedia, a compilation of twenty-five articles on the theory, design and practice of educational multimedia and hypermedia, attempts to re-value the communicational face of computing. Value, of course, is "ultimately a social construct." As such, it has everything to do with knowledge, power, education and technology. The projects discussed in this book represent the leading edge of electronic knowledge production in academia (not to mention major funding) and are determining the future of educational media. For these reasons, Sociomedia warrants close inspection. Barrett's introduction sets the tone. For him, designing computer media involves hardwiring a mechanism for the social construction of knowledge (1). He links computing to a process of social and communicative interactivity for constructing and desseminating knowledge. Through a mechanistic mapping of the university as hypercontext (a huge network that includes classrooms as well as services and offices), Barrett models intellectual work in such a way as to avoid "limiting definitions of human nature or human development." Education, then, can remain "where it should be--in the human domain (public and private) of sharing ideas and information through the medium of language." By leaving education in a virtual realm (where we can continue to disagree about its meaning and execution), it remains viral, mutating and contaminating in an intellectually healthy way. He concludes that his mechanistic model, by means of its reductionist approach, preserves value (7). This "value" is the social construction of knowledge. While I support the social orientation of Barrett's argument, discussions of value are related to power. I am not referring to the traditional teacher-student power structure that is supposedly dismantled through cooperative and constructivist learning strategies. The power to be reckoned with in the educational arena is foundational, that which (pre)determines value and the circulation of knowledge. "Since each of you reading this paragraph has a different perspective on the meaning of 'education' or 'learning,' and on the processes involved in 'getting an education,' think of the hybris in trying to capture education in a programmable function, in a displayable object, in a 'teaching machine'" (7). Actually, we must think about that hybris because it is, precisely, what informs teaching machines. Moreover, the basic epistemological premises that give rise to such productions are too often assumed. In the case of instructional design, the episteme of cognitive sciences are often taken for granted. It is ironic that many of the "postmodernists" who support electronic hypertextuality seem to have missed Jacques Derrida's and Michel Foucault's "deconstructions" of the epistemology underpinning cognitive sciences (if not of epistemology itself). Perhaps it is the glitz of the technology that blinds some users (qua developers) to the belief systems operating beneath the surface. Barrett is not guilty of reactionary thinking or politics; he is, in fact, quite in line with much American deconstructive and postmodern thinking. The problem arises in that he leaves open the definitions of "education," "learning" and "getting an education." One cannot engage in the production of new knowledge without orienting its design, production and dissemination, and without negotiating with others' orientations, especially where largescale funding is involved. Notions of human nature and development are structural, even infrastructural, whatever the medium of the teaching machine. Although he addresses some dynamics of power, money and politics when he talks about the recession and its effects on the conference, they are readily visible dynamics of power (3-4). Where does the critical factor of value determination, of power, of who gets what and why, get mapped onto a mechanistic model of learning institutions? Perhaps a mapping of contributors' institutions, of the funding sources for the projects showcased and for participation in the conference, and of the disciplines receiving funding for these sorts of projects would help visualize the configurations of power operative in the rising field of educational multimedia. Questions of power and money notwithstanding, Barrett's introduction sets the social and textual thematics for the collection of essays. His stress on interactivity, on communal knowledge production, on the society of texts, and on media producers and users is carried foward through the other essays, two of which I will discuss. Section I of the book, "Perspectives...," highlights the foundations, uses and possible consequences of multimedia and hypertextuality. The second essay in this section, "Is There a Class in This Text?," plays on the robust exchange surrounding Stanley Fish's book, Is There a Text in This Class?, which presents an attack on authority in reading. The author, John Slatin, has introduced electronic hypertextuality and interaction into his courses. His article maps the transformations in "the content and nature of work, and the workplace itself"-- which, in this case, is not industry but an English poetry class (25). Slatin discovered an increase of productive and cooperative learning in his electronically- mediated classroom. For him, creating knowledge in the electronic classroom involves interaction between students, instructors and course materials through the medium of interactive written discourse. These interactions lead to a new and persistent understanding of the course materials and of the participants' relation to the materials and to one another. The work of the course is to build relationships that, in my view, constitute not only the meaning of individual poems, but poetry itself. The class carries out its work in the continual and usually interactive production of text (31). While I applaud his strategies which dismantle traditional hierarchical structures in academia, the evidence does not convince me that the students know enough to ask important questions or to form a self-directing, learning community. Stanley Fish has not relinquished professing, though he, too, espouses the indeterminancy of the sign. By the fourth week of his course, Slatin's input is, by his own reckoning, reduced to 4% (39). In the transcript of the "controversial" Week 6 exchange on Gertrude Stein--the most disliked poet they were discussing at the time (40)--we see the blind leading the blind. One student parodies Stein for three lines and sums up his input with "I like it." Another, finds Stein's poetry "almost completey [sic] lacking in emotion or any artistic merit" (emphasis added). On what grounds has this student become an arbiter of "artistic merit"? Another student, after admitting being "lost" during the Wallace Steven discussion, talks of having more "respect for Stevens' work than Stein's" and adds that Stein's poetry lacks "conceptual significance[, s]omething which people of varied opinion can intelligently discuss without feeling like total dimwits...." This student has progressed from admitted incomprehension of Stevens' work to imposing her (groundless) respect for his work over Stein's. Then, she exposes her real dislike for Stein's poetry: that she (the student) missed the "conceptual significance" and hence cannot, being a person "of varied opinion," intelligently discuss it "without feeling like [a] total dimwit." Slatin's comment is frightening: "...by this point in the semester students have come to feel increasingly free to challenge the instructor" (41). The students that I have cited are neither thinking critically nor are their preconceptions challenged by student-governed interaction. Thanks to the class format, one student feels self-righteous in her ignorance, and empowered to censure. I believe strongly in student empowerment in the classroom, but only once students have accrued enough knowledge to make informed judgments. Admittedly, Slatin's essay presents only partial data (there are six hundred pages of course transcripts!); still, I wonder how much valuable knowledge and metaknowledge was gained by the students. I also question the extent to which authority and professorial dictature were addressed in this course format. The power structures that make it possible for a college to require such a course, and the choice of texts and pedagogy, were not "on the table." The traditional professorial position may have been displaced, but what took its place?--the authority of consensus with its unidentifiable strong arm, and the faceless reign of software design? Despite Slatin's claim that the students learned about the learning process, there is no evidence (in the article) that the students considered where their attitudes came from, how consensus operates in the construction of knowledge, how power is established and what relationship they have to bureaucratic insitutions. How do we, as teaching professionals, negotiate a balance between an enlightened despotism in education and student-created knowledge? Slatin, and other authors in this book, bring this fundamental question to the fore. There is no definitive answer because the factors involved are ultimately social, and hence, always shifting and reconfiguring. Slatin ends his article with the caveat that computerization can bring about greater estrangement between students, faculty and administration through greater regimentation and control. Of course, it can also "distribute authority and power more widely" (50). Power or authority without a specific face, however, is not necessarily good or just. Shahaf Gal's "Computers and Design Activities: Their Mediating Role in Engineering Education" is found in the second half of the volume, and does not allow for a theory/praxis dichotomy. Gal recounts a brief history of engineering education up to the introduction of Growltiger (GT), a computer-assisted learning aid for design. He demonstrates GT's potential to impact the learning of engineering design by tracking its use by four students in a bridge-building contest. What his text demonstrates clearly is that computers are "inscribing and imaging devices" that add another viewpoint to an on-going dialogue between student, teacher, earlier coursework, and other teaching/learning tools. The less proficient students made a serious error by relying too heavily on the technology, or treating it as a "blueprint provider." They "interacted with GT in a way that trusted the data to represent reality. They did not see their interaction with GT as a negotiation between two knowledge systems" (495). Students who were more thoroughly informed in engineering discourses knew to use the technology as one voice among others--they knew enough not simply to accept the input of the computer as authoritative. The less-advanced students learned a valuable lesson from the competition itself: the fact that their designs were not able to hold up under pressure (literally) brought the fact of their insufficient knowledge crashing down on them (and their bridges). They also had, post factum, several other designs to study, especially the winning one. Although competition and comparison are not good pedagogical strategies for everyone (in this case the competitors had volunteered), at some point what we think we know has to be challenged within the society of discourses to which it belongs. Students need critique in order to learn to push their learning into auto-critique. This is what is lacking in Slatin's discussion and in the writings of other avatars of constructivist, collaborative and computer-mediated pedagogies. Obviously there are differences between instrumental types of knowledge acquisition and discoursive knowledge accumulation. Indeed, I do not promote the teaching of reading, thinking and writing as "skills" per se (then again, Gal's teaching of design is quite discursive, if not dialogic). Nevertheless, the "soft" sciences might benefit from "bridge-building" competitions or the re-institution of some forms of agonia. Not everything agonistic is inhuman agony--the joy of confronting or creating a sound argument supported by defensible evidence, for example. Students need to know that soundbites are not sound arguments despite predictions that electronic writing will be aphoristic rather than periodic. Just because writing and learning can be conceived of hypertextually does not mean that rigor goes the way of the dinosaur. Rigor and hypertextuality are not mutually incompatible. Nor is rigorous thinking and hard intellectual work unpleasurable, although American anti-intellectualism, especially in the mass media, would make it so. At a time when the spurious dogmatics of a Rush Limbaugh and Holocaust revisionist historians circulate "aphoristically" in cyberspace, and at a time when knowledge is becoming increasingly textualized, the role of critical thinking in education will ultimately determine the value(s) of socially constructed knowledge. This volume affords the reader an opportunity to reconsider knowledge, power, and new communications technologies with respect to social dynamics and power relationships.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id cc68
authors García, Agustín Pérez
year 1992
title Learning Structural Design - Computers and Virtual Laboratories
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 525-534
summary This paper shows how the spreading use of computers can improve the quality of education, specially in the field of architecture. An Innovative Teaching Project oriented to the discipline Structural Design of Buildings has been implemented at the School of Architecture of Valencia. The main objective of this project is the transformation of the computer room into a virtual laboratory for simulating the behaviour of structural typologies using mathematical models of them. An environment, specially oriented to Structural Design, has been integrated in a Computer Aided Design platform to teach how design the Structure of Buildings.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:45

_id ea96
authors Hacfoort, Eek J. and Veldhuisen, Jan K.
year 1992
title A Building Design and Evaluation System
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 195-211 : ill. table. includes bibliography
summary Within the field of architectural design there is a growing awareness of imbalance among the professionalism, the experience, and the creativity of the designers' response to the up-to-date requirements of all parties interested in the design process. The building design and evaluating system COSMOS makes it possible for various participants to work within their own domain, so that separated but coordinated work can be done. This system is meant to organize the initial stage of the design process, where user-defined functions, geometry, type of construction, and building materials are decided. It offers a tool to design a building to calculate a number of effects and for managing the information necessary to evaluate the design decisions. The system is provided with data and sets of parameters for describing the conditions, along with their properties, of the main building functions of a selection of well-known building types. The architectural design is conceptualized as being a hierarchy of spatial units, ranking from building blocks down to specific rooms or spaces. The concept of zoning is used as a means of calculating and directly evaluating the structure of the design without working out the details. A distinction is made between internal and external calculations and evaluations during the initial design process. During design on screen, an estimation can be recorded of building costs, energy costs, acoustics, lighting, construction, and utility. Furthermore, the design can be exported to a design application program, in this case AutoCAD, to make and show drawings in more detail. Through the medium of a database, external calculation and evaluation of building costs, life-cycle costs, energy costs, interior climate, acoustics, lighting, construction, and utility are possible in much more advanced application programs
keywords evaluation, applications, integration, architecture, design, construction, building, energy, cost, lighting, acoustics, performance
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 181b
authors Liou, Shuenn-Ren
year 1992
title A computer-based framework for analyzing and deriving the morphological structure of architectural designs
source University of Michigan
summary An approach to the acquisition and utilization of knowledge about the morphological structure of notable orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is formulated and tested. This approach consists of two levels of abstraction within which the analysis and comparison of existing designs and the derivation of new designs can be undertaken systematically and efficiently. Specifically, the morphological structure of orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is conceived as a language defined by shape grammar and architectural grammar corresponding to the geometric and spatial structures of the compositions. Lines constitute the shape grammar and walls and columns the architectural grammar. A computer program named ANADER is designed and implemented using the C++ object-oriented language to describe feasible compositions. It is argued that the gap between morphological analysis and synthesis is bridged partially because the proposed framework facilitates systematic comparisons of the morphological structures of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions and provides insight into the form-making process used to derive them. As an analytical system, the framework contributes to the generation of new and the assessment of existing morphological knowledge. Specifically, it is demonstrated that it is feasible to specify an existing architectural design by a set of universal rule schemata and the sequence of their application. As a generative system, the framework allows many of the tasks involved in the derivation of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions to be carried out. As well, it promotes the use of analytical results. In conclusion, it is argued that the proposed computer-based framework will provide the research and the educator with increasing opportunities for addressing persistent architectural questions in new ways. Of particular interest to this author are questions concerning the decision-making activities involved in form- and space-making as well as the description, classification, and derivation of architecutural form and space. It is suggested that, at least in reference to the cases examined, but probably also in reference to many other morphological classes, these and other related questions can be addressed systematically, efficiently, and fruitfully by using the proposed framework.  
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ddss9208
id ddss9208
authors Lucardie, G.L.
year 1993
title A functional approach to realizing decision support systems in technical regulation management for design and construction
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Technical building standards defining the quality of buildings, building products, building materials and building processes aim to provide acceptable levels of safety, health, usefulness and energy consumption. However, the logical consistency between these goals and the set of regulations produced to achieve them is often hard to identify. Not only the large quantities of highly complex and frequently changing building regulations to be met, but also the variety of user demands and the steadily increasing technical information on (new) materials, products and buildings have produced a very complex set of knowledge and data that should be taken into account when handling technical building regulations. Integrating knowledge technology and database technology is an important step towards managing the complexity of technical regulations. Generally, two strategies can be followed to integrate knowledge and database technology. The main emphasis of the first strategy is on transferring data structures and processing techniques from one field of research to another. The second approach is concerned exclusively with the semantic structure of what is contained in the data-based or knowledge-based system. The aim of this paper is to show that the second or knowledge-level approach, in particular the theory of functional classifications, is more fundamental and more fruitful. It permits a goal-directed rationalized strategy towards analysis, use and application of regulations. Therefore, it enables the reconstruction of (deep) models of regulations, objects and of users accounting for the flexibility and dynamics that are responsible for the complexity of technical regulations. Finally, at the systems level, the theory supports an effective development of a new class of rational Decision Support Systems (DSS), which should reduce the complexity of technical regulations and restore the logical consistency between the goals of technical regulations and the technical regulations themselves.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 9d0c
authors McVey, G., McCrobie, D., Evans, D., McIlvaine Parsons, D., Templar, J. Konz, S. and Caldwell, B.
year 1992
title Interactions between Environmental Design and Human Factors Specialists ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Panel
source Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992 v.1 pp. 575-577
summary Most of the interactions between human factors specialists, such as ergonomists, and environmental specialists such as facility planners and architects tend to be task specific and do not follow any accepted process. Consequently, the success of such interactions are usually a function of serendipity rather than informed expectation. It is anticipated that by gathering such specialists in an open discussion, relevant issues may be addressed and successful interaction procedures introduced and discussed. Such a forum is desirable for developing an understanding of the differences, educational and operational, between environmental design specialists, and human factors specialists, as well as for exploring the ways their communications can be enhanced. It is anticipated that by sharing their experiences with the attendees, the presenters will identify relevant on-going knowledge transfer activities, and also introduce and discuss practical problem-solving and communication methods that can be used with assurance by the attendees themselves when faced with similar problems in the future. This panel will focus on issues that arrive out of situations where human factors specialists and environmental design specialists are joined together in project development. The specialties represented include architecture, facility planning, environmental psychology, ergonomic research, industrial design and engineering, and equipment and furniture design and manufacturing.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 1992
authors Russell, Peter
year 2002
title Using Higher Level Programming in Interdisciplinary teams as a means of training for Concurrent Engineering
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 14-19
summary The paper explains a didactical method for training students that has been run three times to date. The premise of the course is to combine students from different faculties into interdisciplinary teams. These teams then have a complex problem to resolve within an extremely short time span. In light of recent works from Joy and Kurzweil, the theme Robotics was chosen as an exercise that is timely, interesting and related, but not central to the studies of the various faculties. In groups of 3 to 5, students from faculties of architecture, computer science and mechanical engineering are entrusted to design, build and program a robot which must successfully execute a prescribed set of actions in a competitive atmosphere. The entire course lasts ten days and culminates with the competitive evaluation. The robots must navigate a labyrinth, communicate with on another and be able to cover longer distances with some speed. In order to simplify the resources available to the students, the Lego Mindstorms Robotic syshed backgrounds instaed of synthetic ones. The combination of digitally produced (scanned) sperical images together with the use of HDR open a wide range of new implementation in the field of architecture, especially in combining synthetic elements in existing buildings, e.g. new interior elements in an existing historical museum).ural presentations in the medium of computer animation. These new forms of expression of design thoughts and ideas go beyond mere model making, and move more towards scenemaking and storytelling. The latter represents new methods of expression within computational environments for architects and designers.its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosg and programming a winning robot. These differences became apparent early in the sessions and each group had to find ways to communicate their ideas and to collectively develop them by building on the strengths of each team member.
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2013/02/04 06:17

_id c93a
authors Saggio, Antonino
year 1992
title Object Based Modeling and Concept-Testing: A Framework for Studio Teaching
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 49-63
summary This chapter concludes with a proposal for a studio structure that incorporates computers as a creative stimulus in the design process. Three related experiences support this hypothesis: the role played in concrete designs by an Object Based Modeling environment, teaching with Computer Aided Architectural Design and OBM in the realm of documentation and analysis of architecture, previous applications of the Concept-Testing methodology in design studios. Examples from these three areas provide the framework for mutual support between OBM and a C-T approach for studio teaching. The central sections of the chapter focus on the analysis of these experiences, while the last section provides a 15 week, semester based, studio structure that incorporates OBM in the overall calendar and in key assignments.

series ACADIA
email Antonino.Saggio@Uniroma1.it
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 6d1d
authors Daru, R. and Daru, M.
year 1992
title Personal Working Styles in the CMD Studio
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 451-472
summary Normative and problem-solving approaches of architectural design ignore the personality aspects of the designing activity. Every architect approaches projects according to her/his own strategies and tactics. Usually they do not conform to the prescriptive models of design theoreticians. Computer aided design tools should be adapted to their utility within the strategies and tactics of each and every architectural student. We are testing the usefulness of CAAD tools developed by others or ourselves and identifying the needs for missing tools. It is already clear that many CAAD tools reflect the point of view of the programmer about strategies and tactics of designing and that they do not take into account the idiosyncrasies of the end user. Forcing the tools on students breeds the risk of fostering repulsion against ill-adapted tools, and consequently against CMD. Our research group pursues empirical research on working styles of designing by practising architects within the frame of a personality theory of actions. The results indicate that there are three main directions for designing strategies. If we want to take into account the real-world behaviour in design practice within architectural education, this implies the diversification of the exercises we offer to the students in threefold, corresponding with the three directions. To this, we add the didactic options of complementation, compensation and support, depending on what we know about the strong or weak points of the students involved. We have started proposing choices for the exercises of our design morphology studio. Students are offered approaches and tools we consider best adapted to their own working

series eCAADe
email mdaru@iaehv.nl
last changed 1998/08/24 07:25

_id ca47
authors Lee, Shu Wan
year 1996
title A Cognitive Approach to Architectural Style Several Characteristics of Design Thinking in Architecture
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 223-226
summary Designing is a complicated human behaviour and method, and is often treated as a mysterious "black box” operation in human mind. In the early period as for theory-studying of design thinking, the way of thinking that the researchers took were mostly descriptive discussions. Therefore, they lacked direct and empirical evidence although those studies provided significant exploration of design thinking (Wang, 1995). In recent years as for the study of cognitive science, they have tried to make design "glass box”. That is to try to make the thinking processes embedded in designers publicized. That is also to externalize the design procedure which provided the design studies another theoretical basis of more accurate and deeply researched procedure (Jones, 1992). Hence the studying of design thinking has become more important and the method of designing has also progressed a lot. For example, the classification of the nature of design problem such as ill-defined and well-defined (Newell, Shaw, and Simon, 1967), and different theoretical procedure modes for different disciplines, such as viewing architectural models as conjecture-analysis models and viewing engineering models as analysis-synthesis (Cross, 1991).
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:14

_id caadria2014_071
id caadria2014_071
authors Li, Lezhi; Renyuan Hu, Meng Yao, Guangwei Huang and Ziyu Tong
year 2014
title Sculpting the Space: A Circulation Based Approach to Generative Design in a Multi-Agent System
source Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014) / Kyoto 14-16 May 2014, pp. 565–574
summary This paper discusses an MAS (multiagent system) based approach to generating architectural spaces that afford better modes of human movement. To achieve this, a pedestrian simulation is carried out to record the data with regard to human spatial experience during the walking process. Unlike common practices of performance oriented generation where final results are achieved through cycles of simulation and comparison, what we propose here is to let human’s movement exert direct influence on space. We made this possible by asking "humans" to project simulation data on architectural surroundings, and thus cause the layout to change for the purpose of affording what we designate as good spatial experiences. A generation experiment of an exhibition space is implemented to explore this approach, in which tentative rules of such spatial manipulation are proposed and tested through space syntax analyse. As the results suggested, by looking at spatial layouts through a lens of human behaviour, this projection-and-generation method provides some insight into space qualities that other methods could not have offered.
keywords Performance oriented generative design; projection; multi-agent system; pedestrian simulation; space syntax
series CAADRIA
email caroline.li.1992@gmail.com
last changed 2014/04/22 08:23

_id ddss9203
id ddss9203
authors Smeets, J.
year 1993
title Housing tenancy, data management and quality control
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary This paper deals with housing tenancy, data management and quality control. The proposed method is focused on quality characteristics of housing estates in view of rentability risks. It entails a cycle of registration, analysis and implementation of measures. The starting point is the behaviour of the housing consumer in a market-oriented context. The model is framed within theories of strategic management and marketing. Systematic registration and evaluation of consumer behaviour, by means of a set of relevant process and product indicators, can yield relevant information in the four phases of the rental process: orientation, intake, dwelling and exit. This information concerns the way in which the dwelling (characterized by product indicators) fits the needs of the consumer. The systematic analysis of the process and product indicators during the phases of the rental process makes a 'strength-weakness analysis' of housing estates possible. The indicators can be presented in aggregated form by way of a 'rentability index. The 'strength-weakness analysis' steers the intervention in the quality characteristics of housing estates. The possibilities for readjustment, however, are different. The quality control system is not only an early warning system, but also has several other functions: evaluation, planning and communication. The method described here lays a solid foundation for a decision-support system in the area of housing tenancy.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9201
id ddss9201
authors Van Bakel, A.P.M.
year 1993
title Personality assessment in regard to design strategies
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary This paper discusses some preliminary results of several knowledge-acquisition and documentation-structuring techniques that were used to assess the working styles of architects. The focus of this assessment was on their strategic design behaviour. Hettema's Interactive Personality Model (Hettema 1979, 1989) was used to explain and interpret these results. The methods used to acquire the necessary data are protocol analysis, card sorting and interviews. The results suggest that at least three parameters can be used to explain and differentiate the strategic design behaviour of architects. These parameters are S (site-oriented), B (brief-oriented) and C (concept-oriented). A priority hierarchy of these parameters reveals six major distinguishable working styles. These results are captured in a new design model that can be used in data bank implementations.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 6208
authors Abou-Jaoude, Georges
year 1992
title To Master a Tool
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part B, p. 15
summary The tool here is the computer or to be precise, a unit that includes the computer, the peripherals and the software needed to fulfill a task. These tools are getting very sophisticated and user interfaces extremly friendly, therefore it is very easy to become the slave of such electronic tools and reach self satisfaction with strait forward results and attractive images. In order to master and not to become slaves of sophisticated tools, a very solid knowledge of related fields or domains of application becomes necessary. In the case of this seminar, full scale modelling, is a way to understand the relation between a mental model and it's full-scale modelling, it is a way of communicating what is in a designers mind. Computers and design programs can have the same goal, rather than chosing one method or the other let us try to say how important it is today to complement designing with computer with other means and media such as full scale modelling, and what computer modelling and simulation can bring to full scale modelling or other means.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2003/08/25 08:12

_id acadia06_455
id acadia06_455
authors Ambach, Barbara
year 2006
title Eve’s Four Faces interactive surface configurations
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 455-460
summary Eve’s Four Faces consists of a series of digitally animated and interactive surfaces. Their content and structure are derived from a collection of sources outside the conventional boundaries of architectural research, namely psychology and the broader spectrum of arts and culture.The investigation stems from a psychological study documenting the attributes and social relationships of four distinct personality prototypes: the Individuated, the Traditional, the Conflicted, and the Assured (York and John 1992). For the purposes of this investigation, all four prototypes are assumed to be inherent, to certain degrees, in each individual. However, the propensity towards one of the prototypes forms the basis for each individual’s “personality structure.” The attributes, social implications and prospects for habitation have been translated into animations and surfaces operating within A House for Eve’s Four Faces. The presentation illustrates the potential for constructed surfaces to be configured and transformed interactively, responding to the needs and qualities associated with each prototype. The intention is to study the effects of each configuration and how each configuration may be therapeutic in supporting, challenging or altering one’s personality as it oscillates and shifts through the four prototypical conditions.
series ACADIA
email Ambachb@aol.com
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id 735a
authors Anh, Tran Hoai
year 1992
title FULL-SCALE EXPERIMENT ON KITCHEN FUNCTION IN HANOI
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part A, pp. 19-30
summary This study is a part of a licentiate thesis on "Functional kitchen for the Vietnamese cooking way"at the Department of Architecture and Development studies, Lund University. The issues it is dealing with are: (1) Inadequacy of kitchen design in the apartment buildings in Hanoi, where the kitchen is often designed as a mere cooking place - other parts of the food making process are not given any attention. (2) Lack of standard dimensional and planning criteria for functional kitchen which can serve as bases for kitchen design. // The thesis aims at finding out indicators on functional spatial requirements for kitchen, which can serve as guide-line for designing functional kitchen for Hanoi. One of the main propositions in the thesis is that functional kitchens for Hanoi should be organised to permit the culinary activities done according to the Vietnamese urban culinary practice. This is based on the concept that the culinary activity is an expression Of culture, thus the practice of preparing meal in the present context of the urban households in Hanoi has an established pattern, method which demand a suitable area and arrangement in the kitchen. This pattern and cooking method should make up the functional requirement for kitchen in Hanoi, and be taken in to account if functional kitchen designing is to be achieved. In the context of the space-limited apartment building of Hanoi, special focus is given to find out indicators on the minimum functional spatial requirements of the kitchen works.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:29

_id a6d8
authors Baletic, Bojan
year 1992
title Information Codes of Mutant Forms
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 173-186
summary If we assume that the statements from this quote are true, than we have to ask ourselves the question: "Should we teach architecture as we do?" This paper describes our experience in developing a knowledge base using a neural network system to serve as a "intelligent assistant" to students and other practicing architects in the conceptual phase of their work on housing design. Our approach concentrated on rising the awareness of the designer about the problem, not by building rules to guide him to a solution, but by questioning the categories and typologies by which he classifies and understands a problem. This we achieve through examples containing mutant forms, imperfect rules, gray zones between black and white, that carry the seeds of new solutions.
series eCAADe
email bbaletic@arhitekt.hr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id aa78
authors Bayazit, Nigan
year 1992
title Requirements of an Expert System for Design Studios
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 187-194
summary The goal of this paper is to study problems of the transition from traditional architectural studio teaching to CAAD studio teaching which requires a CAAD expert system as studio tutor, and to study the behavior of the student in this new environment. The differences between the traditional and computerized studio teaching and the experiences in this field are explained referring to the requirements for designing time in relation to the expertise of the student in the application of a CAD program. Learning styles and the process of design in computerized and non-computerized studio teaching are discussed. Design studio requirements of the students in traditional studio environment while doing design works are clarified depending on the results of an empirical study which explained the relations between the tutor and the student while they were doing studio critiques. Main complaints of the students raised in the empirical study were the lack of data in the specific design problem area, difficulties of realization of ideas and thoughts, not knowing the starting point of design, having no information about the references to be used for the specific design task, having difficulties in the application of presentation techniques. In the concluding parts of the paper are discussed the different styles of teaching and their relation to the CAAD environment, the transformation of the instructional programs for the new design environment, the future expectations from the CAAD programs, properties of the new teaching environment and the roles of the expert systems in design studio education.

keywords CAAD Education, Expert System, Architectural Design Studio, Knowledge Acquisition
series eCAADe
email bayazit@sariyer.cc.itu.edu.tr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 065b
authors Beitia, S.S., Zulueta, A. and Barrallo, J.
year 1995
title The Virtual Cathedral - An Essay about CAAD, History and Structure
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 355-360
summary The Old Cathedral of Santa Maria in Vitoria is the most representative building of the Gothic style in the Basque Country. Built during the XIV century, it has been closed to the cult in 1994 because of the high risk of collapse that presents its structure. This closure was originated by the structural analysis that was entrusted to the University of the Basque Country in 1992. The topographic works developed in the Cathedral to elaborate the planimetry of the temple revealed that many structural elements of great importance like arches, buttresses and flying buttresses were removed, modified or added along the history of Santa Maria. The first structural analysis made in the church suggested that the huge deformations showed in the resistant elements, specially the piers, were originated by interventions made in the past. A deep historical investigation allowed us to know how the Cathedral was built and the changes executed until our days. With this information, we started the elaboration of a virtual model of the Cathedral of Santa Maria. This model was introduced into a Finite Elements Method system to study the deformations suffered in the church during its construction in the XIV century, and the intervention made later in the XV, XVI and XX centuries. The efficiency of the virtual model simulating the geometry of the Cathedral along history allowed us to detect the cause of the structural damage, that was finally found in many unfortunate interventions along time.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_43.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id e039
authors Bertin, Vito
year 1992
title Structural Transformations (Basic Architectural Unit 6)
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 413-426
summary While the teaching of the phenomenon of form as well as space is normally seen within an environment of free experimentation and personal expression, other directions prove to be worth of pursuit. The proposed paper represents such an exploration. The generation of controlled complexity and structural transformations have been the title of the project which forms the base of this paper. In it, the potential for creative development of the student was explored in such a way, that as in the sciences a process can be reproduced or an exploration utilized in further experimentation. The cube as a well proven B.A.U. or basic architectural unit has again been used in our work. Even a simple object like a cube has many properties. As properties are never pure, but always related to other properties, and looking at a single property as a specific value of a variable, it is possible to link a whole field of objects. These links provide a network of paths through which exploration and development is possible. The paper represents a first step in a direction which we think will compliment the already established basic design program.

series eCAADe
email vito@osk.threewebnet.or.jp
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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