CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 101 to 120 of 241

_id a72b
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 1992
title Design as Formal Language
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 319-330
summary Geometry and language are disciplines with which architecture holds a strong relationship. They have highly structured natures, which make them well-suited for computer implementation. Architecture, on the other hand, lacks such an abstract and hierarchical system. This is one of the main obstacles to the integration of computers in architecture at this point. This paper presents the results of a pedagogic approach based on the association of language, geometry and computers. This association can be successfully used in the education of basic design principles that, although not directly related with architecture, are fundamental to the education of an architect.
series eCAADe
email madrazo@salleURL.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 65aa
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 1992
title From Sketches to Computer Images: A Strategy for the Application of Computers in Architectural Design
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 331-350
summary The use of computer tools in architectural practice has been steadily increasing in recent years. Many architectural offices are already using computer tools, mostly for production tasks. Hardly any design is being done with the computer. With the new computer tools, architects are confronted with the challenge to use computers to express their design ideas right from conception.

This paper describes a project made for a competition which recently took place in Spain. Sketches and computer models were the only tools used in designing this project. A variety of computer tools were used in different stages of this project: two dimensional drawing tools were used in the early stages, then a three-dimensional modeling program for the development of the design and for the production of final drawings, and a rendering program for final presentation images.

series eCAADe
email madrazo@salleURL.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 612c
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 1998
title Computers and Architectural Design: Going Beyond the Tool
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 44-57
summary More often than not, discussions taking place in specialised conferences dealing with computers and design tend to focus mostly on the tool itself. What the computer can do that other tools cannot, how computers might improve design and whether a new aesthetic would result from the computer; these are among the most recurrent issues addressed in those forums. But, by placing the instrument at the center of the debate, we might be distorting the nature of design. In the course KEYWORDS, carried out in the years 1992 and 1993 at the ETH Zurich, the goal was to transcend the discourses that concentrate on the computer, integrating it in a wider theoretical framework including principles of modern art and architecture. This paper presents a summary of the content and results of this course.

series ACADIA
email madrazo@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 1998/12/16 07:34

_id 80b9
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 2000
title Computers and architectural design: going beyond the tool
source Automation in Construction 9 (1) (2000) pp. 5-17
summary More often than not, discussions taking place in specialised conferences dealing with computers and design tend to focus mostly on the tool itself. What the computer can do that other tools cannot, how computers might improve design and whether a new aesthetic would result from the computer; these are among the most recurrent issues addressed in those forums. But, by placing the instrument at the center of the debate, we might be distorting the nature of design. In the course KEYWORDS, carried out in the years 1992 and 1993 at the ETH Zurich, the goal was to transcend the discourses that concentrate on the computer, integrating it in a wider theoretical framework including principles of modern art and architecture. This paper presents a summary of the content and results of this course.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 8b12
authors Manning, Peter and Mattar, Samir
year 1992
title A Preliminary to Development of Expert Systems for Total Design of Entire Buildings
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 215-237 : tables. includes bibliography
summary This paper has two primary objectives. The first is to represent the practicability of making the design of entire buildings a conscious, craftsman-like, activity conducted in the clear, without the mystery that tends, because of designers' usual 'black box' methods, to surround it. To this end, a design strategy and some tactics for resolving decisions at critical stages in the design process, which the authors have described elsewhere, are recapitulated to show how total design of buildings can be pursued in a generic manner. This done, the way is opened for the second objective: to make the large and important field of work that is building design amenable to computerization. The form that pursuit of this second objective is taking is being influenced greatly by growing interest in expert systems, which for everyday professional building design appears a more useful development than previous CAD emphases on drafting and graphics. Application of the authors' design methods to a series of expert systems for the total design of entire buildings is therefore indicated. For such a vast project--the formulation of bases for design assistance and expert systems that can be integrated and used as a generic method for the total design of entire buildings, so that the results are more certain and successful than the outcome of the generality of present-day building design--the most that can be attempted within the limits of a single paper is a set of examples of some of the stages in the process. Nevertheless, since the design method described begins at the 'large end' of the process, where the most consequential decisions are made, it is hoped that the major thrusts and the essential CAD activities will be evident. All design is substantially iterative, and provided that the major iterations are intelligible, there should be no need for this demonstration to labor over the lesser ones
keywords evaluation, integration, architecture, building, expert systems, design methods, design process
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 9d0c
authors McVey, G., McCrobie, D., Evans, D., McIlvaine Parsons, D., Templar, J. Konz, S. and Caldwell, B.
year 1992
title Interactions between Environmental Design and Human Factors Specialists ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Panel
source Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992 v.1 pp. 575-577
summary Most of the interactions between human factors specialists, such as ergonomists, and environmental specialists such as facility planners and architects tend to be task specific and do not follow any accepted process. Consequently, the success of such interactions are usually a function of serendipity rather than informed expectation. It is anticipated that by gathering such specialists in an open discussion, relevant issues may be addressed and successful interaction procedures introduced and discussed. Such a forum is desirable for developing an understanding of the differences, educational and operational, between environmental design specialists, and human factors specialists, as well as for exploring the ways their communications can be enhanced. It is anticipated that by sharing their experiences with the attendees, the presenters will identify relevant on-going knowledge transfer activities, and also introduce and discuss practical problem-solving and communication methods that can be used with assurance by the attendees themselves when faced with similar problems in the future. This panel will focus on issues that arrive out of situations where human factors specialists and environmental design specialists are joined together in project development. The specialties represented include architecture, facility planning, environmental psychology, ergonomic research, industrial design and engineering, and equipment and furniture design and manufacturing.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 4da8
authors Merrill, M.D., Tennyson, R.D. and Posey, L.0.
year 1992
title Teaching Concepts: an Instructional Design Guide
source Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications
summary Gagne and Briggs' definitions of types of learning and of learning processes are ageless. Even in the era of constructivist ID, this book contributes an important bridge between fundamentals of psychology and the structuring of learning experiences and environments.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id a07c
authors Mitchell, William J.
year 1992
title The Uses of Inconsistency in Design
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 1-13 : ill. includes bibliography.--- This article is the introduction chapter to the book
summary In this paper two of the central dogmas underlying most current theories of design evaluation are challenged: that the representations used by a designer must be well formed, and that a designer must have a consistent belief framework within which to make judgements about design proposals. The crucial roles in design of ambiguous and inconsistent representations and provisional beliefs are examined, and a model of design exploration based on nonmonotonic modes of reasoning is sketched
keywords reasoning, evaluation, prediction, design process, architecture
series CADline
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 83ea
authors Monreal, Amadeo and De la Puente, Josep M.
year 1992
title Alternatives to Syntactic Paradigms in CAAD: Using Random Numbers in Layout Generation and Spatial Modeling.
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 497-510
summary The paper provides instances of graphic techniques using random numbers in layout generation and spatial modelling. Leaving aside more elaborate methods based on shape grammars and syntactically oriented schemes, direct graphic procedures useful in computer aided architectural design are discussed. Drawings presented show how aleatory input can influence the appearance of computer generated forms.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:44

_id ddss9215
id ddss9215
authors Mortola, E. and Giangrande, A.
year 1993
title A trichotomic segmentation procedure to evaluate projects in architecture
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary This paper illustrates a model used to construct the evaluation module for An Interface for Designing (AID), a system to aid architectural design. The model can be used at the end of every cycle of analysis-synthesis-evaluation in the intermediate phases of design development. With the aid of the model it is possible to evaluate the quality of a project in overall terms to establish whether the project is acceptable, whether it should be elaborated ex-novo, or whether it is necessary to begin a new cycle to improve it. In this last case, it is also possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the possible actions and strategies for improvement. The model is based on a procedure of trichotomic segmentation, developed with MCDA (Multi-Criteria Decision Aid), which uses the outranking relation to compare the project with some evaluation profiles taken as projects of reference. An application of the model in the teaching field will also be described.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 8cf3
authors Müller, Volker
year 1992
title Reint-Ops: A Tool Supporting Conceptual Design
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 221-232
summary Reasoning is influenced by our perception of the environment. New aspects of our environment help to provoke new thoughts. Thus, changes of what is perceived can be assumed to stimulate the generation of new ideas, as well. In CAD, computerized three-dimensional models of physical entities are produced. Their representation on the monitor is determined by our viewing position and by the rendering method used. Especially the wire-frame representations of views lend themselves to a variety of readings, due to coincident and intersecting lines. Methods by which wire-frame views can be processed to extract the shapes that they contain have been investigated and developed. The extracted shapes can be used as a base for the generation of derived entities through various operations that are called Reinterpretation Operations. They have been implemented as a prototypical extension (named Reint-Ops) to an existing modeling shell. ReintOps is a highly interactive exploratory CAD tool, which allows the user to customize criteria and factors which are used in the reinterpretation process. This tool can be regarded as having a potential to support conceptual design investigations.
keywords CAD, Three-dimensional Model, Wireframe Representation, Shape Extraction, Generation of Derived Entities, Reinterpretation, Conceptual Design
series ACADIA
email vmueller@nbbj.com
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id aa6d
authors Nichols, Foster Jr., Canete, Isabel J. and Tuladhar, Sagun
year 1992
title Designing for Pedestrians : A CAD-Network Analysis Approach
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 379-398 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary Microcomputer techniques have been developed that combine CAD drawings with transportation network analysis software that uses spreadsheets and stand-alone programs activated from the DOS operating system. The CAD feature simplifies and improves the methods used to design pedestrian circulation facilities and evaluate the impact of new development on existing pedestrian flows. Through the use of customized software, the need for manual data entry is reduced, and the graphical display of analysis results in most intermediate steps in the process are automated. Three hypothetical case studies are presented, concentrating on proposed pedestrian circulation improvements at Penn Station, New York
keywords evaluation, networks, management, CAD, analysis, applications, planning, transportation, prediction, simulation, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2c22
authors O'Neill, Michael J.
year 1992
title Neural Network Simulation as a Computer- Aided design Tool For Predicting Wayfinding Performance
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 347-366 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Complex public facilities such as libraries, hospitals, and governmental buildings often present problems to users who must find their way through them. Research shows that difficulty in wayfinding has costs in terms of time, money, public safety, and stress that results from being lost. While a wide range of architectural research supports the notion that ease of wayfinding should be a criterion for good design, architects have no method for evaluating how well their building designs will support the wayfinding task. People store and retrieve information about the layout of the built environment in a knowledge representation known as the cognitive map. People depend on the information stored in the cognitive map to find their way through buildings. Although there are numerous simulations of the cognitive map, the mechanisms of these models are not constrained by what is known about the neurophysiology of the brain. Rather, these models incorporate search mechanisms that act on semantically encoded information about the environment. In this paper the author describes the evaluation and application of an artificial neural network simulation of the cognitive map as a means of predicting wayfinding behavior in buildings. This simulation is called NAPS-PC (Network Activity Processing Simulator--PC version). This physiologically plausible model represents knowledge about the layout of the environment through a network of inter-connected processing elements. The performance of NAPS-PC was evaluated against actual human wayfinding performance. The study found that the simulation generated behavior that matched the performance of human participants. After the validation, NAPS-PC was modified so that it could read environmental information directly from AutoCAD (a popular micro-computer-based CAD software package) drawing files, and perform 'wayfinding' tasks based on that environmental information. This prototype tool, called AutoNet, is conceptualized as a means of allowing designers to predict the wayfinding performance of users in a building before it is actually built
keywords simulation, cognition, neural networks, evaluation, floor plans, applications, wayfinding, layout, building
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cb5a
authors Oxman, Rivka E.
year 1992
title Multiple Operative and Interactive Modes in Knowledge-Based Design Systems
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 125-143 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A conceptual basis for the development of an expert system which is capable of integrating various modes of generation and evaluation in design is presented. This approach is based upon two sets of reasoning processes in the design system. The first enables a mapping between design requirements and solution descriptions in a generative mode of design; and the second enables a mapping between solution descriptions and performance evaluation in an evaluative and predictive mode. This concept supports a formal framework necessary for a knowledge-based design system to operate in a design partnership relation with the designer. Another fundamental concept in expert systems for design, dual direction interpretation between graphic and textual modes, is presented and elaborated. This encoding of knowledge behind the geometrical representation can be achieved in knowledge- based design systems by the development of a 'semantic interpreter' which supports a dual direction mapping process employing a geometrical knowledge, typological knowledge and evaluative knowledge. An implemented expert system for design, PREDIKT, demonstrates these concepts in the domain of kitchen design. It provides the user with a choice of alternative modes of interaction, such as: a 'design critic' for the evaluation of a design, a 'design generator' for the generation of a design, or a 'design critic-generator' for the completion of partial solutions
keywords architecture, knowledge base, design, systems, expert systems
series CADline
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 46c7
id 46c7
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1992
title Data Modeling Needs of Life Safety Code (LSC) Compliance Applications
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 177-185
summary One of the most complex code compliance issues originates from the conformance of designs to Life Safety Code (NFPA 101). The development of computer based code compliance checking programs attracted the attention of building researchers and practitioners alike. These studies represent a number of approaches ranging from CAD based procedural approaches to rule based, non graphic ones, but they do not address the interaction of the rule base of such systems with graphic data bases that define the geometry of architectural objects. Automatic extraction of the attributes and the configuration of building systems requires 11 architectural object - graphic entity" data models that allow access and retrieval of the necessary data for code compliance checking. This study aims to specifically focus on the development of such a data model through the use of AutoLISP feature of AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc.) graphic system. This data model is intended to interact with a Life Safety Code rule base created through Level5-Object (Focus Inc.) expert system.

Assuming the availability of a more general building data model, one must define life and fire safety features of a building before any automatic checking can be performed. Object oriented data structures are beginning to be applied to design objects, since they allow the type versatility demanded by design applications. As one generates a functional view of the main data model, the software user must provide domain specific information. A functional view is defined as the process of generating domain specific data structures from a more general purpose data model, such as defining egress routes from wall or room object data structure. Typically in the early design phase of a project, these are related to the emergency egress design features of a building. Certain decisions such as where to provide sprinkler protection or the location of protected egress ways must be made early in the process.

series ACADIA
email ozel@asu.edu
last changed 2004/03/23 07:42

_id 1850
authors Palmqvist, Henri
year 1992
title SAD - SIMULATOR AIDED DESIGN
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part B, pp. 39-42
summary The multi-level, multidimensional nature of architecture means that the only way to experience it and evaluate it is by moving within the buildings and the environment they constitute. Until today, architectural projects could only be observed after they had been finished. The recently developed environmental simulator is the solution to the problem. With the simulator and scale models we can observe the experience of moving around within the buildings and thus make a significant improvement in the certainty of the assumed architectural experience and content while the project is still under design.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:40

_id 975e
authors Pearce, M. and Goel, A. (et al.)
year 1992
title Case-Based Design support: A case study in architectural design
source IEEE Expert 7(5): 14-20
summary Archie, a small computer-based library of architectural design cases, is described. Archie helps architects in the high-level task of conceptual design as opposed to low-level tasks such as drawing and drafting, numerical calculations, and constraint propagation. Archie goes beyond supporting architects in design proposal and critiquing. It acts as a shared external memory that supports two kinds of design collaboration. First, by including enough knowledge about the goals, plans, outcomes, and lessons of past cases, it lets the designer access the work of previous architects. Second, by providing access to the perspectives of domain experts via the domain models, Archie helps architects anticipate and accommodate experts' views on evolving designs. The lessons learned about building large case-based systems to support real-world decision making in developing Archie are discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9210
id ddss9210
authors Poortman, E.R.
year 1993
title Ratios for cost control
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The design of buildings takes place in phases representing a development from rough to precision planning. Estimates are made in order to test whether the result is still within the budget set by the client or developer. In this way, the decisions taken during the design phase can be quantified and expressed in monetary terms. To prevent blaming the wrong person when an overrun is discovered, the cost control process has to be improved. For that purpose, two new procedures have been developed: (i) a new translation activity; and (ii) ratios by which quantities can be characterized. 'Translation is the opposite of estimation. A monetary budget is converted -'translated' - into quantities, reflecting the desired quality of the building materials. The financial constraints of the client are thus converted into quantities - the building components used by the designers. Characteristic quantity figures play an important role in this activity. In working out an estimate, the form factor (i.e., the ratio between two characteristic values of a building component) has to be determined. The unit cost is then tested against that ratio. The introduction of the 'translation' activity and the use of characteristic quantity figures and form factors enhance existing estimation methods. By implementing these procedures, cost control becomes considerably more reliable.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 6f38
authors Potts, James and Mills, Nigel
year 1992
title Computers, Video and Architecture
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 377-378
summary The prime objective of this study is the analysis and the understanding of the underlying architectural principles (ideas) behind the particular seminar work that they have been given. Although this study is limited to one building its real significance lies not only in what it tells us about it, but also what it reveals about architecture itself. By distilling and comparing these buildings and stripping away the circumstances of their creation, we are shown universal principles of their design. This universality invites comparison to other buildings far removed in time and place.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:32

_id ddss9212
id ddss9212
authors Prins, M., Bax, M.F.TH., Carp, J.C. and Tempelmans Plat, H.
year 1993
title A design decision support system for building flexibility and costs
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Because of possible changes in demand, buildings must have some flexibility. In this paper a building model, a financial-economic model and a process model will be presented, which together constitute a design decision support system. This system may be used to decide on flexibility and costs of building variants in all phases of the design process.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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