CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 101 to 120 of 238

_id b784
authors Krishnamurti, R. and Earl, C.F.
year 1992
title Shape recognition in three dimensions
source Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 19 : 585-603
summary The subshape recognition problem for three-dimensional shapes under linear transformations is considered. The problem is analysed in a series of cases, some that provide a determinate number of solutions and others that have indeterminately many solutions. Procedures for its solution for general shapes are developed. Difficulties posed by strict adherence to rational transformations are examined. As a corollary, an outline of a procedure for determining the symmetries of a shape is presented. Subject
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 5b34
authors Langendorf, R.
year 1992
title The 1990's: information systems and computer visualization for urban design, planning and management
source Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 19, pp. 723-738
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:38

_id ca47
authors Lee, Shu Wan
year 1996
title A Cognitive Approach to Architectural Style Several Characteristics of Design Thinking in Architecture
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 223-226
summary Designing is a complicated human behaviour and method, and is often treated as a mysterious "black box” operation in human mind. In the early period as for theory-studying of design thinking, the way of thinking that the researchers took were mostly descriptive discussions. Therefore, they lacked direct and empirical evidence although those studies provided significant exploration of design thinking (Wang, 1995). In recent years as for the study of cognitive science, they have tried to make design "glass box”. That is to try to make the thinking processes embedded in designers publicized. That is also to externalize the design procedure which provided the design studies another theoretical basis of more accurate and deeply researched procedure (Jones, 1992). Hence the studying of design thinking has become more important and the method of designing has also progressed a lot. For example, the classification of the nature of design problem such as ill-defined and well-defined (Newell, Shaw, and Simon, 1967), and different theoretical procedure modes for different disciplines, such as viewing architectural models as conjecture-analysis models and viewing engineering models as analysis-synthesis (Cross, 1991).
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:14

_id caadria2014_071
id caadria2014_071
authors Li, Lezhi; Renyuan Hu, Meng Yao, Guangwei Huang and Ziyu Tong
year 2014
title Sculpting the Space: A Circulation Based Approach to Generative Design in a Multi-Agent System
source Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014) / Kyoto 14-16 May 2014, pp. 565–574
summary This paper discusses an MAS (multiagent system) based approach to generating architectural spaces that afford better modes of human movement. To achieve this, a pedestrian simulation is carried out to record the data with regard to human spatial experience during the walking process. Unlike common practices of performance oriented generation where final results are achieved through cycles of simulation and comparison, what we propose here is to let human’s movement exert direct influence on space. We made this possible by asking "humans" to project simulation data on architectural surroundings, and thus cause the layout to change for the purpose of affording what we designate as good spatial experiences. A generation experiment of an exhibition space is implemented to explore this approach, in which tentative rules of such spatial manipulation are proposed and tested through space syntax analyse. As the results suggested, by looking at spatial layouts through a lens of human behaviour, this projection-and-generation method provides some insight into space qualities that other methods could not have offered.
keywords Performance oriented generative design; projection; multi-agent system; pedestrian simulation; space syntax
series CAADRIA
last changed 2014/04/22 08:23

_id a2e6
authors Liggett, R.S., Mitchell, W.J. and Tan, M.
year 1992
title Multi-Level Analysis and Optimization of Design
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 2512-269 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper discusses a knowledge-based computer-aided design system, that provides multi-level analysis capabilities, and that automatically propagates constraints on design variables from level to level. It also Supports formulation and solution of optimization problems at different levels, so that a solution can be approached by solving a sequence of appropriately constrained sub-optimization problems. Theory and implementation are discussed, and a detailed case study of application to the design of small house plans is provided
keywords constraints, design, methods, knowledge base, CAD, systems, analysis, optimization, automation, user interface, shape grammars
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 181b
authors Liou, Shuenn-Ren
year 1992
title A computer-based framework for analyzing and deriving the morphological structure of architectural designs
source University of Michigan
summary An approach to the acquisition and utilization of knowledge about the morphological structure of notable orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is formulated and tested. This approach consists of two levels of abstraction within which the analysis and comparison of existing designs and the derivation of new designs can be undertaken systematically and efficiently. Specifically, the morphological structure of orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is conceived as a language defined by shape grammar and architectural grammar corresponding to the geometric and spatial structures of the compositions. Lines constitute the shape grammar and walls and columns the architectural grammar. A computer program named ANADER is designed and implemented using the C++ object-oriented language to describe feasible compositions. It is argued that the gap between morphological analysis and synthesis is bridged partially because the proposed framework facilitates systematic comparisons of the morphological structures of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions and provides insight into the form-making process used to derive them. As an analytical system, the framework contributes to the generation of new and the assessment of existing morphological knowledge. Specifically, it is demonstrated that it is feasible to specify an existing architectural design by a set of universal rule schemata and the sequence of their application. As a generative system, the framework allows many of the tasks involved in the derivation of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions to be carried out. As well, it promotes the use of analytical results. In conclusion, it is argued that the proposed computer-based framework will provide the research and the educator with increasing opportunities for addressing persistent architectural questions in new ways. Of particular interest to this author are questions concerning the decision-making activities involved in form- and space-making as well as the description, classification, and derivation of architecutural form and space. It is suggested that, at least in reference to the cases examined, but probably also in reference to many other morphological classes, these and other related questions can be addressed systematically, efficiently, and fruitfully by using the proposed framework.  
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ddss9208
id ddss9208
authors Lucardie, G.L.
year 1993
title A functional approach to realizing decision support systems in technical regulation management for design and construction
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Technical building standards defining the quality of buildings, building products, building materials and building processes aim to provide acceptable levels of safety, health, usefulness and energy consumption. However, the logical consistency between these goals and the set of regulations produced to achieve them is often hard to identify. Not only the large quantities of highly complex and frequently changing building regulations to be met, but also the variety of user demands and the steadily increasing technical information on (new) materials, products and buildings have produced a very complex set of knowledge and data that should be taken into account when handling technical building regulations. Integrating knowledge technology and database technology is an important step towards managing the complexity of technical regulations. Generally, two strategies can be followed to integrate knowledge and database technology. The main emphasis of the first strategy is on transferring data structures and processing techniques from one field of research to another. The second approach is concerned exclusively with the semantic structure of what is contained in the data-based or knowledge-based system. The aim of this paper is to show that the second or knowledge-level approach, in particular the theory of functional classifications, is more fundamental and more fruitful. It permits a goal-directed rationalized strategy towards analysis, use and application of regulations. Therefore, it enables the reconstruction of (deep) models of regulations, objects and of users accounting for the flexibility and dynamics that are responsible for the complexity of technical regulations. Finally, at the systems level, the theory supports an effective development of a new class of rational Decision Support Systems (DSS), which should reduce the complexity of technical regulations and restore the logical consistency between the goals of technical regulations and the technical regulations themselves.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id e8f0
authors Mackey, David L.
year 1992
title Mission Possible: Computer Aided Design for Everyone
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 65-73
summary A pragmatic model for the building of an electronic architectural design curriculum which will offer students and faculty the opportunity to fully integrate information age technologies into the educational experience is becoming increasingly desirable.

The majority of architectural programs teach technology topics through content specific courses which appear as an educational sequence within the curriculum. These technology topics have traditionally included structural design, environmental systems, and construction materials and methods. Likewise, that course model has been broadly applied to the teaching of computer aided design, which is identified as a technology topic. Computer technology has resulted in a proliferation of courses which similarly introduce the student to computer graphic and design systems through a traditional course structure.

Inevitably, competition for priority arises within the curriculum, introducing the potential risk that otherwise valuable courses and/or course content will be replaced by the "'newer" technology, and providing fertile ground for faculty and administrative resistance to computerization as traditional courses are pushed aside or seem threatened.

An alternative view is that computer technology is not a "topic", but rather the medium for creating a design (and studio) environment for informed decision making.... deciding what it is we should build. Such a viewpoint urges the development of a curricular structure, through which the impact of computer technology may be understood as that medium for design decision making, as the initial step in addressing the current and future needs of architectural education.

One example of such a program currently in place at the College of Architecture and Planning, Ball State University takes an approach which overlays, like a transparent tissue, the computer aided design content (or a computer emphasis) onto the primary curriculum.

With the exception of a general introductory course at the freshman level, computer instruction and content issues may be addressed effectively within existing studio courses. The level of operational and conceptual proficiency achieved by the student, within an electronic design studio, makes the electronic design environment selfsustaining and maintainable across the entire curriculum. The ability to broadly apply computer aided design to the educational experience can be independent of the availability of many specialized computer aided design faculty.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 13:58

_id a72b
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 1992
title Design as Formal Language
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 319-330
summary Geometry and language are disciplines with which architecture holds a strong relationship. They have highly structured natures, which make them well-suited for computer implementation. Architecture, on the other hand, lacks such an abstract and hierarchical system. This is one of the main obstacles to the integration of computers in architecture at this point. This paper presents the results of a pedagogic approach based on the association of language, geometry and computers. This association can be successfully used in the education of basic design principles that, although not directly related with architecture, are fundamental to the education of an architect.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 612c
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 1998
title Computers and Architectural Design: Going Beyond the Tool
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 44-57
summary More often than not, discussions taking place in specialised conferences dealing with computers and design tend to focus mostly on the tool itself. What the computer can do that other tools cannot, how computers might improve design and whether a new aesthetic would result from the computer; these are among the most recurrent issues addressed in those forums. But, by placing the instrument at the center of the debate, we might be distorting the nature of design. In the course KEYWORDS, carried out in the years 1992 and 1993 at the ETH Zurich, the goal was to transcend the discourses that concentrate on the computer, integrating it in a wider theoretical framework including principles of modern art and architecture. This paper presents a summary of the content and results of this course.

series ACADIA
last changed 1998/12/16 07:34

_id 80b9
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 2000
title Computers and architectural design: going beyond the tool
source Automation in Construction 9 (1) (2000) pp. 5-17
summary More often than not, discussions taking place in specialised conferences dealing with computers and design tend to focus mostly on the tool itself. What the computer can do that other tools cannot, how computers might improve design and whether a new aesthetic would result from the computer; these are among the most recurrent issues addressed in those forums. But, by placing the instrument at the center of the debate, we might be distorting the nature of design. In the course KEYWORDS, carried out in the years 1992 and 1993 at the ETH Zurich, the goal was to transcend the discourses that concentrate on the computer, integrating it in a wider theoretical framework including principles of modern art and architecture. This paper presents a summary of the content and results of this course.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 8b12
authors Manning, Peter and Mattar, Samir
year 1992
title A Preliminary to Development of Expert Systems for Total Design of Entire Buildings
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 215-237 : tables. includes bibliography
summary This paper has two primary objectives. The first is to represent the practicability of making the design of entire buildings a conscious, craftsman-like, activity conducted in the clear, without the mystery that tends, because of designers' usual 'black box' methods, to surround it. To this end, a design strategy and some tactics for resolving decisions at critical stages in the design process, which the authors have described elsewhere, are recapitulated to show how total design of buildings can be pursued in a generic manner. This done, the way is opened for the second objective: to make the large and important field of work that is building design amenable to computerization. The form that pursuit of this second objective is taking is being influenced greatly by growing interest in expert systems, which for everyday professional building design appears a more useful development than previous CAD emphases on drafting and graphics. Application of the authors' design methods to a series of expert systems for the total design of entire buildings is therefore indicated. For such a vast project--the formulation of bases for design assistance and expert systems that can be integrated and used as a generic method for the total design of entire buildings, so that the results are more certain and successful than the outcome of the generality of present-day building design--the most that can be attempted within the limits of a single paper is a set of examples of some of the stages in the process. Nevertheless, since the design method described begins at the 'large end' of the process, where the most consequential decisions are made, it is hoped that the major thrusts and the essential CAD activities will be evident. All design is substantially iterative, and provided that the major iterations are intelligible, there should be no need for this demonstration to labor over the lesser ones
keywords evaluation, integration, architecture, building, expert systems, design methods, design process
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 9d0c
authors McVey, G., McCrobie, D., Evans, D., McIlvaine Parsons, D., Templar, J. Konz, S. and Caldwell, B.
year 1992
title Interactions between Environmental Design and Human Factors Specialists ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Panel
source Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992 v.1 pp. 575-577
summary Most of the interactions between human factors specialists, such as ergonomists, and environmental specialists such as facility planners and architects tend to be task specific and do not follow any accepted process. Consequently, the success of such interactions are usually a function of serendipity rather than informed expectation. It is anticipated that by gathering such specialists in an open discussion, relevant issues may be addressed and successful interaction procedures introduced and discussed. Such a forum is desirable for developing an understanding of the differences, educational and operational, between environmental design specialists, and human factors specialists, as well as for exploring the ways their communications can be enhanced. It is anticipated that by sharing their experiences with the attendees, the presenters will identify relevant on-going knowledge transfer activities, and also introduce and discuss practical problem-solving and communication methods that can be used with assurance by the attendees themselves when faced with similar problems in the future. This panel will focus on issues that arrive out of situations where human factors specialists and environmental design specialists are joined together in project development. The specialties represented include architecture, facility planning, environmental psychology, ergonomic research, industrial design and engineering, and equipment and furniture design and manufacturing.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 4da8
authors Merrill, M.D., Tennyson, R.D. and Posey, L.0.
year 1992
title Teaching Concepts: an Instructional Design Guide
source Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications
summary Gagne and Briggs' definitions of types of learning and of learning processes are ageless. Even in the era of constructivist ID, this book contributes an important bridge between fundamentals of psychology and the structuring of learning experiences and environments.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id a07c
authors Mitchell, William J.
year 1992
title The Uses of Inconsistency in Design
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 1-13 : ill. includes bibliography.--- This article is the introduction chapter to the book
summary In this paper two of the central dogmas underlying most current theories of design evaluation are challenged: that the representations used by a designer must be well formed, and that a designer must have a consistent belief framework within which to make judgements about design proposals. The crucial roles in design of ambiguous and inconsistent representations and provisional beliefs are examined, and a model of design exploration based on nonmonotonic modes of reasoning is sketched
keywords reasoning, evaluation, prediction, design process, architecture
series CADline
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ddss9215
id ddss9215
authors Mortola, E. and Giangrande, A.
year 1993
title A trichotomic segmentation procedure to evaluate projects in architecture
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary This paper illustrates a model used to construct the evaluation module for An Interface for Designing (AID), a system to aid architectural design. The model can be used at the end of every cycle of analysis-synthesis-evaluation in the intermediate phases of design development. With the aid of the model it is possible to evaluate the quality of a project in overall terms to establish whether the project is acceptable, whether it should be elaborated ex-novo, or whether it is necessary to begin a new cycle to improve it. In this last case, it is also possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the possible actions and strategies for improvement. The model is based on a procedure of trichotomic segmentation, developed with MCDA (Multi-Criteria Decision Aid), which uses the outranking relation to compare the project with some evaluation profiles taken as projects of reference. An application of the model in the teaching field will also be described.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 8cf3
authors Müller, Volker
year 1992
title Reint-Ops: A Tool Supporting Conceptual Design
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 221-232
summary Reasoning is influenced by our perception of the environment. New aspects of our environment help to provoke new thoughts. Thus, changes of what is perceived can be assumed to stimulate the generation of new ideas, as well. In CAD, computerized three-dimensional models of physical entities are produced. Their representation on the monitor is determined by our viewing position and by the rendering method used. Especially the wire-frame representations of views lend themselves to a variety of readings, due to coincident and intersecting lines. Methods by which wire-frame views can be processed to extract the shapes that they contain have been investigated and developed. The extracted shapes can be used as a base for the generation of derived entities through various operations that are called Reinterpretation Operations. They have been implemented as a prototypical extension (named Reint-Ops) to an existing modeling shell. ReintOps is a highly interactive exploratory CAD tool, which allows the user to customize criteria and factors which are used in the reinterpretation process. This tool can be regarded as having a potential to support conceptual design investigations.
keywords CAD, Three-dimensional Model, Wireframe Representation, Shape Extraction, Generation of Derived Entities, Reinterpretation, Conceptual Design
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id aa6d
authors Nichols, Foster Jr., Canete, Isabel J. and Tuladhar, Sagun
year 1992
title Designing for Pedestrians : A CAD-Network Analysis Approach
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 379-398 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary Microcomputer techniques have been developed that combine CAD drawings with transportation network analysis software that uses spreadsheets and stand-alone programs activated from the DOS operating system. The CAD feature simplifies and improves the methods used to design pedestrian circulation facilities and evaluate the impact of new development on existing pedestrian flows. Through the use of customized software, the need for manual data entry is reduced, and the graphical display of analysis results in most intermediate steps in the process are automated. Three hypothetical case studies are presented, concentrating on proposed pedestrian circulation improvements at Penn Station, New York
keywords evaluation, networks, management, CAD, analysis, applications, planning, transportation, prediction, simulation, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2c22
authors O'Neill, Michael J.
year 1992
title Neural Network Simulation as a Computer- Aided design Tool For Predicting Wayfinding Performance
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 347-366 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Complex public facilities such as libraries, hospitals, and governmental buildings often present problems to users who must find their way through them. Research shows that difficulty in wayfinding has costs in terms of time, money, public safety, and stress that results from being lost. While a wide range of architectural research supports the notion that ease of wayfinding should be a criterion for good design, architects have no method for evaluating how well their building designs will support the wayfinding task. People store and retrieve information about the layout of the built environment in a knowledge representation known as the cognitive map. People depend on the information stored in the cognitive map to find their way through buildings. Although there are numerous simulations of the cognitive map, the mechanisms of these models are not constrained by what is known about the neurophysiology of the brain. Rather, these models incorporate search mechanisms that act on semantically encoded information about the environment. In this paper the author describes the evaluation and application of an artificial neural network simulation of the cognitive map as a means of predicting wayfinding behavior in buildings. This simulation is called NAPS-PC (Network Activity Processing Simulator--PC version). This physiologically plausible model represents knowledge about the layout of the environment through a network of inter-connected processing elements. The performance of NAPS-PC was evaluated against actual human wayfinding performance. The study found that the simulation generated behavior that matched the performance of human participants. After the validation, NAPS-PC was modified so that it could read environmental information directly from AutoCAD (a popular micro-computer-based CAD software package) drawing files, and perform 'wayfinding' tasks based on that environmental information. This prototype tool, called AutoNet, is conceptualized as a means of allowing designers to predict the wayfinding performance of users in a building before it is actually built
keywords simulation, cognition, neural networks, evaluation, floor plans, applications, wayfinding, layout, building
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cb5a
authors Oxman, Rivka E.
year 1992
title Multiple Operative and Interactive Modes in Knowledge-Based Design Systems
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 125-143 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A conceptual basis for the development of an expert system which is capable of integrating various modes of generation and evaluation in design is presented. This approach is based upon two sets of reasoning processes in the design system. The first enables a mapping between design requirements and solution descriptions in a generative mode of design; and the second enables a mapping between solution descriptions and performance evaluation in an evaluative and predictive mode. This concept supports a formal framework necessary for a knowledge-based design system to operate in a design partnership relation with the designer. Another fundamental concept in expert systems for design, dual direction interpretation between graphic and textual modes, is presented and elaborated. This encoding of knowledge behind the geometrical representation can be achieved in knowledge- based design systems by the development of a 'semantic interpreter' which supports a dual direction mapping process employing a geometrical knowledge, typological knowledge and evaluative knowledge. An implemented expert system for design, PREDIKT, demonstrates these concepts in the domain of kitchen design. It provides the user with a choice of alternative modes of interaction, such as: a 'design critic' for the evaluation of a design, a 'design generator' for the generation of a design, or a 'design critic-generator' for the completion of partial solutions
keywords architecture, knowledge base, design, systems, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

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