CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 41 to 60 of 238

_id 2312
authors Carrara, G., Kalay Y.E. and Novembri, G.
year 1992
title Multi-modal Representation of Design Knowledge
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 55-66
summary Explicit representation of design knowledge is needed if scientific methods are to be applied in design research, and if computers are to be used in the aid of design education and practice. The representation of knowledge in general, and design knowledge in particular, have been the subject matter of computer science, design methods, and computer-aided design research for quite some time. Several models of design knowledge representation have been developed over the last 30 years, addressing specific aspects of the problem. This paper describes a different approach to design knowledge representation that recognizes the multimodal nature of design knowledge. It uses a variety of computational tools to encode different kinds of design knowledge, including the descriptive (objects), the prescriptive (goals) and the operational (methods) kinds. The representation is intended to form a parsimonious, communicable and presentable knowledge-base that can be used as a tool for design research and education as well as for CAAD.
keywords Design Methods, Design Process Goals, Knowledge Representation, Semantic Networks
series eCAADe
email kalay@ced.berkeley.edu
last changed 1998/08/18 13:58

_id 4bd2
authors Carrara, G., Kalay, Y.E. and Novembri, G.
year 1992
title A Computational Framework for Supporting Creative Architectural Design
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 17-34 : ill. includes Bibliography
summary Design can be considered a process leading to the definition of a physical form that achieves a certain predefined set of performance criteria. The process comprises three distinct operations: (1) Definition of the desired set of performance criteria (design goals); (2) generation of alternative design solutions; (3) evaluation of the expected performances of alternative design solutions, and comparing them to the predefined criteria. Difficulties arise in performing each one of the three operations, and in combining them into a purposeful unified process. Computational techniques were developed to assist each of the three operations. A comprehensive and successful computational design assistant will have to recognize the limitations of current computational techniques, and incorporate a symbiosis between the machine and the human designer. This symbiosis comprises allocating design tasks between the designer and the computer in a manner that is most appropriate for the task at hand. The task allocation must, therefore, be done dynamically, responding to the changing circumstances of the design process. This report proposes a framework for such a symbiotic partnership, which comprises four major components: (1) User interface and design process control; (2) design goals; (3) evaluators; (4) database
keywords architecture, knowledge base, systems, design process, control
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 6ef4
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1992
title Multi-Model Representation of Design Knowledge
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 77-88
summary Explicit representation of design knowledge is needed if scientific methods are to be applied in design research, and if comPuters are to be used in the aid of design education and practice. The representation of knowledge in general, and design knowledge in particular, have been the subject matter of computer science, design methods, and computer- aided design research for quite some time. Several models of design knowledge representation have been developed over the last 30 years, addressing specific aspects of the problem. This paper describes a different approach to design knowledge representation that recognizes the Multi-modal nature of design knowledge. It uses a variety of computational tools to encode different kinds of design knowledge, including the descriptive (objects), the prescriptive (goals) and the operational (methods) kinds. The representation is intended to form a parsimonious, communicable and presentable knowledge-base that can be used as a tool for design research and education as well as for CAAD.
keywords Design Methods, Design Process, Goals, Knowledge Representation, Semantic Networks
series ACADIA
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id caadria2010_042
id caadria2010_042
authors Celento, David
year 2010
title Open-source, parametric architecture to propagate hyper-dense, sustainable urban communities: parametric urban dwellings for the experience economy
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 443-452
summary Rapid developments in societal, technological, and natural systems suggest profound changes ahead if research in panarchical systems (Holling, 2001) is to be believed. Panarchy suggests that systems, both natural and man-made, rise to the point of vulnerability then fail due to disruptive forces in a process of ‘creative destruction.’ This sequence allows for radical, and often unpredictable, renewal. Pressing sustainability concerns, burgeoning urban growth, and emergent ‘green manufacturing’ laws, suggest that future urban dwellings are headed toward Gladwell’s ‘tipping point’ (2002). Hyper-dense, sustainable, urban communities that employ open-source standards, parametric software, and web-based configurators are the new frontier for venerable visions. Open-source standards will permit the design, manufacture, and sale of highly diverse, inter-operable components to create compact urban living environments that are technologically sophisticated, sustainable, and mobile. These mass-customised dwellings, akin to branded consumer goods, will address previous shortcomings for prefabricated, mobile dwellings by stimulating consumer desire in ways that extend the arguments of both Joseph Pine (1992) and Anna Klingman (2007). Arguments presented by authors Makimoto and Manners (1997) – which assert that the adoption of digital and mobile technologies will create large-scale societal shifts – will be extended with several solutions proposed.
keywords Mass customisation; urban dwellings; open source standards; parametric design; sustainability
series CAADRIA
email dcelento@gmail.com
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id 91c4
authors Checkland, P.
year 1981
title Systems Thinking, Systems Practice
source John Wiley & Sons, Chichester
summary Whether by design, accident or merely synchronicity, Checkland appears to have developed a habit of writing seminal publications near the start of each decade which establish the basis and framework for systems methodology research for that decade."" Hamish Rennie, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 1992 Thirty years ago Peter Checkland set out to test whether the Systems Engineering (SE) approach, highly successful in technical problems, could be used by managers coping with the unfolding complexities of organizational life. The straightforward transfer of SE to the broader situations of management was not possible, but by insisting on a combination of systems thinking strongly linked to real-world practice Checkland and his collaborators developed an alternative approach - Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) - which enables managers of all kinds and at any level to deal with the subtleties and confusions of the situations they face. This work established the now accepted distinction between hard systems thinking, in which parts of the world are taken to be systems which can be engineered, and soft systems thinking in which the focus is on making sure the process of inquiry into real-world complexity is itself a system for learning. Systems Thinking, Systems Practice (1981) and Soft Systems Methodology in Action (1990) together with an earlier paper Towards a Systems-based Methodology for Real-World Problem Solving (1972) have long been recognized as classics in the field. Now Peter Checkland has looked back over the three decades of SSM development, brought the account of it up to date, and reflected on the whole evolutionary process which has produced a mature SSM. SSM: A 30-Year Retrospective, here included with Systems Thinking, Systems Practice closes a chapter on what is undoubtedly the most significant single research programme on the use of systems ideas in problem solving. Now retired from full-time university work, Peter Checkland continues his research as a Leverhulme Emeritus Fellow. "
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id caadria2007_659
id caadria2007_659
authors Chen, Zi-Ru
year 2007
title The Combination of Design Media and Design Creativity _ Conventional and Digital Media
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary Creativity is always interested in many fields, in particular, creativity and design creativity have many interpretations (Boden, 1991; Gero and Maher, 1992, 1993; Kim, 1990; Sternberg, 1988; Weisberg, 1986). In early conceptual design process, designers used large number of sketches and drawings (Purcell and Gero, 1998). The sketch can inspire the designer to increase the creativity of the designer’s creations(Schenk, 1991; Goldschmidt, 1994; Suwa and Tversky, 1997). The freehand sketches by conventional media have been believed to play important roles in processes of the creative design thinking(Goldschmidt, 1991; Schon and Wiggins, 1992; Goel, 1995; Suwa et al., 2000; Verstijnen et al., 1998; Elsas van and Vergeest, 1998). Recently, there are many researches on inspiration of the design creativity by digital media(Liu, 2001; Sasada, 1999). The digital media have been used to apply the creative activities and that caused the occurrenssce of unexpected discovery in early design processes(Gero and Maher, 1993; Mitchell, 1993; Schmitt, 1994; Gero, 1996, 2000; Coyne and Subrahmanian, 1993; Boden, 1998; Huang, 2001; Chen, 2001; Manolya et al. 1998; Verstijinen et al., 1998; Lynn, 2001). In addition, there are many applications by combination of conventional and digital media in the sketches conceptual process. However, previous works only discussed that the individual media were related to the design creativity. The cognitive research about the application of conceptual sketches design by integrating both conventional and digital media simultaneously is absent.
series CAADRIA
email Ru.zero@gmail.com
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id 2325
authors Chilton, John C.
year 1992
title Computer Aided Structural Design in Architectural Instruction
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 443-450
summary In schools of architecture there is a tendency to associate the use of computers solely with the production of graphic images as part of the architectural design process. However, if the architecture is to work as a building it is also essential that technical aspects of the design are adequately investigated. One of the problem areas for most architectural students is structural design and they are often reluctant to use hand calculations to determine sizes of structural elements within their projects. In recent years, much of the drudgery of hand calculation has been removed from the engineer by the use of computers, and this has, hopefully, allowed a more thorough investigation of conceptual ideas and alternatives. The same benefit is now becoming available to architectural students. This is in the form of structural analysis and design programs that can be used, even by those having a limited knowledge of structural engineering, to assess the stability of designs and obtain approximate sizes for individual structural elements. The paper discusses how the use of such programs is taught, within the School of Architecture at Nottingham. Examples will be given of how they can assist students in the architectural design process. In particular, the application of GLULAM, a program for estimating sizes of laminated timber elements and SAND, a structural analysis and design package, will be described.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:41

_id caadria2006_617
id caadria2006_617
authors CHING-CHIEN LIN
year 2006
title A GREATER SENSE OF PRESENCE: SPATIAL INTERFACE IN VR CAVE
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 617-619
summary Virtual environments are three–dimensional spaces presented visually. They combine the user’s experience and sense of 'being there' in the virtual environment. Presence is a central element of virtual reality that it is seen as a part of its definition (Steuer, 1992). Direct interactions between participants and the virtual environment generate a more enhanced sense of immersion, thus making the participants feels they are part of that environment (Witmer & Singer, 1998).
series CAADRIA
email karenlin@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id c434
authors Colajanni, B., Pellitteri, G. and Scianna, A.
year 1992
title Two Approaches to Teaching Computers in Architecture: The Experience in the Faculty of Engineering in Palermo, Italy
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 295-306
summary Teaching the use of computers in architecture poses the same kind of problems as teaching mathematics. To both there are two possible approaches. The first presents the discipline as a tool of which the merely instrumental aspect is emphasized. Teaching is limited to show the results obtainable by existing programs and how to get them. The second approach, on the contrary emphasizes the autonomous nature of the discipline, mathematics as much as computing, on the basis of the convincement that the maximum of instrumental usefulness can be obtained through the knowledge at the highest degree of generality and, then, of abstraction. The first approach changes little in the mind of the student. He simply learns that is possible, and then worthy doing, a certain amount of operations, mainly checks of performances (and not only the control of the aspect, now easy with one of the many existing CAD) or searches of technical informations in some database. The second approach gives the student the consciousness of the manageability of abstract structures of relationships. He acquires then the idea of creating by himself particular structures of relationships and managing them. This can modify the very idea of the design procedure giving the student the consciousness that he can intervene directly in every segment of the design procedure, reshaping it to some extent in a way better suited to the particular problem he is dealing with. Of course this second approach implies learning not only a language but also the capability of coming to terms with languages. And again it is a cultural acquisition that can be very useful when referred to the languages of architecture. Furthermore the capability of simulating on the computer also a small segment of the design process gives the student a better understanding both of the particular problem he is dealing with and of the very nature of design. As for the first effect, it happens whenever a translation is done from a language to another one. One is obliged to get to the core of the matter in order to overcome the difficulties rising from the different bias of the two languages. The second effect comes from the necessity of placing the studied segment in the general flow of the design process. The organisation in a linear sequence of action to be accomplished recursively in an order always varying in any design occasion is an extremely useful exercise to understand the signification and the techniques of formalisation of design problems.
series eCAADe
email bcolajan@mbox.unipa.it
last changed 1998/08/18 14:26

_id 6bff
authors Coyne, Richard
year 1992
title The Role of Metaphor in Understanding Computers in Design
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 3-11
summary The study of metaphor provides valuable insights into the workings of thought and understanding. This chapter addresses the important question of what the study of metaphor has to say about technology, the design process and hence the role of computers in design. The conclusion is that design involves the generation of action within a collaborative environment in which there is the free play of metaphor. A recognition of the close relationship between technology and metaphor provides insights into how to evaluate and develop the effective use of computers in design.

series ACADIA
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/04/21 19:18

_id 6964
authors Daniel, T.
year 1992
title Data visualization for decision support in environmental management
source Landscape and Urban Planning 21, pp. 261-263
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (spietsch@arch.adelaide.edu.au)
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:27

_id 6d1d
authors Daru, R. and Daru, M.
year 1992
title Personal Working Styles in the CMD Studio
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 451-472
summary Normative and problem-solving approaches of architectural design ignore the personality aspects of the designing activity. Every architect approaches projects according to her/his own strategies and tactics. Usually they do not conform to the prescriptive models of design theoreticians. Computer aided design tools should be adapted to their utility within the strategies and tactics of each and every architectural student. We are testing the usefulness of CAAD tools developed by others or ourselves and identifying the needs for missing tools. It is already clear that many CAAD tools reflect the point of view of the programmer about strategies and tactics of designing and that they do not take into account the idiosyncrasies of the end user. Forcing the tools on students breeds the risk of fostering repulsion against ill-adapted tools, and consequently against CMD. Our research group pursues empirical research on working styles of designing by practising architects within the frame of a personality theory of actions. The results indicate that there are three main directions for designing strategies. If we want to take into account the real-world behaviour in design practice within architectural education, this implies the diversification of the exercises we offer to the students in threefold, corresponding with the three directions. To this, we add the didactic options of complementation, compensation and support, depending on what we know about the strong or weak points of the students involved. We have started proposing choices for the exercises of our design morphology studio. Students are offered approaches and tools we consider best adapted to their own working

series eCAADe
email mdaru@iaehv.nl
last changed 1998/08/24 07:25

_id ddss9205
id ddss9205
authors De Scheemaker. A.
year 1993
title Towards an integrated facility management system for management and use of government buildings
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The Government Building Agency in the Netherlands is developing an integrated facility management system for two of its departments. Applications are already developed to support a number of day-to-day facility management activities on an operational level. Research is now being carried out to develop a management control system to better plan and control housing and material resources.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id cf73
authors Dosti, P., Martens, B. and Voigt, A.
year 1992
title Spatial Simulation In Architecture, City Development and Regional Planning
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 195-200
summary The appropriate use of spatial simulation techniques considerably tends to increase the depth of evidence and the realistic content of the design and plannings to be described and moreover may encourage experimentations, trial attempts and planning variants. This means also the more frequent use of combinations between different techniques, having in mind that they are not equivalent, but making use of the respective advantages each offers. Until now the main attention of the EDP-Lab was directed on achieving quantity. For the time to come time it will be the formation of quality. The challenge in the educational system at the Vienna University of Technology is to obtain appropriate results in the frame- work of low-cost simulation. This aspect seems also to be meaningful in order to enforce the final implementation in architectural practice.

series eCAADe
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at, voigt@ifoer.tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/
last changed 2001/02/11 17:56

_id 6ea4
authors Eastman, C.M.
year 1992
title A Data Model Analysis of Modularity and Extensibility in Building Databases
source Building and Environment, Vol 27, No: 2, pp. 135-148
summary This paper uses data modeling techniques to define how database schemas for an intelligent integrated architectural CAD system can be made extensible. It reviews the product data modeling language EDM, then applies it to define a part of an architectural data model. Extensions are then investigated, regarding how users could integrate various design-specific packages into a uniquely configured system. Both, extension by substituting one technology for another and by adding a new evaluation application, are considered. Data modeling allows specification of a CAD database and identification of the kind of modularization that will work and what problems may arise.''
series journal paper
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4857
authors Escola Tecnica Superior D'arquitectura de Barcelona (Ed.)
year 1992
title CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect?
source eCAADe Conference Proceedings / Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, 551 p.
summary The involvement of computer graphic systems in the transmission of knowledge in the areas of urban planning and architectural design will bring a significant change to the didactic programs and methods of those schools which have decided to adopt these new instruments. Workshops of urban planning and architectural design will have to modify their structures, and teaching teams will have to revise their current programs. Some european schools and faculties of architecture have taken steps in this direction. Others are willing to join them.

This process is only delayed by the scarcity of material resources, and by the slowness with which a sufficient number of teachers are adopting these methods.

ECAADE has set out to analyze the state of this issue during its next conference, and it will be discussed from various points of view. From this confrontation of ideas will come, surely, the guidelines for progress in the years to come.

The different sessions will be grouped together following these four themes:

(A.) Multimedia and Course Work / State of the art of the synthesis of graphical and textual information favored by new available multimedia computer programs. Their repercussions on academic programs. (B.) The New Design Studio / Physical characteristics, data concentration and accessibility of a computerized studio can be better approached in a computerized workshop. (C.) How to manage the new education system / Problems and possibilities raised, from the practical and organizational points of view, of architectural education by the introduction of computers in the classrooms. (D.) CAAI. Formal versus informal structure / How will the traditional teaching structure be affected by the incidence of these new systems in which the access to knowledge and information can be obtained in a random way and guided by personal and subjective criteria.

series eCAADe
email monedero@ega1.upc.es
last changed 1998/08/18 14:51

_id e412
authors Fargas, Josep and Papazian, Pegor
year 1992
title Modeling Regulations and Intentions for Urban Development: The Role of Computer Simulation in the Urban Design Studio
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 201-212
summary In this paper we present a strategy for modeling urban development in order to study the role of urban regulations and policies in the transformation of cities. We also suggest a methodology for using computer models as experimental tools in the urban design studio in order to make explicit the factors involved in shaping cities, and for the automatic visualization of projected development. The structure of the proposed model is based on different modules which represent, on the one hand, the rules regulating the physical growth of a city and, on the other hand, heuristics corresponding to different interests such as Real Estate Developers, City Hall Planners, Advocacy and Community Groups, and so on. Here we present a case study dealing with the Boston Redevelopment Authority zoning code for the Midtown Cultural District of Boston. We introduce a computer program which develops the district, adopting a particular point of view regarding urban regulation. We then generalize the notion of this type of computer modeling and simulation, and draw some conclusions about its possible uses in the teaching and practice of design.
series eCAADe
email fargas@dtec.es
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 4129
authors Fargas, Josep and Papazian, Pegor
year 1992
title Metaphors in Design: An Experiment with a Frame, Two Lines and Two Rectangles
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 13-22
summary The research we will discuss below originated from an attempt to examine the capacity of designers to evaluate an artifact, and to study the feasibility of replicating a designer's moves intended to make an artifact more expressive of a given quality. We will present the results of an interactive computer experiment, first developed at the MIT Design Research Seminar, which is meant to capture the subject’s actions in a simple design task as a series of successive "moves"'. We will propose that designers use metaphors in their interaction with design artifacts and we will argue that the concept of metaphors can lead to a powerful theory of design activity. Finally, we will show how such a theory can drive the project of building a design system.

When trying to understand how designers work, it is tempting to examine design products in order to come up with the principles or norms behind them. The problem with such an approach is that it may lead to a purely syntactical analysis of design artifacts, failing to capture the knowledge of the designer in an explicit way, and ignoring the interaction between the designer and the evolving design. We will present a theory about design activity based on the observation that knowledge is brought into play during a design task by a process of interpretation of the design document. By treating an evolving design in terms of the meanings and rules proper to a given way of seeing, a designer can reduce the complexity of a task by focusing on certain of its aspects, and can manipulate abstract elements in a meaningful way.

series ACADIA
email fargas@dtec.es
last changed 2003/05/14 20:02

_id e51d
authors Fazio, P., Bedard, C. and Gowri, K.
year 1992
title Constraints for Generating Building Envelope Design Alternatives
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 145-155 : charts. includes bibliography
summary The building envelope design process involves selecting materials and constructional types for envelope components. Many different materials need to be combined together for wall and roof assemblies to meet the various performance requirements such as thermal efficiency, cost, acoustic and fire resistances. The number of performance attributes to be considered in the design process is large. Lack of information, time limitations and the large number of feasible design alternatives generally force the designer to rely on past experience and practical judgement to make rapid design decisions. Current work at the Centre for Buildings Studies focuses on the development of knowledge-based synthesis and evaluation techniques for reducing the problems of information handling and decision making in building envelope design. The generation of design alternatives is viewed as a search process that identifies feasible combinations of building envelope components satisfying a set of performance requirements, material compatibility, practicality of design, etc. This paper discusses knowledge acquisition and representation issues involved in the definition of constraints to guide the generation of feasible combinations of envelope components
keywords envelope, knowledge base, knowledge acquisition, representation, performance, design, structures, architecture, evaluation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 83f7
authors Fenves, Stephen J., Flemming, Ulrich and Hendrickson, Craig (et al)
year 1992
title Performance Evaluation in an Integrated Software Environment for Building Design and Construction Planning
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 159-169 : ill. includes bibliography
summary In this paper the authors describe the role of performance evaluation in the Integrated Software Environment for Building Design and Construction Planning (IBDE), which is a testbed for examining integration issues in the same domain. Various processes in IBDE deal with the spatial configuration, structural design, and construction planning of high-rise office buildings. Performance evaluations occur within these processes based on different representation schemes and control mechanisms for the handling of performance knowledge. Within this multiprocess environment, opportunities also exist for performance evaluation across disciplines through design critics
keywords evaluation, performance, integration, systems, building, design, construction, architecture, planning, structures, representation, control
series CADline
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

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