CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ddss9207
id ddss9207
authors Gauchel, J., Hovestadt, L., van Wyk, S. and Bhat, R.R.
year 1993
title Modular building models
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The development and implementation of a modular building model appropriate for computer aided design is described. The limitations of a unified building model with regard to concurrence and complexity in design is discussed. Current research suggests that to model real-world complexity, one must trade centralized control for autonomy. In this paper we develop a modular approach to building modelling that is based on object-oriented autonomy and makes it possible to define these models in a distributed concurrent manner. Such a modular and autonomous implementation brings inherent uncertainty and conflict which cannot be determined a priori.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 1076
authors Gero, John S. and Saunders, Robert
year 2000
title Constructed Representations and Their Functions in Computational Models of Designing
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 215-224
summary This paper re-examines the conclusions made by Schön and Wiggins in 1992 that computers were unable to reproduce processes crucial to designing. We propose that recent developments in artificial intelligence and design computing put us in a position where we can begin to computationally model designing as conceived by Schön and Wiggins. We present a computational model of designing using situated processes that construct representations. We show how constructed representations support computational processes that model the different kinds of seeing reported in designing. We also present recently developed computational processes that can identify unexpected consequences of design actions using adaptive novelty detection.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id acadia03_036
id acadia03_036
authors Gerzso, J. Michael
year 2003
title On the Limitations of Shape Grammars: Comments on Aaron Fleisher’s Article “Grammatical Architecture?”
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 279-287
summary Shape grammars were introduced by Gips and Stiny in 1972. Since then, there have been many articles and books written by them and their associates. In 1992, Aaron Fleisher, a professor at the School of Planning, MIT, wrote a critique of their work in an article titled “Grammatical Architecture?” published in the journal Environment and Planning B. According to him, Gips, Stiny and later Mitchell, propose a hypothesis that states that shape grammars are presumed to represent knowledge of architectural form, that grammars are “formable,” and that there is a visual correspondence to verbal grammar. The strong version of “the hypothesis requires that an architectural form be equivalent to a grammar.” Fleisher considers these hypotheses unsustainable, and argues his case by analyzing the differences between language, and architecture, and by dealing with the concepts of lexicons, syntax and semantics. He concludes by stating that architectural design is negotiated in two modalities: the verbal and the visual, and that equivalences are not at issue; they do not exist. If there is such thing as a language for design, it would provide the means to maintain a discussion of the consequences in one mode, of the state and conditions of the other. Fleisher’s observations serve as the basis of this paper, a tribute to him, and also an opportunity to present an outline to an alternate approach or hypothesis to shape grammars, which is “nonlinguistic” but “generative,” in the sense that it uses production rules. A basic aspect of this hypothesis is that the only similarity between syntactic rules in language and some rules in architecture is that they are recursive.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id ddss9211
id ddss9211
authors Gilleard, J. and Olatidoye, O.
year 1993
title Graphical interfacing to a conceptual model for estimating the cost of residential construction
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary This paper presents a method for determining elemental square foot costs and cost significance for residential construction. Using AutoCAD's icon menu and dialogue box' facilities, a non-expert may graphically select (i) residential configuration; (ii) construction quality level; (iii) geographical location; (iv) square foot area; and finally, (v) add-ons, e.g. porches and decks, basement, heating and cooling equipment, garages and carports etc. in order to determine on-site builder's costs. Subsequent AutoLisp routines facilitate data transfer to a Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet where an elemental cost breakdown for the project may be determined. Finally, using Lotus 1-2-3 macros, computed data is transferred back to AutoCAD, where all cost significant items are graphically highlighted.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id eda3
authors Goldschmidt, Gabriela
year 1992
title Criteria for Design Evaluation : A Process-Oriented Paradigm
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 67-79. includes bibliography
summary Architectural research of the last two or three decades has been largely devoted to design methodology. Systematic evaluations of design products and prescription of their desired qualities led to specifications for better designs and possible routines to achieve them. Computers have facilitated this task. The human designer, however, has largely resisted the use of innovative methods. In this paper the author claims that the reason for that lies in insufficient regard for innate cognitive aptitudes which are activated in the process of designing. A view of these aptitudes, based on patterns of links among design moves, is presented. It is proposed that process research is mandatory for further advancements in design research utility
keywords cognition, design process, research, protocol analysis, architecture
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id a081
authors Greenberg S., Roseman M. and Webster, D.
year 1992
title Issues and Experiences Designing and Implementing Two Group Drawing Tools
source Readings in Groupware, 609-620
summary Groupware designers are now developing multi-user equivalents of popular paint and draw applications. Their job is not an easy one. First, human factors issues peculiar to group interaction appear that, if ignored, seriously limit the usability of the group tool. Second, implementation is fraught with considerable hurdles. This paper describes the issues and experiences we have met and handled in the design of two systems supporting remote real time group interaction: GroupSketch, a multi-user sketchpad; and GroupDraw, an object-based multi-user draw package. On the human factors side, we summarize empirically-derived design principles that we believe are critical to building useful and usable collaborative drawing tools. On the implementation side, we describe our experiences with replicated versus centralized architectures, schemes for participant registration, multiple cursors, network requirements, and the structure of the drawing primitives.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 6df3
authors Gross, Mark D. and Zimring, Craig
year 1992
title Predicting Wayfinding Behavior in Buildings : A Schema-Based Approach
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 367-377 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Postoccupancy evaluations of large buildings often reveal significant wayfinding problems caused by poor floor-plan layout. Predicting wayfinding problems early in the design process could avoid costly remodeling and make better buildings. However, we lack formal, predictive models of human wayfinding behavior. Computational models of wayfinding in buildings have addressed constructing a topological and geometric representations of the plan layout incrementally during exploration. The authors propose to combine this with a schema model of building memory. It is argued that people orient themselves and wayfind in new buildings using schemas, or generic expectations about building layout. In this paper the authors give their preliminary thoughts toward developing a computational model of wayfinding based on this approach
keywords wayfinding, evaluation, applications, architecture, floor plans, layout, building, prediction
series CADline
last changed 2002/09/05 13:02

_id e824
authors Hall, T.
year 1992
title Visualisation and Policy Statements for Negotiated Outcomes in Design Control
source Proceedings of the International Symposium on Design Review, University of Cincinnati, October 8-11, pp. 154-162
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:27

_id 56de
authors Handa, M., Hasegawa, Y., Matsuda, H., Tamaki, K., Kojima, S., Matsueda, K., Takakuwa, T. and Onoda, T.
year 1996
title Development of interior finishing unit assembly system with robot: WASCOR IV research project report
source Automation in Construction 5 (1) (1996) pp. 31-38
summary The WASCOR (WASeda Construction Robot) research project was organized in 1982 by Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, aiming at automatizing building construction with a robot. This project is collaborated by nine general contractors and a construction machinery manufacturer. The WASCOR research project has been divided into four phases with the development of the study and called WASCOR I, II, III, and IV respectively. WASCOR I, II, and III finished during the time from 1982 to 1992 in a row with having 3-4 years for each phase, and WASCOR IV has been continued since 1993. WASCOR IV has been working on a automatized building interior finishing system. This system consists of following three parts. (1) Development of building system and construction method for automated interior finishing system. (2) Design of hardware system applied to automated interior finishing system. (3) Design of information management system in automated construction. As the research project has been developing, this paper describes the interim report of (1) Development of building system and construction method for automated interior finishing system, and (2) Design of hardware system applied to automated interior finishing system.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 32eb
authors Henry, Daniel
year 1992
title Spatial Perception in Virtual Environments : Evaluating an Architectural Application
source University of Washington
summary Over the last several years, professionals from many different fields have come to the Human Interface Technology Laboratory (H.I.T.L) to discover and learn about virtual environments. In general, they are impressed by their experiences and express the tremendous potential the tool has in their respective fields. But the potentials are always projected far in the future, and the tool remains just a concept. This is justifiable because the quality of the visual experience is so much less than what people are used to seeing; high definition television, breathtaking special cinematographic effects and photorealistic computer renderings. Instead, the models in virtual environments are very simple looking; they are made of small spaces, filled with simple or abstract looking objects of little color distinctions as seen through displays of noticeably low resolution and at an update rate which leaves much to be desired. Clearly, for most applications, the requirements of precision have not been met yet with virtual interfaces as they exist today. However, there are a few domains where the relatively low level of the technology could be perfectly appropriate. In general, these are applications which require that the information be presented in symbolic or representational form. Having studied architecture, I knew that there are moments during the early part of the design process when conceptual decisions are made which require precisely the simple and representative nature available in existing virtual environments. This was a marvelous discovery for me because I had found a viable use for virtual environments which could be immediately beneficial to architecture, my shared area of interest. It would be further beneficial to architecture in that the virtual interface equipment I would be evaluating at the H.I.T.L. happens to be relatively less expensive and more practical than other configurations such as the "Walkthrough" at the University of North Carolina. The set-up at the H.I.T.L. could be easily introduced into architectural firms because it takes up very little physical room (150 square feet) and it does not require expensive and space taking hardware devices (such as the treadmill device for simulating walking). Now that the potential for using virtual environments in this architectural application is clear, it becomes important to verify that this tool succeeds in accurately representing space as intended. The purpose of this study is to verify that the perception of spaces is the same, in both simulated and real environment. It is hoped that the findings of this study will guide and accelerate the process by which the technology makes its way into the field of architecture.
keywords Space Perception; Space (Architecture); Computer Simulation
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ddss9218
id ddss9218
authors Hensen, J.L.M.
year 1993
title Design support via simulation of building and plant thermal interaction
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Design decision support related to building energy consumption and/or indoor climate should be based on an integral approach to the environment, the building, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, and the occupants. The tools to achieve this are now available in the form of computer simulation systems which treat the building and plant as an integrated dynamic system. Although its potentials reach beyond the area of Computer Aided Building Design, the paper describes building and plant energy simulation within the context of CABD, design decision support and design evaluation. Currently, computer simulation is only used indirectly as a design decision support mechanism; that is, its power is not delivered very efficiently to the design profession. This paper suggests some future research directions. These are aimed at providing a mechanism to overcome this problem by developing an intelligent front end' which bridges the gap between sophisticated computer simulation tools and the design profession.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 6e99
authors Hoffer, Erin Rae
year 1992
title Creating the Electronic Design Studio: Development of a Heterogeneous Networked Environment at Harvard's Graduate School of Design
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 225-240
summary The migration of design education to reliance on computer-based techniques requires new ways of thinking about environments which can effectively support a diverse set of activities. Both from a spatial standpoint and a computing resource standpoint, design studios must be inevitably reconfigured to support new tools and reflect new ways of communicating. At Harvard's GSD, a commitment to incorporating computer literacy as a fundamental component of design education enables us to confront these issues through the implementation of a heterogeneous network imbedded in an electronic design environment. This evolving prototype of a new design studio, its development and its potential, will be the subject of this paper. A new style design environment is built upon an understanding of traditional techniques, and layered with an awareness of new tools and methods. Initially we borrow from existing metaphors which govern our interpretation of the way designers work. Next we seek to extend our thinking to include allied or related metaphors such as the library metaphor which informs collections of software and data, or the laboratory metaphor which informs workspace groupings, or the transportation metaphor which informs computer-based communications such as electronic mail or bulletin boards, or the utility services metaphor which informs the provision of network services and equipment. Our evaluation of this environment is based on direct feedback from its users, both faculty and students, and on subjective observation of the qualitative changes in communication which occur between and among these groups and individuals. Ultimately, the network must be judged as a framework for learning and evaluation, and its success depends both on its ability to absorb our existing metaphors for the process of design, and to prefigure the emerging metaphors to be envisioned in the future.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:15

_id 15f6
authors Holyer, Andy
year 1992
title Top-Down Object-Based User Interface Definition and Design Paradigms
source East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI'92 1992 pp. 421-428
summary Currently, the main emphasis in User Interface design tools is on the low-level manipulation of Interaction Components, such as widgets. This paper proposes a design architecture which approaches User Interface development in a top-down manner, to avoid particular shortcomings in current design methodologies.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id cf2009_poster_09
id cf2009_poster_09
authors Hsu, Yin-Cheng
year 2009
title Lego Free-Form? Towards a Modularized Free-Form Construction
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009 CD-Rom
summary Design Media is the tool designers use for concept realization (Schon and Wiggins, 1992; Liu, 1996). Design thinking of designers is deeply effected by the media they tend to use (Zevi, 1981; Liu, 1996; Lim, 2003). Historically, architecture is influenced by the design media that were available within that era (Liu, 1996; Porter and Neale, 2000; Smith, 2004). From the 2D plans first used in ancient egypt, to the 3D physical models that came about during the Renaissance period, architecture reflects the media used for design. When breakthroughs in CAD/CAM technologies were brought to the world in the twentieth century, new possibilities opened up for architects.
keywords CAD/CAM free-form construction, modularization
series CAAD Futures
type poster
last changed 2009/07/08 20:12

_id ascaad2006_paper18
id ascaad2006_paper18
authors Huang, Chie-Chieh
year 2006
title An Approach to 3D Conceptual Modelling
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary This article presents a 3D user interface required by the development of conceptual modeling. This 3D user interface provides a new structure for solving the problems of difficult interface operations and complicated commands due to the application of CAD 2D interface for controlling 3D environment. The 3D user interface integrates the controlling actions of “seeing – moving –seeing” while designers are operating CAD (Schön and Wiggins, 1992). Simple gestures are used to control the operations instead. The interface also provides a spatial positioning method which helps designers to eliminate the commands of converting a coordinate axis. The study aims to discuss the provision of more intuitively interactive control through CAD so as to fulfil the needs of designers. In our practices and experiments, a pair of LED gloves equipped with two CCD cameras for capturing is used to sense the motions of hands and positions in 3D. In addition, circuit design is applied to convert the motions of hands including selecting, browsing, zoom in / zoom out and rotating to LED switches in different colours so as to identify images.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id ab4d
authors Huang, Tao-Kuang, Degelman, Larry O., and Larsen, Terry R.
year 1992
title A Visualization Model for Computerized Energy Evaluation During the Conceptual Design Stage (ENERGRAPH)
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 195-206
summary Energy performance is a crucial step toward responsible design. Currently there are many tools that can be applied to reach this goal with reasonable accuracy. Often times, however, major flaws are not discovered until the final stage of design when it is too late to change. Not only are existing simulation models complicated to apply at the conceptual design stage, but energy principles and their applications are also abstract and hard to visualize. Because of the lack of suitable tools to visualize energy analysis output, energy conservation concepts fail to be integrated into the building design. For these reasons, designers tend not to apply energy conservation concepts at the early design stage. However, since computer graphics is a new phase of visual communication in design process, the above problems might be solved properly through a computerized graphical interface in the conceptual design stage.

The research described in this paper is the result of exploring the concept of using computer graphics to support energy efficient building designs. It focuses on the visualization of building energy through a highly interactive graphical interface in the early design stage.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 56e9
authors Huang, Tao-Kuang
year 1992
title A Graphical Feedback Model for Computerized Energy Analysis during the Conceptual Design Stage
source Texas A&M University
summary During the last two decades, considerable effort has been placed on the development of building design analysis tools. Architects and designers have begun to take advantage of computers to generate and examine design alternatives. However, because it has been difficult to adapt computer technologies to the visual orientation of the building designer, the majority of computer applications have been limited to numerical analysis and office automation tasks. Only recently, because of advances in hardware and software techniques, computers have entered into a new phase in the development of architectural design. haveters are now able to interactively display graphics solutions to architectural related problems, which is fundamental to the design process. The majority of research programs in energy efficient design have sharpened people's understanding of energy principles and their application of those principles. Energy conservation concepts, however, have not been widely used. A major problem in the implementation of these principles is that energy principles their applications are abstract, hard to visualize and separated from the architectural design process. Furthermore, one aspect of energy analysis may contain thousands of pieces of numerical information which often leads to confusion on the part of designers. If these difficulties can be overcome, it would bring a great benefit to the advancement of energy conservation concepts. This research explores the concept of an integrated computer graphics program to support energy efficient design. It focuses on (1) the integration of energy efficiently and architectural design, and (2) the visualization of building energy use through graphical interfaces during the conceptual design stage. It involves (1) the discussion of frameworks of computer-aided architectural design and computer-aided energy efficient building design, and (2) the development of an integrated computer prototype program with a graphical interface that helps the designer create building layouts, analyze building energy interactively and receive visual feedbacks dynamically. The goal is to apply computer graphics as an aid to visualize the effects of energy related decisions and therefore permit the designer to visualize and understand energy conservation concepts in the conceptual phase of architectural design.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id abce
authors Ishii, Hiroshi and Kobayashi, Minoru
year 1992
title ClearBoard: A Seamless Medium for Shared Drawing and Conversation with Eye Contact Systems for Media-Supported Collaboration
source Proceedings of ACM CHI'92 Conference on HumanFactors in Computing Systems 1992 pp. 525-532
summary This paper introduces a novel shared drawing medium called ClearBoard. It realizes (1) a seamless shared drawing space and (2) eye contact to support realtime and remote collaboration by two users. We devised the key metaphor: "talking through and drawing on a transparent glass window" to design ClearBoard. A prototype of ClearBoard is implemented based on the "Drafter-Mirror" architecture. This paper first reviews previous work on shared drawing support to clarify the design goals. We then examine three metaphors that fulfill these goals. The design requirements and the two possible system architectures of ClearBoard are described. Finally, some findings gained through the experimental use of the prototype, including the feature of "gaze awareness", are discussed.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 4b2a
id 4b2a
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 2004
source University of Michigan
summary The development of appropriate research frameworks and guidelines for the construction of software aids in the area of architectural design can lead to a better understanding of designing and computer support for designing (Gero and Maher 1997). The field of research and development in computer-supported collaborative architectural design reflects that of the early period in the development of the field of computersupported cooperative work (CSCW). In the early 1990s, the field of CSCW relied on unsystematic attempts to generate software that increases the productivity of people working together (Robinson 1992). Furthermore, a shift is taking place by which researchers in the field of architecture are increasingly becoming consumers of rather than innovators of technology (Gero and Maher . In particular, the field of architecture is rapidly becoming dependent on commercial software implementations that are slow to respond to new research or to user demands. Additionally, these commercial systems force a particular view of the domain they serve and as such might hinder rather than help its development. The aim of this dissertation is to provide information to architects and others to help them build their own tools or, at a minimum, be critical of commercial solutions.
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
last changed 2004/10/24 20:35

_id 2467
authors Jockusch, Peter R.A.
year 1992
title How Can We Achieve a Good Building?
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 51-65 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper is concerned with the reasons and purposes for which we evaluate and predict building performance. The discussion is based on the author's experience, gained through the preparation and evaluation of more than 50 major architectural competitions
keywords An attempt is made to discover for whom and in what respect a building can be considered a 'good building,' by asking the following questions: What can prediction and evaluation of building performance achieve? How well can we assess the performance and value of an existing building within its socio-technical context? For what purposes and with what degree of confidence can the eventual performance of a designed and specified building be predicted? How do these evaluations compare to actual post occupancy performance? To what extent do the roles and motivations of assessors, evaluators, and decision makers affect the value-stating process? prediction, evaluation, performance, building, life cycle, design, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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