CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 171

_id 0ac0
authors Coyne, Richard and Newton, Sidney
year 1992
title Metaphors, Computers and Architectural Education
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 307-318
summary In this paper we present the case for employing metaphor to explain the impact of technology. This contrasts with the empirical-theoretical method of inquiry. We also contrast two widely held metaphors of architectural education (the EPISTEMOLOGICAL and the COMMUNITY metaphors) and of the role of the computer (the MAINFRAME and the UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING metaphors). We show how in each case both metaphors result in different kinds of decision making in relation to resourcing an architecture school.
series eCAADe
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 6d1d
authors Daru, R. and Daru, M.
year 1992
title Personal Working Styles in the CMD Studio
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 451-472
summary Normative and problem-solving approaches of architectural design ignore the personality aspects of the designing activity. Every architect approaches projects according to her/his own strategies and tactics. Usually they do not conform to the prescriptive models of design theoreticians. Computer aided design tools should be adapted to their utility within the strategies and tactics of each and every architectural student. We are testing the usefulness of CAAD tools developed by others or ourselves and identifying the needs for missing tools. It is already clear that many CAAD tools reflect the point of view of the programmer about strategies and tactics of designing and that they do not take into account the idiosyncrasies of the end user. Forcing the tools on students breeds the risk of fostering repulsion against ill-adapted tools, and consequently against CMD. Our research group pursues empirical research on working styles of designing by practising architects within the frame of a personality theory of actions. The results indicate that there are three main directions for designing strategies. If we want to take into account the real-world behaviour in design practice within architectural education, this implies the diversification of the exercises we offer to the students in threefold, corresponding with the three directions. To this, we add the didactic options of complementation, compensation and support, depending on what we know about the strong or weak points of the students involved. We have started proposing choices for the exercises of our design morphology studio. Students are offered approaches and tools we consider best adapted to their own working

series eCAADe
email mdaru@iaehv.nl
last changed 1998/08/24 07:25

_id 7905
authors Deering, Michael
year 1992
title High Resolution Virtual Reality
source Proceedingsfrom SIGGRAPH 1992, (Chicago, Illinois, July 1992). 195-202
summary I define the lower layers of Virtual Reality to be: the highly-accurate, real-time simulation by computer of the interaction of the physical world with human senses. My focus is on the visual system, the talk will desceribe the techniques used to perform this simulation in several running systems at Sun microsystems. These include: correct perspective viewing equations, correcting for the optics of both human includes details of the Virtual Portal, a 1K x 2K walk-in virtual display device.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4857
authors Escola Tecnica Superior D'arquitectura de Barcelona (Ed.)
year 1992
title CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect?
source eCAADe Conference Proceedings / Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, 551 p.
summary The involvement of computer graphic systems in the transmission of knowledge in the areas of urban planning and architectural design will bring a significant change to the didactic programs and methods of those schools which have decided to adopt these new instruments. Workshops of urban planning and architectural design will have to modify their structures, and teaching teams will have to revise their current programs. Some european schools and faculties of architecture have taken steps in this direction. Others are willing to join them.

This process is only delayed by the scarcity of material resources, and by the slowness with which a sufficient number of teachers are adopting these methods.

ECAADE has set out to analyze the state of this issue during its next conference, and it will be discussed from various points of view. From this confrontation of ideas will come, surely, the guidelines for progress in the years to come.

The different sessions will be grouped together following these four themes:

(A.) Multimedia and Course Work / State of the art of the synthesis of graphical and textual information favored by new available multimedia computer programs. Their repercussions on academic programs. (B.) The New Design Studio / Physical characteristics, data concentration and accessibility of a computerized studio can be better approached in a computerized workshop. (C.) How to manage the new education system / Problems and possibilities raised, from the practical and organizational points of view, of architectural education by the introduction of computers in the classrooms. (D.) CAAI. Formal versus informal structure / How will the traditional teaching structure be affected by the incidence of these new systems in which the access to knowledge and information can be obtained in a random way and guided by personal and subjective criteria.

series eCAADe
email monedero@ega1.upc.es
last changed 1998/08/18 14:51

_id e779
authors Fayos, F., Marco, F. and Roset, J.
year 1992
title Learning Physics by Computer in an Architectural School
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 473-476
summary A method is proposed for computerised problem-solving related to beam bending, using a programme of symbolic calculus. This approach permits easy posing of the equations to be solved. The algebraic logical enables the problem posed to be solved easily. The fact that the data can be entered in symbol form, not necessarily in numerical form, enables the student, when analysing the solution, to become familiar with the system behaviour, which is an essential aspect for support of the project task.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:43

_id 2b7a
authors Ferguson, H., Rockwood, A. and Cox, J.
year 1992
title Topological Design of Sculptured Surfaces
source Computer Graphics, no. 26, pp.149-156
summary Topology is primal geometry. Our design philosophy embodies this principle. We report on a new surface &sign perspective based on a "marked" polygon for each object. The marked polygon captures the topology of the object surface. We construct multiply periodic mappings from polygon to sculptured surface. The mappings arise naturally from the topology and other design considerations. Hence we give a single domain global parameteriration for surfaces with handles. Examples demonstrate the design of sculptured objects and their ntanufimture.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id cc68
authors García, Agustín Pérez
year 1992
title Learning Structural Design - Computers and Virtual Laboratories
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 525-534
summary This paper shows how the spreading use of computers can improve the quality of education, specially in the field of architecture. An Innovative Teaching Project oriented to the discipline Structural Design of Buildings has been implemented at the School of Architecture of Valencia. The main objective of this project is the transformation of the computer room into a virtual laboratory for simulating the behaviour of structural typologies using mathematical models of them. An environment, specially oriented to Structural Design, has been integrated in a Computer Aided Design platform to teach how design the Structure of Buildings.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:45

_id acadia03_036
id acadia03_036
authors Gerzso, J. Michael
year 2003
title On the Limitations of Shape Grammars: Comments on Aaron Fleisher’s Article “Grammatical Architecture?”
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 279-287
summary Shape grammars were introduced by Gips and Stiny in 1972. Since then, there have been many articles and books written by them and their associates. In 1992, Aaron Fleisher, a professor at the School of Planning, MIT, wrote a critique of their work in an article titled “Grammatical Architecture?” published in the journal Environment and Planning B. According to him, Gips, Stiny and later Mitchell, propose a hypothesis that states that shape grammars are presumed to represent knowledge of architectural form, that grammars are “formable,” and that there is a visual correspondence to verbal grammar. The strong version of “the hypothesis requires that an architectural form be equivalent to a grammar.” Fleisher considers these hypotheses unsustainable, and argues his case by analyzing the differences between language, and architecture, and by dealing with the concepts of lexicons, syntax and semantics. He concludes by stating that architectural design is negotiated in two modalities: the verbal and the visual, and that equivalences are not at issue; they do not exist. If there is such thing as a language for design, it would provide the means to maintain a discussion of the consequences in one mode, of the state and conditions of the other. Fleisher’s observations serve as the basis of this paper, a tribute to him, and also an opportunity to present an outline to an alternate approach or hypothesis to shape grammars, which is “nonlinguistic” but “generative,” in the sense that it uses production rules. A basic aspect of this hypothesis is that the only similarity between syntactic rules in language and some rules in architecture is that they are recursive.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id 9b77
authors Hall, A.
year 1992
title Computer Visualisation: An investigation of its Application to the Control of Urban Design
source Chelmsford, Essex, Design Guidance Research Unit, Anglia Polytechnic University. Report available from author
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (spietsch@arch.adelaide.edu.au)
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:27

_id 5c74
authors HCIL
year 1997
title Spatial Perception in Perspective Displays
source Report Human-Computer Interaction Lab, Virginia
summary Increasingly, computer displays are being used as the interface "window" between complex systems and their users. In addition, it is becoming more common to see computer interfaces represented by spatial metaphors, allowing users to apply their vast prior knowledge and experience in dealing with the three-dimensional (3D) world (Wickens, 1992). Desktop VR or window on a world (WoW), as it is sometimes called, uses a conventional computer monitor to display the virtual environment (VE). The 3D display applies perspective geometry to provide the illusion of 3D space.
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 578d
authors Helpenstein, H. (Ed.)
year 1993
title CAD geometry data exchange using STEP
source Berlin: Springer-Verlag
summary With increasing demand for data exchange in computer integrated manufacturing, a neutral connection between dissimilar systems is needed. After a few national and European attempts, a worldwide standardization of product data has been developed. Standard ISO 10303 (STEP - STandard for Exchange of Product data) produced in its first version those parts that are relevant for CAD geometrical data. A European consortium of 14 CAD vendors and users was supported by the ESPRIT programme to influence the emerging standard and implement early applications for it. Over the years 1989-1992, project CADEX (CAD geometry data EXchange) worked out application protocols as a contribution to STEP; developed a software toolkit that reads, writes, and manipulates STEP data; and, based on this toolkit, implemented data exchange processors for ten different CAD and FEA systems. This book reports the work done in project CADEX and describes all its results in detail.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 32eb
authors Henry, Daniel
year 1992
title Spatial Perception in Virtual Environments : Evaluating an Architectural Application
source University of Washington
summary Over the last several years, professionals from many different fields have come to the Human Interface Technology Laboratory (H.I.T.L) to discover and learn about virtual environments. In general, they are impressed by their experiences and express the tremendous potential the tool has in their respective fields. But the potentials are always projected far in the future, and the tool remains just a concept. This is justifiable because the quality of the visual experience is so much less than what people are used to seeing; high definition television, breathtaking special cinematographic effects and photorealistic computer renderings. Instead, the models in virtual environments are very simple looking; they are made of small spaces, filled with simple or abstract looking objects of little color distinctions as seen through displays of noticeably low resolution and at an update rate which leaves much to be desired. Clearly, for most applications, the requirements of precision have not been met yet with virtual interfaces as they exist today. However, there are a few domains where the relatively low level of the technology could be perfectly appropriate. In general, these are applications which require that the information be presented in symbolic or representational form. Having studied architecture, I knew that there are moments during the early part of the design process when conceptual decisions are made which require precisely the simple and representative nature available in existing virtual environments. This was a marvelous discovery for me because I had found a viable use for virtual environments which could be immediately beneficial to architecture, my shared area of interest. It would be further beneficial to architecture in that the virtual interface equipment I would be evaluating at the H.I.T.L. happens to be relatively less expensive and more practical than other configurations such as the "Walkthrough" at the University of North Carolina. The set-up at the H.I.T.L. could be easily introduced into architectural firms because it takes up very little physical room (150 square feet) and it does not require expensive and space taking hardware devices (such as the treadmill device for simulating walking). Now that the potential for using virtual environments in this architectural application is clear, it becomes important to verify that this tool succeeds in accurately representing space as intended. The purpose of this study is to verify that the perception of spaces is the same, in both simulated and real environment. It is hoped that the findings of this study will guide and accelerate the process by which the technology makes its way into the field of architecture.
keywords Space Perception; Space (Architecture); Computer Simulation
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 6e99
authors Hoffer, Erin Rae
year 1992
title Creating the Electronic Design Studio: Development of a Heterogeneous Networked Environment at Harvard's Graduate School of Design
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 225-240
summary The migration of design education to reliance on computer-based techniques requires new ways of thinking about environments which can effectively support a diverse set of activities. Both from a spatial standpoint and a computing resource standpoint, design studios must be inevitably reconfigured to support new tools and reflect new ways of communicating. At Harvard's GSD, a commitment to incorporating computer literacy as a fundamental component of design education enables us to confront these issues through the implementation of a heterogeneous network imbedded in an electronic design environment. This evolving prototype of a new design studio, its development and its potential, will be the subject of this paper. A new style design environment is built upon an understanding of traditional techniques, and layered with an awareness of new tools and methods. Initially we borrow from existing metaphors which govern our interpretation of the way designers work. Next we seek to extend our thinking to include allied or related metaphors such as the library metaphor which informs collections of software and data, or the laboratory metaphor which informs workspace groupings, or the transportation metaphor which informs computer-based communications such as electronic mail or bulletin boards, or the utility services metaphor which informs the provision of network services and equipment. Our evaluation of this environment is based on direct feedback from its users, both faculty and students, and on subjective observation of the qualitative changes in communication which occur between and among these groups and individuals. Ultimately, the network must be judged as a framework for learning and evaluation, and its success depends both on its ability to absorb our existing metaphors for the process of design, and to prefigure the emerging metaphors to be envisioned in the future.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:15

_id 7e68
authors Holland, J.
year 1992
title Genetic Algorithms
source Scientific America, July 1992
summary Living organisms are consummate problem solvers. They exhibit a versatility that puts the best computer programs to shame. This observation is especially galling for computer scientists, who may spend months or years of intellectual effort on an algorithm, whereas organisms come by their abilities through the apparently undirected mechanism of evolution and natural selection. Pragmatic researchers see evolution's remarkable power as something to be emulated rather than envied. Natural selection eliminates one of the greatest hurdles in software design: specifying in advance all the features of a problem and the actions a program should take to deal with them. By harnessing the mechanisms of evolution, researchers may be able to "breed" programs that solve problems even when no person can fully understand their structure. Indeed, these so-called genetic algorithms have already demonstrated the ability to made breakthroughs in the design of such complex systems as jet engines. Genetic algorithms make it possible to explore a far greater range of potential solutions to a problem than do conventional programs. Furthermore, as researchers probe the natural selection of programs under controlled an well-understood conditions, the practical results they achieve may yield some insight into the details of how life and intelligence evolve in the natural world.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 15f6
authors Holyer, Andy
year 1992
title Top-Down Object-Based User Interface Definition and Design Paradigms
source East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI'92 1992 pp. 421-428
summary Currently, the main emphasis in User Interface design tools is on the low-level manipulation of Interaction Components, such as widgets. This paper proposes a design architecture which approaches User Interface development in a top-down manner, to avoid particular shortcomings in current design methodologies.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id ascaad2006_paper18
id ascaad2006_paper18
authors Huang, Chie-Chieh
year 2006
title An Approach to 3D Conceptual Modelling
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary This article presents a 3D user interface required by the development of conceptual modeling. This 3D user interface provides a new structure for solving the problems of difficult interface operations and complicated commands due to the application of CAD 2D interface for controlling 3D environment. The 3D user interface integrates the controlling actions of “seeing – moving –seeing” while designers are operating CAD (Schön and Wiggins, 1992). Simple gestures are used to control the operations instead. The interface also provides a spatial positioning method which helps designers to eliminate the commands of converting a coordinate axis. The study aims to discuss the provision of more intuitively interactive control through CAD so as to fulfil the needs of designers. In our practices and experiments, a pair of LED gloves equipped with two CCD cameras for capturing is used to sense the motions of hands and positions in 3D. In addition, circuit design is applied to convert the motions of hands including selecting, browsing, zoom in / zoom out and rotating to LED switches in different colours so as to identify images.
series ASCAAD
email scottie@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id 4b2a
id 4b2a
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 2004
title A FRAMEWORK FOR COMPUTER-SUPPORTED COLLABORATION IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
source University of Michigan
summary The development of appropriate research frameworks and guidelines for the construction of software aids in the area of architectural design can lead to a better understanding of designing and computer support for designing (Gero and Maher 1997). The field of research and development in computer-supported collaborative architectural design reflects that of the early period in the development of the field of computersupported cooperative work (CSCW). In the early 1990s, the field of CSCW relied on unsystematic attempts to generate software that increases the productivity of people working together (Robinson 1992). Furthermore, a shift is taking place by which researchers in the field of architecture are increasingly becoming consumers of rather than innovators of technology (Gero and Maher . In particular, the field of architecture is rapidly becoming dependent on commercial software implementations that are slow to respond to new research or to user demands. Additionally, these commercial systems force a particular view of the domain they serve and as such might hinder rather than help its development. The aim of this dissertation is to provide information to architects and others to help them build their own tools or, at a minimum, be critical of commercial solutions.
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email jabi@njit.edu
last changed 2004/10/24 20:35

_id ed78
authors Jog, Bharati
year 1993
title Integration of Computer Applications in the Practice of Architecture
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 89-97
summary Computer Applications in Architecture is emerging as an important aspect of our profession. The field, which is often referred to as Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) has had a notable impact on the profession and academia in recent years. A few professionals have predicted that as slide rules were replaced by calculators, in the coming years drafting boards and parallel bars will be replaced by computers. On the other hand, many architects do not anticipate such a drastic change in the coming decade as present CAD systems are supporting only a few integral aspects of architectural design. However, all agree that architecture curricula should be modified to integrate CAAD education.

In 1992-93, in the Department of Architecture of the 'School of Architecture and interior Design' at the University of Cincinnati, a curriculum committee was formed to review and modify the entire architecture curriculum. Since our profession and academia relate directly to each other, the author felt that while revising the curriculum, the committee should have factual information about CAD usage in the industry. Three ways to obtain such information were thought of, namely (1) conducting person to person or telephone interviews with the practitioners (2) requesting firms to give open- ended feed back and (3) surveying firms by sending a questionnaire. Of these three, the most effective, efficient and suitable method to obtain such information was an organized survey through a questionnaire. In mid December 1992, a survey was organized which was sponsored by the School of Architecture and Interior Design, the Center for the Study of the Practice of Architecture (CSPA) and the University Division of Professional Practice, all from the University of Cincinnati.

This chapter focuses on the results of this survey. A brief description of the survey design is also given. In the next section a few surveys organized in recent years are listed. In the third section the design of this survey is presented. The survey questions and their responses are given in the fourth section. The last section presents the conclusions and brief recommendations regarding computer curriculum in architecture.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/02/25 09:25

_id ed4a
authors Kalisperis, Loukas N. and Groninger, Randal L.
year 1992
title Design Philosophy: Implications for Computer Integration in the Practice of Architecture
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 27-37
summary The growing complexities of modern environments and the socioeconomic pressures to maintain efficient design/build cycles have forced architects to seek new tools and methods to help them manage the processes that have developed as a result of new knowledge in architectural design. This trend has accelerated in the past few decades because of developments in both cognitive and computer sciences. In allied disciplines, the introduction and use of comPuters have significantly improved design practices. Yet at best, in disciplines such as architectural design, computational aids have attained marginal improvements in the design process despite efforts by universities in the professional education of architects.
series ACADIA
email lnk@email.psu.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 11b6
authors Kalmychkov, Vitaly A. and Smolyaninov, Alexander V.
year 1992
title Design of Object-Oriented Data Visualization System
source East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI'92 1992 pp. 463-470
summary The report is devoted to the data visualization system design and implementation, which provides the means for design of the image of the user's numeric information on the personal computer. The problems of design, architecture and operation of data visualization system which provides to user convenient means for constructing the numeric information image of required type is considered. Image constructing is executed by means of required sizes fields placing and filling of them by necessary content (coordinates system, graphs, inscriptions). User's interface with instrument system is object-oriented: after object (field or its content) choice user can manipulate of it, executing only those operations, that are determined for it as object of appointed function. Ergonomical and comfortable constructing is ensured by careful coordinated system of possible actions on each of image constructing stage and supported by icons menu and textual menu.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

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