CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 0b53
authors Lawrence, Roderick J.
year 1992
title CHARACTERISTICS OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN-TOOLS
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part B, pp. 7-14
summary The professional roles and fonctions of architects are linked to the societal context in which they practice. Furthermore, this context, which is not static, has a relationship to the ways in which institutions, groups and individuals are involved in processes for the design and construction of the built environment. This presentation illustrates how the roles and functions of architects, other professionals, their clients and the general public have a bearing on the tools and methods used by the architectural profession to simulate design projects. Traditionally, sketches, renderings and pattern books were used. Then, they were supplemented by axonometric and perspective drawings, written and diagrammatic specifications, photographs and small-scale models. In recent decades mathematical models of diverse kinds, simulation techniques -including small- and full-scale modelling kits -as well as computer aided design and drafting systems have been used. This paper briefly presents these kinds of tools and then presents a typology of them. In conclusion, possible applications for the future are discussed.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email lawrence@uni2a.unige.ch
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:39

_id 25b7
authors Smeltzer, G., Roelen, W. and Maver, T.W.
year 1992
title Design Modelling and Design Presentation From a Computer-Generated Image Towards a Multi-user Design System
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 137-144
summary CAD systems regularly offer new techniques for the presentation of design proposals like computer-generated (stereo-) images, animations, holography and virtual reality. These techniques are mainly used for the presentation of a final design or for the presentation of buildings that have already been constructed. As in the course of time the quality of the CAD systems and their users have improved enormously, it is also possible to use these systems for the evaluation of several temporary design proposals during the design process. Since 'beautiful pictures' and 'wonderful animations' have already shown their great value when presenting a design, it is sometimes as if CAD systems are considered suitable for this propose only. Even new techniques like virtual reality systems seem to be valued only through the 'tinted glasses' of the presentation capabilities. Hardly any attention is paid to the possibilities that these new techniques offer as an instrument to support modelling and evaluation during the design process. This article will outline the results of research and development in the field of virtual reality. Virtual reality systems are based on the combination of a number of already existing presentation techniques like photo-realistic images, stereo images and real time animations. The added value of this type of CAD system is determined by the use of a new type of user interface. In effect this interface consists of sensors that register how its user moves and looks around. Through this, and by using a so- called 'eye phone' (comparable to stereo headphones for sound) the user, with some imaginative powers, thinks he is standing in the environment that he modelled, or in front of his building design. After this we will first sketch the outlines of some presentation techniques, that can also be found in a virtual reality system. Special attention will be paid to some specific characteristics of these techniques themselves. Next, a more detailed description will be given of virtual reality systems, focusing on the system that is being developed at Calibre itself.

series eCAADe
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 3ff5
authors Abbo, I.A., La Scalea, L., Otero, E. and Castaneda, L.
year 1992
title Full-Scale Simulations as Tool for Developing Spatial Design Ability
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part C, pp. 7-10
summary Spatial Design Ability has been defined as the capability to anticipate effects (psychological impressions on potential observers or users) produced by mental manipulation of elements of architectural or urban spaces. This ability, of great importance in choosing the appropriate option during the design process, is not specifically developed in schools of architecture and is partially obtained as a by-product of drawing, designing or architectural criticism. We use our Laboratory as a tool to present spaces to people so that they can evaluate them. By means of a series of exercises, students confront their anticipations with the psychological impressions produced in other people. For this occasion, we present an experience in which students had to propose a space for an exhibition hag in which architectural projects (student thesis) were to be shown. Following the Spatial Design Ability Development Model which we have been using for several years, students first get acquainted with the use of evaluation instruments for psychological impressions as well as with research methodology. In this case, due to the short period available, we reduced research to investigate the effects produced by the manipulation of only 2 independents variables: students manipulated first the form of the roof, walls and interiors elements, secondly, color and texture of those elements. They evaluated spatial quality, character and the other psychological impressions that manipulations produced in people. They used three dimensional scale models 1/10 and 1/1.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
email iabadi@ceea.arq.ucv.ve
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2003/08/25 08:12

_id 6208
authors Abou-Jaoude, Georges
year 1992
title To Master a Tool
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part B, p. 15
summary The tool here is the computer or to be precise, a unit that includes the computer, the peripherals and the software needed to fulfill a task. These tools are getting very sophisticated and user interfaces extremly friendly, therefore it is very easy to become the slave of such electronic tools and reach self satisfaction with strait forward results and attractive images. In order to master and not to become slaves of sophisticated tools, a very solid knowledge of related fields or domains of application becomes necessary. In the case of this seminar, full scale modelling, is a way to understand the relation between a mental model and it's full-scale modelling, it is a way of communicating what is in a designers mind. Computers and design programs can have the same goal, rather than chosing one method or the other let us try to say how important it is today to complement designing with computer with other means and media such as full scale modelling, and what computer modelling and simulation can bring to full scale modelling or other means.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2003/08/25 08:12

_id acadia06_455
id acadia06_455
authors Ambach, Barbara
year 2006
title Eve’s Four Faces interactive surface configurations
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 455-460
summary Eve’s Four Faces consists of a series of digitally animated and interactive surfaces. Their content and structure are derived from a collection of sources outside the conventional boundaries of architectural research, namely psychology and the broader spectrum of arts and culture.The investigation stems from a psychological study documenting the attributes and social relationships of four distinct personality prototypes: the Individuated, the Traditional, the Conflicted, and the Assured (York and John 1992). For the purposes of this investigation, all four prototypes are assumed to be inherent, to certain degrees, in each individual. However, the propensity towards one of the prototypes forms the basis for each individual’s “personality structure.” The attributes, social implications and prospects for habitation have been translated into animations and surfaces operating within A House for Eve’s Four Faces. The presentation illustrates the potential for constructed surfaces to be configured and transformed interactively, responding to the needs and qualities associated with each prototype. The intention is to study the effects of each configuration and how each configuration may be therapeutic in supporting, challenging or altering one’s personality as it oscillates and shifts through the four prototypical conditions.
series ACADIA
email Ambachb@aol.com
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id 735a
authors Anh, Tran Hoai
year 1992
title FULL-SCALE EXPERIMENT ON KITCHEN FUNCTION IN HANOI
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part A, pp. 19-30
summary This study is a part of a licentiate thesis on "Functional kitchen for the Vietnamese cooking way"at the Department of Architecture and Development studies, Lund University. The issues it is dealing with are: (1) Inadequacy of kitchen design in the apartment buildings in Hanoi, where the kitchen is often designed as a mere cooking place - other parts of the food making process are not given any attention. (2) Lack of standard dimensional and planning criteria for functional kitchen which can serve as bases for kitchen design. // The thesis aims at finding out indicators on functional spatial requirements for kitchen, which can serve as guide-line for designing functional kitchen for Hanoi. One of the main propositions in the thesis is that functional kitchens for Hanoi should be organised to permit the culinary activities done according to the Vietnamese urban culinary practice. This is based on the concept that the culinary activity is an expression Of culture, thus the practice of preparing meal in the present context of the urban households in Hanoi has an established pattern, method which demand a suitable area and arrangement in the kitchen. This pattern and cooking method should make up the functional requirement for kitchen in Hanoi, and be taken in to account if functional kitchen designing is to be achieved. In the context of the space-limited apartment building of Hanoi, special focus is given to find out indicators on the minimum functional spatial requirements of the kitchen works.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:29

_id aa78
authors Bayazit, Nigan
year 1992
title Requirements of an Expert System for Design Studios
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 187-194
summary The goal of this paper is to study problems of the transition from traditional architectural studio teaching to CAAD studio teaching which requires a CAAD expert system as studio tutor, and to study the behavior of the student in this new environment. The differences between the traditional and computerized studio teaching and the experiences in this field are explained referring to the requirements for designing time in relation to the expertise of the student in the application of a CAD program. Learning styles and the process of design in computerized and non-computerized studio teaching are discussed. Design studio requirements of the students in traditional studio environment while doing design works are clarified depending on the results of an empirical study which explained the relations between the tutor and the student while they were doing studio critiques. Main complaints of the students raised in the empirical study were the lack of data in the specific design problem area, difficulties of realization of ideas and thoughts, not knowing the starting point of design, having no information about the references to be used for the specific design task, having difficulties in the application of presentation techniques. In the concluding parts of the paper are discussed the different styles of teaching and their relation to the CAAD environment, the transformation of the instructional programs for the new design environment, the future expectations from the CAAD programs, properties of the new teaching environment and the roles of the expert systems in design studio education.

keywords CAAD Education, Expert System, Architectural Design Studio, Knowledge Acquisition
series eCAADe
email bayazit@sariyer.cc.itu.edu.tr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss9209
id ddss9209
authors De Gelder, J.T. and Lucardie, G.L.
year 1993
title Knowledge and data modelling in cad/cam applications
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Modelling knowledge and data in CAD/CAM applications is complex because different goals and contexts have to be taken into account. This complexity makes particular demands upon representation formalisms. Today many modelling tools are based on record structures. By analyzing the requirements for a product model of a portal structure in steel, this paper shows that in many situations record structures are not well suited as a representation formalism for storing knowledge and data in CAD/CAM applications. This is illustrated by performing a knowledge-level analysis of the knowledge and data generated in the design and manufacturing process of a portal structure in steel.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9206
id ddss9206
authors Drach, A., Langenegger, M. and Heitz, S.
year 1993
title Working with prototypes: from cad to flexible tools for integrated building design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The formulation of design knowledge as concepts, goals and rules cannot be captured in fixed and valid statements. The dynamic modelling of concepts and goals is, on the contrary, part of the design process itself. Tools that effectively support architects in their design should therefore never use predefined mechanisms, but must be definable interactively according to design specifications. We propose the concept of prototypes as a cognitive model to represent and structure design knowledge. Prototypes incorporate an individual view of design in a synthetic and organizational model for a defined area of interest. They actively control and guide design processes in supporting the organizational concepts for solutions. The a+Tool implements these concepts on the basis of a modelling language. It provides a dynamic toolkit and user interface to support design as well as knowledge modelling.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9207
id ddss9207
authors Gauchel, J., Hovestadt, L., van Wyk, S. and Bhat, R.R.
year 1993
title Modular building models
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The development and implementation of a modular building model appropriate for computer aided design is described. The limitations of a unified building model with regard to concurrence and complexity in design is discussed. Current research suggests that to model real-world complexity, one must trade centralized control for autonomy. In this paper we develop a modular approach to building modelling that is based on object-oriented autonomy and makes it possible to define these models in a distributed concurrent manner. Such a modular and autonomous implementation brings inherent uncertainty and conflict which cannot be determined a priori.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ascaad2006_paper18
id ascaad2006_paper18
authors Huang, Chie-Chieh
year 2006
title An Approach to 3D Conceptual Modelling
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary This article presents a 3D user interface required by the development of conceptual modeling. This 3D user interface provides a new structure for solving the problems of difficult interface operations and complicated commands due to the application of CAD 2D interface for controlling 3D environment. The 3D user interface integrates the controlling actions of “seeing – moving –seeing” while designers are operating CAD (Schön and Wiggins, 1992). Simple gestures are used to control the operations instead. The interface also provides a spatial positioning method which helps designers to eliminate the commands of converting a coordinate axis. The study aims to discuss the provision of more intuitively interactive control through CAD so as to fulfil the needs of designers. In our practices and experiments, a pair of LED gloves equipped with two CCD cameras for capturing is used to sense the motions of hands and positions in 3D. In addition, circuit design is applied to convert the motions of hands including selecting, browsing, zoom in / zoom out and rotating to LED switches in different colours so as to identify images.
series ASCAAD
email scottie@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id 88ca
authors Kane, Andy and Szalapaj, Peter
year 1992
title Teaching Design By Analysis of Precedents
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 477-496
summary Designers, using their intuitive understanding of the decomposition of particular design objects, whether in terms of structural, functional, or some other analytical framework, should be able to interact with computational environments such that the understanding they achieve in turn invokes changes or transformations to the spatial properties of design proposals. Decompositions and transformations of design precedents can be a very useful method of enabling design students to develop analytical strategies. The benefit of an analytical approach is that it can lead to a structured understanding of design precedents. This in turn allows students to develop their own insights and ideas which are central to the activity of designing. The creation of a 3-D library of user-defined models of precedents in a computational environment permits an under-exploited method of undertaking analysis, since by modelling design precedents through the construction of 3-D Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) models, and then analytically decomposing them in terms of relevant features, significant insights into the nature of designs can be achieved. Using CAAD systems in this way, therefore, runs counter to the more common approach of detailed modelling, rendering and animation; which produces realistic pictures that do not reflect the design thinking that went into their production. The significance of the analytical approach to design teaching is that it encourages students to represent design ideas, but not necessarily the final form of design objects. The analytical approach therefore, allows students to depict features and execute tasks that are meaningful with respect to design students' own knowledge of particular domains. Such computational interaction can also be useful in helping students explore the consequences of proposed actions in actual design contexts.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:43

_id ecaade2009_138
id ecaade2009_138
authors Kozikoglu, Nilüfer; Erdogan, Meral; Nircan, Ahmet Kutsi; Özsel Akipek, Fulya
year 2009
title Collective Design Network: Systems Thinking (Event-Pattern-Structures) and System Dynamics Modelling as a Design Concept and Strategy
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 533-540
wos WOS:000334282200064
summary This paper will relay the initial phase of a collaborative work within partners from the design discipline, systems engineering, and software engineering which deals with the interrelations of “network idea”, “systems thinking”, “collective design”, and “computation”. Vensim– a system dynamics modelling tool developed by Ventana Systems, Inc. in 1992 – has been used in an experimental first year design studio to engage students in systems thinking in the architectural design environment. It has been observed that this tool enabled most students to develop a multi-layered, complex and more controlled design logic and to amplify the cognitive processes at the beginning of the design education. We conclude that in order to fully realize systems thinking in the design process, new ways of integrating parametric design environments and system dynamic modelling environments needs to be investigated.
keywords Design network, system dynamics, dynamic pattern, collectivity, integration
series eCAADe
email nkozik@gmail.com, merale2007@gmail.com, aknxy@yahoo.com, fulyaozsel@hotmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 65aa
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 1992
title From Sketches to Computer Images: A Strategy for the Application of Computers in Architectural Design
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 331-350
summary The use of computer tools in architectural practice has been steadily increasing in recent years. Many architectural offices are already using computer tools, mostly for production tasks. Hardly any design is being done with the computer. With the new computer tools, architects are confronted with the challenge to use computers to express their design ideas right from conception.

This paper describes a project made for a competition which recently took place in Spain. Sketches and computer models were the only tools used in designing this project. A variety of computer tools were used in different stages of this project: two dimensional drawing tools were used in the early stages, then a three-dimensional modeling program for the development of the design and for the production of final drawings, and a rendering program for final presentation images.

series eCAADe
email madrazo@salleURL.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id a582
authors Marshall, Tony B.
year 1992
title The Computer as a Graphic Medium in Conceptual Design
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 39-47
summary The success CAD has experienced in the architectural profession demonstrates that architects have been willing to replace traditional drafting media with computers and electronic plotters for the production of working drawings. Its expanded use in the design development phase for 3D modeling and rendering further justifies CAD's usefulness as a presentation medium. The schematic design phase however, has hardly been influenced by the evolution of CAD. Most architects simply have not come to view the computer as a viable design medium. One reason for this might be the strong correspondence between architectural CAD and plan view graphics, as used in working drawings, compared to the weak correspondence between architectural CAD and plan view graphics, as used in schematic design. The role of the actual graphic medium during schematic design should not be overlooked in the development of CAD applications.

In order to produce practical CAD applications for schematic design we must explore the computer’s potential as a form of expression and its role as a graphic medium. An examination of the use of traditional graphic media during schematic design will provide some clues regarding what capabilities CAD must provide and how a system should operate in order to be useful during conceptual design.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 13:56

_id 83ea
authors Monreal, Amadeo and De la Puente, Josep M.
year 1992
title Alternatives to Syntactic Paradigms in CAAD: Using Random Numbers in Layout Generation and Spatial Modeling.
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 497-510
summary The paper provides instances of graphic techniques using random numbers in layout generation and spatial modelling. Leaving aside more elaborate methods based on shape grammars and syntactically oriented schemes, direct graphic procedures useful in computer aided architectural design are discussed. Drawings presented show how aleatory input can influence the appearance of computer generated forms.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:44

_id 1850
authors Palmqvist, Henri
year 1992
title SAD - SIMULATOR AIDED DESIGN
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part B, pp. 39-42
summary The multi-level, multidimensional nature of architecture means that the only way to experience it and evaluate it is by moving within the buildings and the environment they constitute. Until today, architectural projects could only be observed after they had been finished. The recently developed environmental simulator is the solution to the problem. With the simulator and scale models we can observe the experience of moving around within the buildings and thus make a significant improvement in the certainty of the assumed architectural experience and content while the project is still under design.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:40

_id a5fc
authors Shinners, Neil, D’Cruz, Neville and Marriott, Andrew
year 1992
title Multi-Faceted Architectural Visualization
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 141-153
summary As well as learning traditional design techniques, students in architecture courses learn how to use powerful workstations with CAD systems, color scanners and laser printers and software for the rendering, compositing and animating of their designs.

They learn to use raytracing and radiosity rendering systems to provide visual realism, alpha-channel compositing systems to put a client in the picture (literally) or the design in situ, and keyframe animation systems to allow realistic walkthroughs.

Student Presentations are now based on videos, photographic slides, slide shows or real time animation. Images (as data files) are imported into full color publishing systems for final year thesis presentation.

The architectural graphics environment at Curtin University facilitates the integration of slide and video examples of raytraced and chroma-keyed images with computer aided design techniques for architectural student presentations.

series ACADIA
email raytrace@cs.curtin.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/22 09:27

_id 1b31
authors Stöckli, Tobi
year 1992
title THE MEASURABLE AND THE UNMEASURABLE OR - FROM FORM TO DESIGN TO EXISTANCE
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part B, pp. 55-62
summary This article discusses the architectural design process from two sides of the spectrum: the formal exercises of experts and the participatory process involving users. The "place" of the full-scale-modelling laboratory at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne is then assessed with respect to this spectrum. It may seem that activities in a full-scale laboratory are closer to the participation process than to formal exercises. However, activities of the full-scale laboratory in Lausanne may best be situated around the middle of the design process. It is clearly within the realm of the measurable (since each construction can easily be measured.) Yet, it does not quite correspond to the real building; it remains an abstraction, a model. And in this quality of abstraction lies the potential to give form to the unmeasurable. It is a tool which allows a transformation of the unmeasurable aspects of an idea into the unmeasurable of existence.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email tb.stoeckli@mail.datacomm.ch
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:40

_id fd02
authors Tsou, Jin-Yeu
year 1992
title Using conceptual modelling and an object-oriented environment to support building cost control during early design
source College of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Michigan
summary This research investigated formal information modelling techniques and the object-oriented knowledge representation on the domain of building cost control during early design stages. The findings contribute to an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of applying formal modelling techniques to the analysis of architectural problems and the representation of domain knowledge in an object-oriented environment. In this study, information modelling techniques were reviewed, formal information analysis was performed, a conceptual model based on the cost control problem domain was created, a computational model based on the object-oriented approach was developed, a mechanism to support information broadcasting for representing interrelationships was implemented, and an object-oriented cost analysis system for early design (OBCIS) was demonstrated. The conceptual model, based on the elemental proposition analysis of NIAM, supports a formal approach for analyzing the problem domain; the analysis results are represented by high-level graphical notations, based on the AEC Building System Model, to visually display the information framework of the domain. The conceptual model provides an intermediate step between the system designer's view of the domain and the internal representation of the implementation platform. The object-oriented representation provides extensive data modelling abilities to help system designers intuitively represent the semantics of the problem domain. The object-oriented representation also supports more structured and integrated modules than conventional programming approaches. Although there are many advantages to applying this technique to represent the semantics of cost control knowledge, there are several issues which need to be considered: no single satisfactory classification method can be directly applied; object-oriented systems are difficult to learn; and designing reusable classes is difficult. The dependency graph and information broadcasting implemented in this research is an attempt to represent the interrelationships between domain objects. The mechanism allows users to explicitly define the interrelationships, based on semantic requirements, among domain objects. In the conventional approach, these relationships are directly interpreted by system designers and intertwined into the programming code. There are several issues which need to be studied further: indirect dependency relationship, conflict resolution, and request-update looping based on least-commitment approach.
series thesis:PhD
email jinyeutsou@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

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