CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 21 to 40 of 171

_id 6ef4
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1992
title Multi-Model Representation of Design Knowledge
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 77-88
summary Explicit representation of design knowledge is needed if scientific methods are to be applied in design research, and if comPuters are to be used in the aid of design education and practice. The representation of knowledge in general, and design knowledge in particular, have been the subject matter of computer science, design methods, and computer- aided design research for quite some time. Several models of design knowledge representation have been developed over the last 30 years, addressing specific aspects of the problem. This paper describes a different approach to design knowledge representation that recognizes the Multi-modal nature of design knowledge. It uses a variety of computational tools to encode different kinds of design knowledge, including the descriptive (objects), the prescriptive (goals) and the operational (methods) kinds. The representation is intended to form a parsimonious, communicable and presentable knowledge-base that can be used as a tool for design research and education as well as for CAAD.
keywords Design Methods, Design Process, Goals, Knowledge Representation, Semantic Networks
series ACADIA
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 2325
authors Chilton, John C.
year 1992
title Computer Aided Structural Design in Architectural Instruction
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 443-450
summary In schools of architecture there is a tendency to associate the use of computers solely with the production of graphic images as part of the architectural design process. However, if the architecture is to work as a building it is also essential that technical aspects of the design are adequately investigated. One of the problem areas for most architectural students is structural design and they are often reluctant to use hand calculations to determine sizes of structural elements within their projects. In recent years, much of the drudgery of hand calculation has been removed from the engineer by the use of computers, and this has, hopefully, allowed a more thorough investigation of conceptual ideas and alternatives. The same benefit is now becoming available to architectural students. This is in the form of structural analysis and design programs that can be used, even by those having a limited knowledge of structural engineering, to assess the stability of designs and obtain approximate sizes for individual structural elements. The paper discusses how the use of such programs is taught, within the School of Architecture at Nottingham. Examples will be given of how they can assist students in the architectural design process. In particular, the application of GLULAM, a program for estimating sizes of laminated timber elements and SAND, a structural analysis and design package, will be described.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:41

_id 2e19
authors De Waard, Marcel
year 1992
title Computer aided conformance checking; checking residential building designs against building regulations with the aid of computers
source Delft University of Technology
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id e412
authors Fargas, Josep and Papazian, Pegor
year 1992
title Modeling Regulations and Intentions for Urban Development: The Role of Computer Simulation in the Urban Design Studio
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 201-212
summary In this paper we present a strategy for modeling urban development in order to study the role of urban regulations and policies in the transformation of cities. We also suggest a methodology for using computer models as experimental tools in the urban design studio in order to make explicit the factors involved in shaping cities, and for the automatic visualization of projected development. The structure of the proposed model is based on different modules which represent, on the one hand, the rules regulating the physical growth of a city and, on the other hand, heuristics corresponding to different interests such as Real Estate Developers, City Hall Planners, Advocacy and Community Groups, and so on. Here we present a case study dealing with the Boston Redevelopment Authority zoning code for the Midtown Cultural District of Boston. We introduce a computer program which develops the district, adopting a particular point of view regarding urban regulation. We then generalize the notion of this type of computer modeling and simulation, and draw some conclusions about its possible uses in the teaching and practice of design.
series eCAADe
email fargas@dtec.es
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 4129
authors Fargas, Josep and Papazian, Pegor
year 1992
title Metaphors in Design: An Experiment with a Frame, Two Lines and Two Rectangles
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 13-22
summary The research we will discuss below originated from an attempt to examine the capacity of designers to evaluate an artifact, and to study the feasibility of replicating a designer's moves intended to make an artifact more expressive of a given quality. We will present the results of an interactive computer experiment, first developed at the MIT Design Research Seminar, which is meant to capture the subject’s actions in a simple design task as a series of successive "moves"'. We will propose that designers use metaphors in their interaction with design artifacts and we will argue that the concept of metaphors can lead to a powerful theory of design activity. Finally, we will show how such a theory can drive the project of building a design system.

When trying to understand how designers work, it is tempting to examine design products in order to come up with the principles or norms behind them. The problem with such an approach is that it may lead to a purely syntactical analysis of design artifacts, failing to capture the knowledge of the designer in an explicit way, and ignoring the interaction between the designer and the evolving design. We will present a theory about design activity based on the observation that knowledge is brought into play during a design task by a process of interpretation of the design document. By treating an evolving design in terms of the meanings and rules proper to a given way of seeing, a designer can reduce the complexity of a task by focusing on certain of its aspects, and can manipulate abstract elements in a meaningful way.

series ACADIA
email fargas@dtec.es
last changed 2003/05/14 20:02

_id 68c8
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R. and Fenves, S. (et al.)
year 1994
title SEED: A Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design
source Proceeding of IKM '94, Weimar, Germany, pp. 5-10
summary The SEED project intends to develop a software environment that supports the early phases in building design (Flemming et al., 1993). The goal is to provide support, in principle, for the preliminary design of buildings in all aspects that can gain from computer support. This includes using the computer not only for analysis and evaluation, but also more actively for the generation of designs, or more accurately, for the rapid generation of design representations. A major motivation for the development of SEED is to bring the results of two multi-generational research efforts focusing on `generative' design systems closer to practice: 1. LOOS/ABLOOS, a generative system for the synthesis of layouts of rectangles (Flemming et al., 1988; Flemming, 1989; Coyne and Flemming, 1990; Coyne, 1991); 2. GENESIS, a rule-based system that supports the generation of assemblies of 3-dimensional solids (Heisserman, 1991; Heisserman and Woodbury, 1993). The rapid generation of design representations can take advantage of special opportunities when it deals with a recurring building type, that is, a building type dealt with frequently by the users of the system. Design firms - from housing manufacturers to government agencies - accumulate considerable experience with recurring building types. But current CAD systems capture this experience and support its reuse only marginally. SEED intends to provide systematic support for the storing and retrieval of past solutions and their adaptation to similar problem situations. This motivation aligns aspects of SEED closely with current work in Artificial Intelligence that focuses on case-based design (see, for example, Kolodner, 1991; Domeshek and Kolodner, 1992; Hua et al., 1992).
series other
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 1076
authors Gero, John S. and Saunders, Robert
year 2000
title Constructed Representations and Their Functions in Computational Models of Designing
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 215-224
summary This paper re-examines the conclusions made by Schön and Wiggins in 1992 that computers were unable to reproduce processes crucial to designing. We propose that recent developments in artificial intelligence and design computing put us in a position where we can begin to computationally model designing as conceived by Schön and Wiggins. We present a computational model of designing using situated processes that construct representations. We show how constructed representations support computational processes that model the different kinds of seeing reported in designing. We also present recently developed computational processes that can identify unexpected consequences of design actions using adaptive novelty detection.
series CAADRIA
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au, rob@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id ddss9218
id ddss9218
authors Hensen, J.L.M.
year 1993
title Design support via simulation of building and plant thermal interaction
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Design decision support related to building energy consumption and/or indoor climate should be based on an integral approach to the environment, the building, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, and the occupants. The tools to achieve this are now available in the form of computer simulation systems which treat the building and plant as an integrated dynamic system. Although its potentials reach beyond the area of Computer Aided Building Design, the paper describes building and plant energy simulation within the context of CABD, design decision support and design evaluation. Currently, computer simulation is only used indirectly as a design decision support mechanism; that is, its power is not delivered very efficiently to the design profession. This paper suggests some future research directions. These are aimed at providing a mechanism to overcome this problem by developing an intelligent front end' which bridges the gap between sophisticated computer simulation tools and the design profession.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id caadria2004_k-1
id caadria2004_k-1
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 2004
title CONTEXTUALIZATION AND EMBODIMENT IN CYBERSPACE
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 5-14
summary The introduction of VRML (Virtual Reality Markup Language) in 1994, and other similar web-enabled dynamic modeling software (such as SGI’s Open Inventor and WebSpace), have created a rush to develop on-line 3D virtual environments, with purposes ranging from art, to entertainment, to shopping, to culture and education. Some developers took their cues from the science fiction literature of Gibson (1984), Stephenson (1992), and others. Many were web-extensions to single-player video games. But most were created as a direct extension to our new-found ability to digitally model 3D spaces and to endow them with interactive control and pseudo-inhabitation. Surprisingly, this technologically-driven stampede paid little attention to the core principles of place-making and presence, derived from architecture and cognitive science, respectively: two principles that could and should inform the essence of the virtual place experience and help steer its development. Why are the principles of place-making and presence important for the development of virtual environments? Why not simply be content with our ability to create realistically-looking 3D worlds that we can visit remotely? What could we possibly learn about making these worlds better, had we understood the essence of place and presence? To answer these questions we cannot look at place-making (both physical and virtual) from a 3D space-making point of view alone, because places are not an end unto themselves. Rather, places must be considered a locus of contextualization and embodiment that ground human activities and give them meaning. In doing so, places acquire a meaning of their own, which facilitates, improves, and enriches many aspects of our lives. They provide us with a means to interpret the activities of others and to direct our own actions. Such meaning is comprised of the social and cultural conceptions and behaviors imprinted on the environment by the presence and activities of its inhabitants, who in turn, ‘read’ by them through their own corporeal embodiment of the same environment. This transactional relationship between the physical aspects of an environment, its social/cultural context, and our own embodiment of it, combine to create what is known as a sense of place: the psychological, physical, social, and cultural framework that helps us interpret the world around us, and directs our own behavior in it. In turn, it is our own (as well as others’) presence in that environment that gives it meaning, and shapes its social/cultural character. By understanding the essence of place-ness in general, and in cyberspace in particular, we can create virtual places that can better support Internet-based activities, and make them equal to, in some cases even better than their physical counterparts. One of the activities that stands to benefit most from understanding the concept of cyber-places is learning—an interpersonal activity that requires the co-presence of others (a teacher and/or fellow learners), who can point out the difference between what matters and what does not, and produce an emotional involvement that helps students learn. Thus, while many administrators and educators rush to develop webbased remote learning sites, to leverage the economic advantages of one-tomany learning modalities, these sites deprive learners of the contextualization and embodiment inherent in brick-and-mortar learning institutions, and which are needed to support the activity of learning. Can these qualities be achieved in virtual learning environments? If so, how? These are some of the questions this talk will try to answer by presenting a virtual place-making methodology and its experimental implementation, intended to create a sense of place through contextualization and embodiment in virtual learning environments.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/20 16:37

_id ddss9202
id ddss9202
authors Koutamanis, A. and Mitossi, V.
year 1993
title Architectural computer vision: Automated recognition of architectural drawings
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Computer vision offers the ability to transform digitized drawings into documents that can be used with computer systems. Recognition of digitized drawings can occur at the levels of (a) geometric elements, (b) building elements, and (c) spatial articulation. The last two levels apply not only to digitized images but also to computer-produced ones. The enormous burden placed on the user for inputting and manipulating CAD drawings suggests that automated recognition can add to the capabilities of CAD by making the computer more flexible with respect to inputting design information and more responsive to the actual concerns of the designer.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0b53
authors Lawrence, Roderick J.
year 1992
title CHARACTERISTICS OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN-TOOLS
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part B, pp. 7-14
summary The professional roles and fonctions of architects are linked to the societal context in which they practice. Furthermore, this context, which is not static, has a relationship to the ways in which institutions, groups and individuals are involved in processes for the design and construction of the built environment. This presentation illustrates how the roles and functions of architects, other professionals, their clients and the general public have a bearing on the tools and methods used by the architectural profession to simulate design projects. Traditionally, sketches, renderings and pattern books were used. Then, they were supplemented by axonometric and perspective drawings, written and diagrammatic specifications, photographs and small-scale models. In recent decades mathematical models of diverse kinds, simulation techniques -including small- and full-scale modelling kits -as well as computer aided design and drafting systems have been used. This paper briefly presents these kinds of tools and then presents a typology of them. In conclusion, possible applications for the future are discussed.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email lawrence@uni2a.unige.ch
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:39

_id 181b
authors Liou, Shuenn-Ren
year 1992
title A computer-based framework for analyzing and deriving the morphological structure of architectural designs
source University of Michigan
summary An approach to the acquisition and utilization of knowledge about the morphological structure of notable orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is formulated and tested. This approach consists of two levels of abstraction within which the analysis and comparison of existing designs and the derivation of new designs can be undertaken systematically and efficiently. Specifically, the morphological structure of orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is conceived as a language defined by shape grammar and architectural grammar corresponding to the geometric and spatial structures of the compositions. Lines constitute the shape grammar and walls and columns the architectural grammar. A computer program named ANADER is designed and implemented using the C++ object-oriented language to describe feasible compositions. It is argued that the gap between morphological analysis and synthesis is bridged partially because the proposed framework facilitates systematic comparisons of the morphological structures of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions and provides insight into the form-making process used to derive them. As an analytical system, the framework contributes to the generation of new and the assessment of existing morphological knowledge. Specifically, it is demonstrated that it is feasible to specify an existing architectural design by a set of universal rule schemata and the sequence of their application. As a generative system, the framework allows many of the tasks involved in the derivation of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions to be carried out. As well, it promotes the use of analytical results. In conclusion, it is argued that the proposed computer-based framework will provide the research and the educator with increasing opportunities for addressing persistent architectural questions in new ways. Of particular interest to this author are questions concerning the decision-making activities involved in form- and space-making as well as the description, classification, and derivation of architecutural form and space. It is suggested that, at least in reference to the cases examined, but probably also in reference to many other morphological classes, these and other related questions can be addressed systematically, efficiently, and fruitfully by using the proposed framework.  
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 427b
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1993
title A Computerized Fire Safety Evaluation System for Business Occupancies
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 241-251
summary The development of computer-based code compliance checking programs has been the focus of many studies. While some of these investigated the procedural aspects of building codes, others focused more on their rule base. On the other hand, due to the complexity of the codes, the process of identifying which sections apply to a given problem, and in which order to access them requires a meta-knowledge structuring system. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 101M, Alternative Approaches to Life Safety (1992) provides a framework through which code sections can be systematically accessed by means of a set of checklists. The study presented here primarily focuses on the development of a computer based fire safety code checking system called ARCHCode/Business for business occupancies following the guidelines and the methodology described in Chapter 7 of NFPA 101M.
keywords Fire Safety Expert System, Business Occupancies, CAD Interface
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 975e
authors Pearce, M. and Goel, A. (et al.)
year 1992
title Case-Based Design support: A case study in architectural design
source IEEE Expert 7(5): 14-20
summary Archie, a small computer-based library of architectural design cases, is described. Archie helps architects in the high-level task of conceptual design as opposed to low-level tasks such as drawing and drafting, numerical calculations, and constraint propagation. Archie goes beyond supporting architects in design proposal and critiquing. It acts as a shared external memory that supports two kinds of design collaboration. First, by including enough knowledge about the goals, plans, outcomes, and lessons of past cases, it lets the designer access the work of previous architects. Second, by providing access to the perspectives of domain experts via the domain models, Archie helps architects anticipate and accommodate experts' views on evolving designs. The lessons learned about building large case-based systems to support real-world decision making in developing Archie are discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c804
authors Richens, P.
year 1994
title Does Knowledge really Help?
source G. Carrara and Y.E. Kalay (Eds.), Knowledge-Based Computer-Aided Architectural Design, Elsevier
summary The Martin Centre CADLAB has recently been established to investigate software techniques that could be of practical importance to architects within the next five years. In common with most CAD researchers, we are interested in the earlier, conceptual, stages of design, where commercial CAD systems have had little impact. Our approach is not Knowledge-Based, but rather focuses on using the computer as a medium for design and communication. This leads to a concentration on apparently superficial aspects such as visual appearance, the dynamics of interaction, immediate feedback, plasticity. We try to avoid building-in theoretical attitudes, and to reduce the semantic content of our systems to a low level on the basis that flexibility and intelligence are inversely related; and that flexibility is more important. The CADLAB became operational in January 1992. First year work in three areas – building models, experiencing architecture, and making drawings – is discussed.
series other
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2003/03/05 12:19

_id daff
authors Richens, P.
year 1994
title CAD Research at the Martin Centre
source Automation in Construction, No. 3
summary The Martin Centre CADLAB has recently been established to investigate software techniques that could be of practical importance to architects within the next five years. In common with most CAD researchers, we are interested in the earlier, conceptual, stages of design, where commercial CAD systems have had little impact. Our approach is not Knowledge-Based, but rather focuses on using the computer as a medium for design and communication. This leads to a concentration on apparently superficial aspects such as visual appearance, the dynamics of interaction, immediate feedback, plasticity. We try to avoid building-in theoretical attitudes, and to reduce the semantic content of our systems to a low level on the basis that flexibility and intelligence are inversely related; and that flexibility is more important. The CADLAB became operational in January 1992. First year work in three areas – building models, experiencing architecture, and making drawings – is discussed.
series journal
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/pdfs/rich94a.pdf
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id e87d
authors Schierle, G. Goetz
year 1992
title Computer Aided Design for Wind and Seismic Forces
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 187-194
summary A computer program, Lateral Design Graphs (LDG), to consider lateral wind and seismic forces in the early design stages, is presented. LDG provides numeric data and graphs to visualize the effect of building height, shape, and framing system on lateral forces. Many critical decisions effecting lateral forces and elements to resist them are made at early design stages. Costly changes or reduced safety may result if they are not considered. For example, building height, shape and configuration impact lateral forces and building safety; so does the placement of shear walls in line with space needs. But the complex and time consuming nature of lateral force design by hand makes early consideration often not practical. Therefore the objectives of LDG are to: 1) visualize the cause and effect of lateral forces; 2) make the design process more transparent; 3) develop informed intuition; 4) facilitate trade-off studies at an early stage; 5) help to teach design for lateral forces.
series ACADIA
email schierle@usc.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 5a7c
authors Schneiderman, B.
year 1992
title Designing the User Interface. Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction
source Reading, Mass. etc, Addison-Wesley
summary Ben Shneiderman again provides a complete, current, and authoritative introduction to user-interface design. Students will learn practical techniques and guidelines needed to develop good systems designs - systems with interfaces the typical user can understand, predict, and control. This third edition features new chapters on the World Wide Web, information visualization, and computer-supported cooperative work. It contains expanded and earlier coverage of development methodologies, evaluation techniques, and user-interface building tools. The author provides provocative discussion of speech input/output, natural-language interaction, anthropomorphic design, virtual environments, and intelligent (software) agents.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 25b7
authors Smeltzer, G., Roelen, W. and Maver, T.W.
year 1992
title Design Modelling and Design Presentation From a Computer-Generated Image Towards a Multi-user Design System
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 137-144
summary CAD systems regularly offer new techniques for the presentation of design proposals like computer-generated (stereo-) images, animations, holography and virtual reality. These techniques are mainly used for the presentation of a final design or for the presentation of buildings that have already been constructed. As in the course of time the quality of the CAD systems and their users have improved enormously, it is also possible to use these systems for the evaluation of several temporary design proposals during the design process. Since 'beautiful pictures' and 'wonderful animations' have already shown their great value when presenting a design, it is sometimes as if CAD systems are considered suitable for this propose only. Even new techniques like virtual reality systems seem to be valued only through the 'tinted glasses' of the presentation capabilities. Hardly any attention is paid to the possibilities that these new techniques offer as an instrument to support modelling and evaluation during the design process. This article will outline the results of research and development in the field of virtual reality. Virtual reality systems are based on the combination of a number of already existing presentation techniques like photo-realistic images, stereo images and real time animations. The added value of this type of CAD system is determined by the use of a new type of user interface. In effect this interface consists of sensors that register how its user moves and looks around. Through this, and by using a so- called 'eye phone' (comparable to stereo headphones for sound) the user, with some imaginative powers, thinks he is standing in the environment that he modelled, or in front of his building design. After this we will first sketch the outlines of some presentation techniques, that can also be found in a virtual reality system. Special attention will be paid to some specific characteristics of these techniques themselves. Next, a more detailed description will be given of virtual reality systems, focusing on the system that is being developed at Calibre itself.

series eCAADe
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 592a
authors Takemura, H. and Kishino, F.
year 1992
title Cooperative work environment using virtual workspace
source Proceedings of the Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: 226-232. New York: The Association for Computing Machinery
summary A virtual environment, which is created by computer graphics and an appropriate user interface, can be used in many application fields, such as teleopetution, telecommunication and real time simulation. Furthermore, if this environment could be shared by multiple users, there would be more potential applications. Discussed in this paper is a case study of building a prototype of a cooperative work environment using a virtual environment, where more than two people can solve problemscooperatively, including design strategies and implementirig issues. An environment where two operators can directly grasp, move or release stereoscopic computer graphics images by hand is implemented. The system is built by combining head position tracking stereoscopic displays, hand gesture input devices and graphics workstations. Our design goal is to utilize this type of interface for a future teleconferencing system. In order to provide good interactivity for users, we discuss potential bottlenecks and their solutions. The system allows two users to share a virtual environment and to organize 3-D objects cooperatively.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

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