CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 241

_id ed78
authors Jog, Bharati
year 1993
title Integration of Computer Applications in the Practice of Architecture
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 89-97
summary Computer Applications in Architecture is emerging as an important aspect of our profession. The field, which is often referred to as Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) has had a notable impact on the profession and academia in recent years. A few professionals have predicted that as slide rules were replaced by calculators, in the coming years drafting boards and parallel bars will be replaced by computers. On the other hand, many architects do not anticipate such a drastic change in the coming decade as present CAD systems are supporting only a few integral aspects of architectural design. However, all agree that architecture curricula should be modified to integrate CAAD education.

In 1992-93, in the Department of Architecture of the 'School of Architecture and interior Design' at the University of Cincinnati, a curriculum committee was formed to review and modify the entire architecture curriculum. Since our profession and academia relate directly to each other, the author felt that while revising the curriculum, the committee should have factual information about CAD usage in the industry. Three ways to obtain such information were thought of, namely (1) conducting person to person or telephone interviews with the practitioners (2) requesting firms to give open- ended feed back and (3) surveying firms by sending a questionnaire. Of these three, the most effective, efficient and suitable method to obtain such information was an organized survey through a questionnaire. In mid December 1992, a survey was organized which was sponsored by the School of Architecture and Interior Design, the Center for the Study of the Practice of Architecture (CSPA) and the University Division of Professional Practice, all from the University of Cincinnati.

This chapter focuses on the results of this survey. A brief description of the survey design is also given. In the next section a few surveys organized in recent years are listed. In the third section the design of this survey is presented. The survey questions and their responses are given in the fourth section. The last section presents the conclusions and brief recommendations regarding computer curriculum in architecture.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/02/25 09:25

_id cc2f
authors Jog, Bharati
year 1992
title Evaluation of Designs for Energy Performance Using A Knowledge-Based System
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 293-304 : ill. includes a bibliography
summary Principles of knowledge-based (or expert) systems have been applied in different knowledge-rich domains such as geology, medicine, and very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI). There have been some efforts to develop expert systems for evaluation and prediction of architectural designs in this decade. This paper presents a prototype system, Energy Expert, which quickly computes the approximate yearly energy performance of a building design, analyzes the energy performance, and gives advice on possible ways of improving the design. These modifications are intended to make the building more energy efficient and help cut down on heating and cooling costs. The system is designed for the schematic design phase of an architectural project. Also discussed briefly is the reasoning behind developing such a system for the schematic design rather than the final design phase
keywords expert systems, energy, evaluation, performance, knowledge base, architecture, reasoning, programming, prediction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 49bf
authors Johnson, Robert E.
year 1992
title Design Inquiry and Resource Allocation
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 51-65 : ill. tables. includes bibliography
summary This paper proposes that the primary role of resource allocation in design is to assist design decision makers in ordering preferences and exploring trade-offs. Most existing cost evaluation paradigms focus on assessing costs after design decisions are made. This view unnecessarily restricts the active participation of economic knowledge in design decision-making. The approach described in this research suggests that the exploration and definition of values and references should be the major focus of economic analysis within the design process. A conceptual framework for this approach is presented along with several examples that illustrate the use of this framework. Computational approaches are suggested which play a central role in clarifying preference and exploring trade-offs during design
keywords economics, architecture, building, construction, resource allocation, design, cost, evaluation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id acaa
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1992
title Evaluating and Predicting Design Performance
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 399-404
summary This article is the conclusion chapter of the book by the same title. Evaluation can be defined as measuring the fit between achieved or expected performances to stated criteria. Prediction is the process whereby expected performance characteristics are simulated, or otherwise made tangible, when evaluation is applied to hypothetical design solutions. The multifaceted nature of design solutions precludes optimization of any one performance characteristic. Rather, a good design solution will strike a balance in the degree to which any performance criterion is achieved, such that overall performance will be maximized. This paper discusses the nature of evaluation and prediction, their multilevel and multifaceted dimensions, and some of the approaches that have been proposed to perform quantitative and qualitative evaluations
keywords evaluation, performance, prediction, multicriteria, architecture, design process
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id caadria2004_k-1
id caadria2004_k-1
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 2004
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 5-14
summary The introduction of VRML (Virtual Reality Markup Language) in 1994, and other similar web-enabled dynamic modeling software (such as SGI’s Open Inventor and WebSpace), have created a rush to develop on-line 3D virtual environments, with purposes ranging from art, to entertainment, to shopping, to culture and education. Some developers took their cues from the science fiction literature of Gibson (1984), Stephenson (1992), and others. Many were web-extensions to single-player video games. But most were created as a direct extension to our new-found ability to digitally model 3D spaces and to endow them with interactive control and pseudo-inhabitation. Surprisingly, this technologically-driven stampede paid little attention to the core principles of place-making and presence, derived from architecture and cognitive science, respectively: two principles that could and should inform the essence of the virtual place experience and help steer its development. Why are the principles of place-making and presence important for the development of virtual environments? Why not simply be content with our ability to create realistically-looking 3D worlds that we can visit remotely? What could we possibly learn about making these worlds better, had we understood the essence of place and presence? To answer these questions we cannot look at place-making (both physical and virtual) from a 3D space-making point of view alone, because places are not an end unto themselves. Rather, places must be considered a locus of contextualization and embodiment that ground human activities and give them meaning. In doing so, places acquire a meaning of their own, which facilitates, improves, and enriches many aspects of our lives. They provide us with a means to interpret the activities of others and to direct our own actions. Such meaning is comprised of the social and cultural conceptions and behaviors imprinted on the environment by the presence and activities of its inhabitants, who in turn, ‘read’ by them through their own corporeal embodiment of the same environment. This transactional relationship between the physical aspects of an environment, its social/cultural context, and our own embodiment of it, combine to create what is known as a sense of place: the psychological, physical, social, and cultural framework that helps us interpret the world around us, and directs our own behavior in it. In turn, it is our own (as well as others’) presence in that environment that gives it meaning, and shapes its social/cultural character. By understanding the essence of place-ness in general, and in cyberspace in particular, we can create virtual places that can better support Internet-based activities, and make them equal to, in some cases even better than their physical counterparts. One of the activities that stands to benefit most from understanding the concept of cyber-places is learning—an interpersonal activity that requires the co-presence of others (a teacher and/or fellow learners), who can point out the difference between what matters and what does not, and produce an emotional involvement that helps students learn. Thus, while many administrators and educators rush to develop webbased remote learning sites, to leverage the economic advantages of one-tomany learning modalities, these sites deprive learners of the contextualization and embodiment inherent in brick-and-mortar learning institutions, and which are needed to support the activity of learning. Can these qualities be achieved in virtual learning environments? If so, how? These are some of the questions this talk will try to answer by presenting a virtual place-making methodology and its experimental implementation, intended to create a sense of place through contextualization and embodiment in virtual learning environments.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/20 16:37

_id ed4a
authors Kalisperis, Loukas N. and Groninger, Randal L.
year 1992
title Design Philosophy: Implications for Computer Integration in the Practice of Architecture
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 27-37
summary The growing complexities of modern environments and the socioeconomic pressures to maintain efficient design/build cycles have forced architects to seek new tools and methods to help them manage the processes that have developed as a result of new knowledge in architectural design. This trend has accelerated in the past few decades because of developments in both cognitive and computer sciences. In allied disciplines, the introduction and use of comPuters have significantly improved design practices. Yet at best, in disciplines such as architectural design, computational aids have attained marginal improvements in the design process despite efforts by universities in the professional education of architects.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id e7c8
authors Kalisperis, Loukas N., Steinman, Mitch and Summers, Luis H.
year 1992
title Design Knowledge, Environmental Complexity in Nonorthogonal Space
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 273-291 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Mechanization and industrialization of society has resulted in most people spending the greater part of their lives in enclosed environments. Optimal design of indoor artificial climates is therefore of increasing importance. Wherever artificial climates are created for human occupation, the aim is that the environment be designed so that individuals are in thermal comfort. Current design methodologies for radiant panel heating systems do not adequately account for the complexities of human thermal comfort, because they monitor air temperature alone and do not account for thermal neutrality in complex enclosures. Thermal comfort for a person is defined as that condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. Thermal comfort is dependent on Mean Radiant Temperature and Operative Temperature among other factors. In designing artificial climates for human occupancy the interaction of the human with the heated surfaces as well the surface-to-surface heat exchange must be accounted for. Early work in the area provided an elaborate and difficult method for calculating radiant heat exchange for simplistic and orthogonal enclosures. A new improved method developed by the authors for designing radiant panel heating systems based on human thermal comfort and mean radiant temperature is presented. Through automation and elaboration this method overcomes the limitations of the early work. The design procedure accounts for human thermal comfort in nonorthogonal as well as orthogonal spaces based on mean radiant temperature prediction. The limitation of simplistic orthogonal geometries has been overcome with the introduction of the MRT-Correction method and inclined surface-to-person shape factor methodology. The new design method increases the accuracy of calculation and prediction of human thermal comfort and will allow designers to simulate complex enclosures utilizing the latest design knowledge of radiant heat exchange to increase human thermal comfort
keywords applications, architecture, building, energy, systems, design, knowledge
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 88ca
authors Kane, Andy and Szalapaj, Peter
year 1992
title Teaching Design By Analysis of Precedents
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 477-496
summary Designers, using their intuitive understanding of the decomposition of particular design objects, whether in terms of structural, functional, or some other analytical framework, should be able to interact with computational environments such that the understanding they achieve in turn invokes changes or transformations to the spatial properties of design proposals. Decompositions and transformations of design precedents can be a very useful method of enabling design students to develop analytical strategies. The benefit of an analytical approach is that it can lead to a structured understanding of design precedents. This in turn allows students to develop their own insights and ideas which are central to the activity of designing. The creation of a 3-D library of user-defined models of precedents in a computational environment permits an under-exploited method of undertaking analysis, since by modelling design precedents through the construction of 3-D Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) models, and then analytically decomposing them in terms of relevant features, significant insights into the nature of designs can be achieved. Using CAAD systems in this way, therefore, runs counter to the more common approach of detailed modelling, rendering and animation; which produces realistic pictures that do not reflect the design thinking that went into their production. The significance of the analytical approach to design teaching is that it encourages students to represent design ideas, but not necessarily the final form of design objects. The analytical approach therefore, allows students to depict features and execute tasks that are meaningful with respect to design students' own knowledge of particular domains. Such computational interaction can also be useful in helping students explore the consequences of proposed actions in actual design contexts.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:43

_id 6d34
authors Kensek, Karen and Noble, Doug (Eds.)
year 1992
title Mission - Method - Madness [Conference Proceedings]
source ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2 ) 1992, 232 p.
summary The papers represent a wide variety of exploration into the uses of computers in architecture. We have tried to impose order onto the collection by organizing them into six sessions: Metaphor, Mission, Method, Modeling for Visualization, Modeling, and Generative Systems. As with any ordering system for such a diverse selection, some session papers are strongly related while others are loosely grouped. Madness, an additional session not in the proceedings, will include short presentations of work in progress. Regarding the individual papers, it is particularly exciting to see research being conducted that is founded on previous work done by others. It is also interesting to note that half of the papers have been submitted by teams of authors. Whether this represents "computer supported cooperative work" remains to be seen. Certainly the work in this book represents an interesting and wide variety of explorations into computer supported design in architecture.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 13:51

_id ddss9217
id ddss9217
authors Kim, Y.S. and Brawne, M.
year 1993
title An approach to evaluating exhibition spaces in art galleries
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary There are certain building types in which movement of people is the most significant evaluation factor. Among these are art galleries and museums. Unlike other building types, which are often explicated by investigating the relationship between people and people, and between people and the built environment, art galleries and museums are a building type in which the social relationship between people hardly exists and peoples movement through space, that is, the functional relationship between people and space, is one of the most significant factors for their description. The typical museum experience is through direct, sequential, and visual contact with static objects on display as the visitor moves. Therefore, the movement pattern of the visitors must exert a significant influence on achieving the specific goal of a museum. There is a critical need for predicting the consequences of particular spatial configurations with respect to visitors movement. In this sense, it is the intention of this paper to find out the relationship between the spatial configuration of exhibition space and the visitors' movement pattern.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 7b9d
authors Klosterman, R. and Langendorf, R.
year 1992
title Visualization in urban analysis and design
source Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 19, pp. 611-612
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:38

_id ddss9202
id ddss9202
authors Koutamanis, A. and Mitossi, V.
year 1993
title Architectural computer vision: Automated recognition of architectural drawings
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Computer vision offers the ability to transform digitized drawings into documents that can be used with computer systems. Recognition of digitized drawings can occur at the levels of (a) geometric elements, (b) building elements, and (c) spatial articulation. The last two levels apply not only to digitized images but also to computer-produced ones. The enormous burden placed on the user for inputting and manipulating CAD drawings suggests that automated recognition can add to the capabilities of CAD by making the computer more flexible with respect to inputting design information and more responsive to the actual concerns of the designer.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ecaade2009_138
id ecaade2009_138
authors Kozikoglu, Nilüfer; Erdogan, Meral; Nircan, Ahmet Kutsi; Özsel Akipek, Fulya
year 2009
title Collective Design Network: Systems Thinking (Event-Pattern-Structures) and System Dynamics Modelling as a Design Concept and Strategy
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 533-540
summary This paper will relay the initial phase of a collaborative work within partners from the design discipline, systems engineering, and software engineering which deals with the interrelations of “network idea”, “systems thinking”, “collective design”, and “computation”. Vensim– a system dynamics modelling tool developed by Ventana Systems, Inc. in 1992 – has been used in an experimental first year design studio to engage students in systems thinking in the architectural design environment. It has been observed that this tool enabled most students to develop a multi-layered, complex and more controlled design logic and to amplify the cognitive processes at the beginning of the design education. We conclude that in order to fully realize systems thinking in the design process, new ways of integrating parametric design environments and system dynamic modelling environments needs to be investigated.
wos WOS:000334282200064
keywords Design network, system dynamics, dynamic pattern, collectivity, integration
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id b784
authors Krishnamurti, R. and Earl, C.F.
year 1992
title Shape recognition in three dimensions
source Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 19 : 585-603
summary The subshape recognition problem for three-dimensional shapes under linear transformations is considered. The problem is analysed in a series of cases, some that provide a determinate number of solutions and others that have indeterminately many solutions. Procedures for its solution for general shapes are developed. Difficulties posed by strict adherence to rational transformations are examined. As a corollary, an outline of a procedure for determining the symmetries of a shape is presented. Subject
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0b53
authors Lawrence, Roderick J.
year 1992
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part B, pp. 7-14
summary The professional roles and fonctions of architects are linked to the societal context in which they practice. Furthermore, this context, which is not static, has a relationship to the ways in which institutions, groups and individuals are involved in processes for the design and construction of the built environment. This presentation illustrates how the roles and functions of architects, other professionals, their clients and the general public have a bearing on the tools and methods used by the architectural profession to simulate design projects. Traditionally, sketches, renderings and pattern books were used. Then, they were supplemented by axonometric and perspective drawings, written and diagrammatic specifications, photographs and small-scale models. In recent decades mathematical models of diverse kinds, simulation techniques -including small- and full-scale modelling kits -as well as computer aided design and drafting systems have been used. This paper briefly presents these kinds of tools and then presents a typology of them. In conclusion, possible applications for the future are discussed.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 13:39

_id ca47
authors Lee, Shu Wan
year 1996
title A Cognitive Approach to Architectural Style Several Characteristics of Design Thinking in Architecture
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 223-226
summary Designing is a complicated human behaviour and method, and is often treated as a mysterious "black box” operation in human mind. In the early period as for theory-studying of design thinking, the way of thinking that the researchers took were mostly descriptive discussions. Therefore, they lacked direct and empirical evidence although those studies provided significant exploration of design thinking (Wang, 1995). In recent years as for the study of cognitive science, they have tried to make design "glass box”. That is to try to make the thinking processes embedded in designers publicized. That is also to externalize the design procedure which provided the design studies another theoretical basis of more accurate and deeply researched procedure (Jones, 1992). Hence the studying of design thinking has become more important and the method of designing has also progressed a lot. For example, the classification of the nature of design problem such as ill-defined and well-defined (Newell, Shaw, and Simon, 1967), and different theoretical procedure modes for different disciplines, such as viewing architectural models as conjecture-analysis models and viewing engineering models as analysis-synthesis (Cross, 1991).
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:14

_id caadria2014_071
id caadria2014_071
authors Li, Lezhi; Renyuan Hu, Meng Yao, Guangwei Huang and Ziyu Tong
year 2014
title Sculpting the Space: A Circulation Based Approach to Generative Design in a Multi-Agent System
source Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014) / Kyoto 14-16 May 2014, pp. 565–574
summary This paper discusses an MAS (multiagent system) based approach to generating architectural spaces that afford better modes of human movement. To achieve this, a pedestrian simulation is carried out to record the data with regard to human spatial experience during the walking process. Unlike common practices of performance oriented generation where final results are achieved through cycles of simulation and comparison, what we propose here is to let human’s movement exert direct influence on space. We made this possible by asking "humans" to project simulation data on architectural surroundings, and thus cause the layout to change for the purpose of affording what we designate as good spatial experiences. A generation experiment of an exhibition space is implemented to explore this approach, in which tentative rules of such spatial manipulation are proposed and tested through space syntax analyse. As the results suggested, by looking at spatial layouts through a lens of human behaviour, this projection-and-generation method provides some insight into space qualities that other methods could not have offered.
keywords Performance oriented generative design; projection; multi-agent system; pedestrian simulation; space syntax
series CAADRIA
last changed 2014/04/22 08:23

_id 181b
authors Liou, Shuenn-Ren
year 1992
title A computer-based framework for analyzing and deriving the morphological structure of architectural designs
source University of Michigan
summary An approach to the acquisition and utilization of knowledge about the morphological structure of notable orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is formulated and tested. This approach consists of two levels of abstraction within which the analysis and comparison of existing designs and the derivation of new designs can be undertaken systematically and efficiently. Specifically, the morphological structure of orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is conceived as a language defined by shape grammar and architectural grammar corresponding to the geometric and spatial structures of the compositions. Lines constitute the shape grammar and walls and columns the architectural grammar. A computer program named ANADER is designed and implemented using the C++ object-oriented language to describe feasible compositions. It is argued that the gap between morphological analysis and synthesis is bridged partially because the proposed framework facilitates systematic comparisons of the morphological structures of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions and provides insight into the form-making process used to derive them. As an analytical system, the framework contributes to the generation of new and the assessment of existing morphological knowledge. Specifically, it is demonstrated that it is feasible to specify an existing architectural design by a set of universal rule schemata and the sequence of their application. As a generative system, the framework allows many of the tasks involved in the derivation of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions to be carried out. As well, it promotes the use of analytical results. In conclusion, it is argued that the proposed computer-based framework will provide the research and the educator with increasing opportunities for addressing persistent architectural questions in new ways. Of particular interest to this author are questions concerning the decision-making activities involved in form- and space-making as well as the description, classification, and derivation of architecutural form and space. It is suggested that, at least in reference to the cases examined, but probably also in reference to many other morphological classes, these and other related questions can be addressed systematically, efficiently, and fruitfully by using the proposed framework.  
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ddss9208
id ddss9208
authors Lucardie, G.L.
year 1993
title A functional approach to realizing decision support systems in technical regulation management for design and construction
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Technical building standards defining the quality of buildings, building products, building materials and building processes aim to provide acceptable levels of safety, health, usefulness and energy consumption. However, the logical consistency between these goals and the set of regulations produced to achieve them is often hard to identify. Not only the large quantities of highly complex and frequently changing building regulations to be met, but also the variety of user demands and the steadily increasing technical information on (new) materials, products and buildings have produced a very complex set of knowledge and data that should be taken into account when handling technical building regulations. Integrating knowledge technology and database technology is an important step towards managing the complexity of technical regulations. Generally, two strategies can be followed to integrate knowledge and database technology. The main emphasis of the first strategy is on transferring data structures and processing techniques from one field of research to another. The second approach is concerned exclusively with the semantic structure of what is contained in the data-based or knowledge-based system. The aim of this paper is to show that the second or knowledge-level approach, in particular the theory of functional classifications, is more fundamental and more fruitful. It permits a goal-directed rationalized strategy towards analysis, use and application of regulations. Therefore, it enables the reconstruction of (deep) models of regulations, objects and of users accounting for the flexibility and dynamics that are responsible for the complexity of technical regulations. Finally, at the systems level, the theory supports an effective development of a new class of rational Decision Support Systems (DSS), which should reduce the complexity of technical regulations and restore the logical consistency between the goals of technical regulations and the technical regulations themselves.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id e8f0
authors Mackey, David L.
year 1992
title Mission Possible: Computer Aided Design for Everyone
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 65-73
summary A pragmatic model for the building of an electronic architectural design curriculum which will offer students and faculty the opportunity to fully integrate information age technologies into the educational experience is becoming increasingly desirable.

The majority of architectural programs teach technology topics through content specific courses which appear as an educational sequence within the curriculum. These technology topics have traditionally included structural design, environmental systems, and construction materials and methods. Likewise, that course model has been broadly applied to the teaching of computer aided design, which is identified as a technology topic. Computer technology has resulted in a proliferation of courses which similarly introduce the student to computer graphic and design systems through a traditional course structure.

Inevitably, competition for priority arises within the curriculum, introducing the potential risk that otherwise valuable courses and/or course content will be replaced by the "'newer" technology, and providing fertile ground for faculty and administrative resistance to computerization as traditional courses are pushed aside or seem threatened.

An alternative view is that computer technology is not a "topic", but rather the medium for creating a design (and studio) environment for informed decision making.... deciding what it is we should build. Such a viewpoint urges the development of a curricular structure, through which the impact of computer technology may be understood as that medium for design decision making, as the initial step in addressing the current and future needs of architectural education.

One example of such a program currently in place at the College of Architecture and Planning, Ball State University takes an approach which overlays, like a transparent tissue, the computer aided design content (or a computer emphasis) onto the primary curriculum.

With the exception of a general introductory course at the freshman level, computer instruction and content issues may be addressed effectively within existing studio courses. The level of operational and conceptual proficiency achieved by the student, within an electronic design studio, makes the electronic design environment selfsustaining and maintainable across the entire curriculum. The ability to broadly apply computer aided design to the educational experience can be independent of the availability of many specialized computer aided design faculty.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 13:58

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