CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 121 to 140 of 239

_id cb5a
authors Oxman, Rivka E.
year 1992
title Multiple Operative and Interactive Modes in Knowledge-Based Design Systems
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 125-143 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A conceptual basis for the development of an expert system which is capable of integrating various modes of generation and evaluation in design is presented. This approach is based upon two sets of reasoning processes in the design system. The first enables a mapping between design requirements and solution descriptions in a generative mode of design; and the second enables a mapping between solution descriptions and performance evaluation in an evaluative and predictive mode. This concept supports a formal framework necessary for a knowledge-based design system to operate in a design partnership relation with the designer. Another fundamental concept in expert systems for design, dual direction interpretation between graphic and textual modes, is presented and elaborated. This encoding of knowledge behind the geometrical representation can be achieved in knowledge- based design systems by the development of a 'semantic interpreter' which supports a dual direction mapping process employing a geometrical knowledge, typological knowledge and evaluative knowledge. An implemented expert system for design, PREDIKT, demonstrates these concepts in the domain of kitchen design. It provides the user with a choice of alternative modes of interaction, such as: a 'design critic' for the evaluation of a design, a 'design generator' for the generation of a design, or a 'design critic-generator' for the completion of partial solutions
keywords architecture, knowledge base, design, systems, expert systems
series CADline
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 46c7
id 46c7
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1992
title Data Modeling Needs of Life Safety Code (LSC) Compliance Applications
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 177-185
summary One of the most complex code compliance issues originates from the conformance of designs to Life Safety Code (NFPA 101). The development of computer based code compliance checking programs attracted the attention of building researchers and practitioners alike. These studies represent a number of approaches ranging from CAD based procedural approaches to rule based, non graphic ones, but they do not address the interaction of the rule base of such systems with graphic data bases that define the geometry of architectural objects. Automatic extraction of the attributes and the configuration of building systems requires 11 architectural object - graphic entity" data models that allow access and retrieval of the necessary data for code compliance checking. This study aims to specifically focus on the development of such a data model through the use of AutoLISP feature of AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc.) graphic system. This data model is intended to interact with a Life Safety Code rule base created through Level5-Object (Focus Inc.) expert system.

Assuming the availability of a more general building data model, one must define life and fire safety features of a building before any automatic checking can be performed. Object oriented data structures are beginning to be applied to design objects, since they allow the type versatility demanded by design applications. As one generates a functional view of the main data model, the software user must provide domain specific information. A functional view is defined as the process of generating domain specific data structures from a more general purpose data model, such as defining egress routes from wall or room object data structure. Typically in the early design phase of a project, these are related to the emergency egress design features of a building. Certain decisions such as where to provide sprinkler protection or the location of protected egress ways must be made early in the process.

series ACADIA
email ozel@asu.edu
last changed 2004/03/23 07:42

_id 975e
authors Pearce, M. and Goel, A. (et al.)
year 1992
title Case-Based Design support: A case study in architectural design
source IEEE Expert 7(5): 14-20
summary Archie, a small computer-based library of architectural design cases, is described. Archie helps architects in the high-level task of conceptual design as opposed to low-level tasks such as drawing and drafting, numerical calculations, and constraint propagation. Archie goes beyond supporting architects in design proposal and critiquing. It acts as a shared external memory that supports two kinds of design collaboration. First, by including enough knowledge about the goals, plans, outcomes, and lessons of past cases, it lets the designer access the work of previous architects. Second, by providing access to the perspectives of domain experts via the domain models, Archie helps architects anticipate and accommodate experts' views on evolving designs. The lessons learned about building large case-based systems to support real-world decision making in developing Archie are discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 8824
authors Perkins, N. H.
year 1992
title Three questions on the use of photo-realistic simulations as real world surrogates
source Landscape and Urban Planning 21, pp. 265-267
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (spietsch@arch.adelaide.edu.au)
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:41

_id 6f8a
authors Pittioni, Gernot
year 1992
title Concepts of CAAD-Instruction
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 363-376
summary Today we can look back on several years of data processing support in architecture. When computer aided architectural design - CAAD - entered the field there was a lot of utter confusion in the beginning, a lot more than usually in other more technical application-fields of CAD. The architect is a very special CAD-user, as he is a very special member of all those other very analytical and scientific faculties around. There is a lot of tradition involved, tradition that has got its roots far back in medieval and classic periods and is rich of art and creativity and intuition. Mostly lots more of this than scientific analysis, exact research, and similar stuff. We could spot a large number of architects who would have been horrified when they are confronted with the analytic research of the very basic problem as how architects are designing - the methods, the procedures and the ways of thinking. And there CAAD was entering the architects' studios. No question that this caused a lot of trouble. CAD in architecture is a very provoking subject as the new tool is going to gain ground against the tradition of centuries of handmade architectural designs and drawings. And there we don't even touch the future aspects of the computer's architectural design support - what about the imminent threat of computer support in the holy domain of architectural creativity and intuition. What about the uneasy idea of CAAD in connection with artificial intelligence? The problem of CAAD-education has been largely neglected through a number of years. If there existed a certain horror looking at the mere idea of CAD-support in architecture, horror became to outrage, when university education was discussed. In our days we can stay a good deal more relaxed, when we speak of CAAD education - we not only got used to it, we are convinced, that the whole subject is of high importance.

keywords Concepts of Education
series eCAADe
email pitt_ing@t-online.de
last changed 1998/08/18 14:31

_id ddss9210
id ddss9210
authors Poortman, E.R.
year 1993
title Ratios for cost control
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The design of buildings takes place in phases representing a development from rough to precision planning. Estimates are made in order to test whether the result is still within the budget set by the client or developer. In this way, the decisions taken during the design phase can be quantified and expressed in monetary terms. To prevent blaming the wrong person when an overrun is discovered, the cost control process has to be improved. For that purpose, two new procedures have been developed: (i) a new translation activity; and (ii) ratios by which quantities can be characterized. 'Translation is the opposite of estimation. A monetary budget is converted -'translated' - into quantities, reflecting the desired quality of the building materials. The financial constraints of the client are thus converted into quantities - the building components used by the designers. Characteristic quantity figures play an important role in this activity. In working out an estimate, the form factor (i.e., the ratio between two characteristic values of a building component) has to be determined. The unit cost is then tested against that ratio. The introduction of the 'translation' activity and the use of characteristic quantity figures and form factors enhance existing estimation methods. By implementing these procedures, cost control becomes considerably more reliable.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 6f38
authors Potts, James and Mills, Nigel
year 1992
title Computers, Video and Architecture
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 377-378
summary The prime objective of this study is the analysis and the understanding of the underlying architectural principles (ideas) behind the particular seminar work that they have been given. Although this study is limited to one building its real significance lies not only in what it tells us about it, but also what it reveals about architecture itself. By distilling and comparing these buildings and stripping away the circumstances of their creation, we are shown universal principles of their design. This universality invites comparison to other buildings far removed in time and place.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:32

_id ddss9212
id ddss9212
authors Prins, M., Bax, M.F.TH., Carp, J.C. and Tempelmans Plat, H.
year 1993
title A design decision support system for building flexibility and costs
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Because of possible changes in demand, buildings must have some flexibility. In this paper a building model, a financial-economic model and a process model will be presented, which together constitute a design decision support system. This system may be used to decide on flexibility and costs of building variants in all phases of the design process.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ebb2
authors Proctor, George
year 2000
title Reflections on the VDS, Pedagogy, Methods
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 15-16
summary After having conducted a Digital Media based design studio at Cal Poly for six years, we have developed a body of experience I feel is worth sharing. When the idea of conducting a studio with the exclusive use of digital tools was implemented at our college, it was still somewhat novel, and only 2 short years after the first VDS- Virtual Design Studio (UBC, UHK et.al.-1993). When we began, most of what we explored required a suspension of disbelief on the part of both the students and faculty reviewers of studio work. In a few short years the notions we examined have become ubiquitous in academic architectural discourse and are expanding into common use in practice. (For background, the digital media component of our curriculum owes much to my time at Harvard GSD [MAUD 1989-91] and the texts of: McCullough/Mitchell 1990, 1994; McCullough 1998; Mitchell 1990,1992,1996; Tufte 1990; Turkel 1995; and Wojtowicz 1993; and others.)
series ACADIA
email georger@cybertects.com
last changed 2002/12/15 15:37

_id bdbb
authors Pugh, D.
year 1992
title Designing solid objects using interactive sketch interpretation
source Computer Graphics (1992 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics), 25(2):117-126, Mar. 1992
summary Before the introduction of Computer Aided Design and solid modeling systems, designers had developed a set of techniques for designing solid objects by sketching their ideas on pencil and paper and refining them into workable designs. Unfortunately, these techniques are different from those for designing objects using a solid modeler. Not only does this waste avast reserve of talent and experience (people typically start drawing from the moment they can hold a crayon), but it also has a more fundamental problem: designers can use their intuition more effectively when sketching than they can when using a solid modeler. Viking is a solid modeling system whose user-interface is based on interactive sketch interpretation. Interactive sketch interpretation lets the designer create a line-drawing of a de- sired object while Viking generates a three-dimensional ob- ject description. This description is consistent with both the designer's line-drawing, and a set of geometric constraints either derived from the line-drawing or placed by the de- signer. Viking's object descriptions are fully compatible with the object descriptions used by traditional solid modelers. As a result, interactive sketch interpretation can be used with traditional solid modeling techniques, combining the advan- tages of both sketching and solid modeling.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9204
id ddss9204
authors Pullen, W.R., Wassenaar, C.L.G., van Heti'ema, I., Dekkers, J.T., Janszen, I., Boender, C.G.E., Tas, A. and Stegeman, H.
year 1993
title A decision support system for housing of (public) organizations
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary In this paper we present a hierarchical decision support system for the allocation of organisations to available buildings, and for the allocation of employees of an organisation to the work units of a building. For both allocation problems a mathematical model and optimisation algorithm is developed, taking into account the relevant criteria, such as the extent to which the allocated floorspace is in accordance with the standards, and the extent to which departments are housed in connecting zones of a building. The decision support system is illustrated by two practical applications.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 9026
authors Radford, A. D.
year 1992
title Local Architectural Language and Contextualism
source Design Review: Challenging Urban Aesthetic Control. B. C. Scheer and W. F. E. Preiser. New York, Chapman & Hill Inc., pp. 165-174
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (spietsch@arch.adelaide.edu.au)
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:41

_id 4075
authors Rahman, O. M. A.
year 1992
title Visual quality and response assessment: an experimental technique
source Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 19, pp. 689-708
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (spietsch@arch.adelaide.edu.au)
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:41

_id c804
authors Richens, P.
year 1994
title Does Knowledge really Help?
source G. Carrara and Y.E. Kalay (Eds.), Knowledge-Based Computer-Aided Architectural Design, Elsevier
summary The Martin Centre CADLAB has recently been established to investigate software techniques that could be of practical importance to architects within the next five years. In common with most CAD researchers, we are interested in the earlier, conceptual, stages of design, where commercial CAD systems have had little impact. Our approach is not Knowledge-Based, but rather focuses on using the computer as a medium for design and communication. This leads to a concentration on apparently superficial aspects such as visual appearance, the dynamics of interaction, immediate feedback, plasticity. We try to avoid building-in theoretical attitudes, and to reduce the semantic content of our systems to a low level on the basis that flexibility and intelligence are inversely related; and that flexibility is more important. The CADLAB became operational in January 1992. First year work in three areas – building models, experiencing architecture, and making drawings – is discussed.
series other
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2003/03/05 12:19

_id daff
authors Richens, P.
year 1994
title CAD Research at the Martin Centre
source Automation in Construction, No. 3
summary The Martin Centre CADLAB has recently been established to investigate software techniques that could be of practical importance to architects within the next five years. In common with most CAD researchers, we are interested in the earlier, conceptual, stages of design, where commercial CAD systems have had little impact. Our approach is not Knowledge-Based, but rather focuses on using the computer as a medium for design and communication. This leads to a concentration on apparently superficial aspects such as visual appearance, the dynamics of interaction, immediate feedback, plasticity. We try to avoid building-in theoretical attitudes, and to reduce the semantic content of our systems to a low level on the basis that flexibility and intelligence are inversely related; and that flexibility is more important. The CADLAB became operational in January 1992. First year work in three areas – building models, experiencing architecture, and making drawings – is discussed.
series journal
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/pdfs/rich94a.pdf
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 1992
authors Russell, Peter
year 2002
title Using Higher Level Programming in Interdisciplinary teams as a means of training for Concurrent Engineering
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 14-19
summary The paper explains a didactical method for training students that has been run three times to date. The premise of the course is to combine students from different faculties into interdisciplinary teams. These teams then have a complex problem to resolve within an extremely short time span. In light of recent works from Joy and Kurzweil, the theme Robotics was chosen as an exercise that is timely, interesting and related, but not central to the studies of the various faculties. In groups of 3 to 5, students from faculties of architecture, computer science and mechanical engineering are entrusted to design, build and program a robot which must successfully execute a prescribed set of actions in a competitive atmosphere. The entire course lasts ten days and culminates with the competitive evaluation. The robots must navigate a labyrinth, communicate with on another and be able to cover longer distances with some speed. In order to simplify the resources available to the students, the Lego Mindstorms Robotic syshed backgrounds instaed of synthetic ones. The combination of digitally produced (scanned) sperical images together with the use of HDR open a wide range of new implementation in the field of architecture, especially in combining synthetic elements in existing buildings, e.g. new interior elements in an existing historical museum).ural presentations in the medium of computer animation. These new forms of expression of design thoughts and ideas go beyond mere model making, and move more towards scenemaking and storytelling. The latter represents new methods of expression within computational environments for architects and designers.its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosg and programming a winning robot. These differences became apparent early in the sessions and each group had to find ways to communicate their ideas and to collectively develop them by building on the strengths of each team member.
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2013/02/04 06:17

_id a302
authors Saggio, Antonino
year 1992
title A New Tool for Studio Teaching - Object Based Modeling
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 251-264
summary The scope of this paper is to present Computer Aided Architectural Design (and more particularly the dynamic and incremental modeling characteristics of Object Based Modeling) as a tool to reinforce the teaching of architectural design. Utilized within a method based on a cyclical application of "Concept and Testing", OBM has the possibility to work as an amplifier of design ideas and as a meaningful tool for the advancement of architectural design. Three related experiences support this hypothesis. The role played in concrete designs by an Object Based Modeling environment. Teaching with CAAD and OBM in the realm of documentation and analysis of architecture. Previous applications of the Concept-Testing methodology in design studios. The central sections of the paper focus on the analysis of these experiences, while the last section provides a 15 week, semester based, studio structure that incorporates OBM in the overall calendar and in key assignments. While the scope of this work coincides with the thesis presented at the Acadia '92 conference in Charleston (South Carolina), to focus the argument more clearly content, text and illustrations differ in several parts.

series eCAADe
email Antonino.Saggio@Uniroma1.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id c93a
authors Saggio, Antonino
year 1992
title Object Based Modeling and Concept-Testing: A Framework for Studio Teaching
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 49-63
summary This chapter concludes with a proposal for a studio structure that incorporates computers as a creative stimulus in the design process. Three related experiences support this hypothesis: the role played in concrete designs by an Object Based Modeling environment, teaching with Computer Aided Architectural Design and OBM in the realm of documentation and analysis of architecture, previous applications of the Concept-Testing methodology in design studios. Examples from these three areas provide the framework for mutual support between OBM and a C-T approach for studio teaching. The central sections of the chapter focus on the analysis of these experiences, while the last section provides a 15 week, semester based, studio structure that incorporates OBM in the overall calendar and in key assignments.

series ACADIA
email Antonino.Saggio@Uniroma1.it
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id e87d
authors Schierle, G. Goetz
year 1992
title Computer Aided Design for Wind and Seismic Forces
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 187-194
summary A computer program, Lateral Design Graphs (LDG), to consider lateral wind and seismic forces in the early design stages, is presented. LDG provides numeric data and graphs to visualize the effect of building height, shape, and framing system on lateral forces. Many critical decisions effecting lateral forces and elements to resist them are made at early design stages. Costly changes or reduced safety may result if they are not considered. For example, building height, shape and configuration impact lateral forces and building safety; so does the placement of shear walls in line with space needs. But the complex and time consuming nature of lateral force design by hand makes early consideration often not practical. Therefore the objectives of LDG are to: 1) visualize the cause and effect of lateral forces; 2) make the design process more transparent; 3) develop informed intuition; 4) facilitate trade-off studies at an early stage; 5) help to teach design for lateral forces.
series ACADIA
email schierle@usc.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 2db4
authors Schmitt, Gerhard
year 1992
title Design for Performance
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 83-100 : ill. includes bibliography Design for performance describes a generative approach toward fulfilling qualitative and quantitative design requirements based on specification and existing cases. The term design applies to the architectural domain: the term performance includes the aesthetic, quantitative, and qualitative behavior of an artifact. In achieving architectural quality while adhering to measurable criteria, design for performance has representational, computational, and practical advantages over traditional methods, in particular over post-facto single- and multicriteria analysis and evaluation. In this paper a proposal for a working model and a partial implementation of this model are described. architecture / evaluation / performance / synthesis / design / representation / prediction / integration. Ô h)0*0*0*°° ÔŚ21. Schneekloth, Lynda H., Rajendra K. Jain and Gary E. Day. 'Wind Study of Pedestrian Environments.' February, 1989. 30, [2] p. : ill. includes bibliography and index.
summary This report summarizes Part 1 of the research on wind conditions affecting pedestrian environments for the State University of New York at Buffalo. Part 1 reports on existing conditions in the main part of the North Campus in Amherst. Procedures and methods are outlined, the profile of the current situation reported, and a special study on the proposed Natural Science and Math Building are included
keywords architecture, research, evaluation, analysis, simulation, hardware
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

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