CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 221 to 238 of 238

_id 427b
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1993
title A Computerized Fire Safety Evaluation System for Business Occupancies
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 241-251
summary The development of computer-based code compliance checking programs has been the focus of many studies. While some of these investigated the procedural aspects of building codes, others focused more on their rule base. On the other hand, due to the complexity of the codes, the process of identifying which sections apply to a given problem, and in which order to access them requires a meta-knowledge structuring system. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 101M, Alternative Approaches to Life Safety (1992) provides a framework through which code sections can be systematically accessed by means of a set of checklists. The study presented here primarily focuses on the development of a computer based fire safety code checking system called ARCHCode/Business for business occupancies following the guidelines and the methodology described in Chapter 7 of NFPA 101M.
keywords Fire Safety Expert System, Business Occupancies, CAD Interface
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 8540
authors Peitgen, H.-O., Jurgens, H. and Saupe, D.
year 1992
title Fractals for the Classroom :Part 2: Complex Systems and Mandelbrot Set.
source Springer-Verlag, New York
summary This second volume of strategic classroom activities is designed to develop, through a hands-on approach, a deeper mathematical understanding and greater appreciation of fractals and chaos. The concepts presented include iteration, chaos, and the Mandelbrot set.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 054b
authors Peitgen, H.-O., Jürgens, H. and Saupe, D.
year 1992
title Fractals for the Classroom. Part 1: Introduction to Fractals and Chaos
source Springer Verlag, New York
summary Fractals for the Classroom breaks new ground as it brings an exciting branch of mathematics into the classroom. The book is a collection of independent chapters on the major concepts related to the science and mathematics of fractals. Written at the mathematical level of an advanced secondary student, Fractals for the Classroom includes many fascinating insights for the classroom teacher and integrates illustrations from a wide variety of applications with an enjoyable text to help bring the concepts alive and make them understandable to the average reader. This book will have a tremendous impact upon teachers, students, and the mathematics education of the general public. With the forthcoming companion materials, including four books on strategic classroom activities and lessons with interactive computer software, this package will be unparalleled.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 63aa
authors Pozo, José Manuel
year 1992
title The Use of Graphic Data Bases in the Teaching of Geometry
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 133-136
summary The paper doesn't intend to provide relevant innovations in the field of processing program designs or software technology. Although I respect other opinions, I feel that the uncontested aid which using computers to teach architecture means should preferably and primarily be oriented towards searching for ways to better transmit and explain what we have, up to now, been teaching through other means.

However, the novelty and advantages of reccuring to this new instrument should not make us fall into the mistake of letting it be used as a substitute of teachers' and students' work. The computer is simply another instrument; of great potential efficacy, but nevertheless just an instrument.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:04

_id 0c59
authors Redondo, Ernest and Monedero, Javier
year 1992
title Electronic Collage
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 241-250
summary A painting is always a potential form of collage. The discovery made by Braque and Picasso was already implied in the carefully-done executions of tapestries backgrounds and mural decorating of all the italian and flemish paintings which started to be produced since Giotto's, where the represented and the presented were mixed up. And also, in a more pedantic way, in a famous painting of Courbet "L'Atelier du Peintre, allegorie reelle" (1885). In this work, the artist is shown sitting in front of his work, grasping a brush with his right hand while holding a palette, which is at the centre of the composition, in his left hand. There are some figures surrounding the master, some nearer, others further away; in the corners of the atelier one can still see silhouettes which we don't really know whether they belong to real characters or to painted ones on the master's canvases. This ambiguity brings us back to the foreground, to this central palette where the colours, distributed in heaps are, simultaneously, concretion and representation, real matter and figurative matter.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:19

_id a5cc
authors Sabater, Txatxo and Gassull, Albert
year 1992
title From Notion to Motion
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 543-551
summary Going from notion to motion is a way, or a working system. It means the illustration in motion of critical written topics. It's also an indirect channel to normalize the use of CAD and other kind of software and periferials in a School of Architecture held only by a user technology. We deal with texts and the choice of these is absolutely determinant. First of all because of the volition of using those which time has allowed to clearly decant and now are seen together with the answers or continuities that they have generated. That is to say, we do not write on the subjects we talk about, we illustrate, in motion, the arguments that authors have already written about them. We refer to notion in the sense that we always set off from a seminal argument. But also because we collect, if necessary, its revisions or extensions. This is to say we try to track the notion helping ourselves with the motion.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:47

_id d9fa
authors Salomon, Gavriel
year 1990
title Effects with and of Computers and the Study of Computer-based Learning Environments
source Chapter in Computer-Based Learning Environments and Problem Solving, ed. E. De Corte, M. C. Linn, H. Mandl, and L. Verschaffel. New York: Springer-Verlag
summary Several factors have contributed to the developments in computer-based learning environments. Improvements and advances in hardware capabilities have afforded greater computing power. Advances in cognitive and instructional science have moved thinking beyond the limits of behavioural psychology. The new systems of computer-based learning environments are being designed with a view to facilitating complex problem-solving through integrating wholes of knowledge (Dijkstra, Krammer & Merriënboer, 1992). Thus, many see in the computer a means to enhance students' cognitive skills and general problem-solving ability. This is in spite of the fact that studies have failed to conclusively confirm the hypothesis that computer-based learning environments facilitate the acquisition and transfer of higher-order thinking and learning skills (Dijkstra, Krammer & Merriënboer, 1992). Salomon (1992) argues that computers make possible student involvement in higher-order thinking skills by performing many of the lower-level cognitive tasks, by providing memory support and by juggling interrelated variables. Through a partnership with the computer, the user may also benefit from the effect of cognitive residue resulting in improvement or mastery of a skill or strategy. Salomon explains: The intellectual partnership with computer tools creates a zone of proximal development whereby learners are capable of carrying out tasks they could not possible carry out without the help and support provided by the computer. This partnership can both offer guidance that might be internalized to become self-guidance and stimulate the development of yet underdeveloped skills, resulting in a higher level of skill mastery (p.252).
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 831d
authors Seebohm, Thomas
year 1992
title Discoursing on Urban History Through Structured Typologies
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 157-175
summary How can urban history be studied with the aid of three-dimensional computer modeling? One way is to model known cities at various times in history, using historical records as sources of data. While such studies greatly enhance the understanding of the form and structure of specific cities at specific points in time, it is questionable whether such studies actually provide a true understanding of history. It can be argued that they do not because such studies only show a record of one of many possible courses of action at various moments in time. To gain a true understanding of urban history one has to place oneself back in historical time to consider all of the possible courses of action which were open in the light of the then current situation of the city, to act upon a possible course of action and to view the consequences in the physical form of the city. Only such an understanding of urban history can transcend the memory of the actual and hence the behavior of the possible. Moreover, only such an understanding can overcome the limitations of historical relativism, which contends that historical fact is of value only in historical context, with the realization, due to Benedetto Croce and echoed by Rudolf Bultmann, that the horizon of "'deeper understanding" lies in "'the actuality of decision"' (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990).

One cannot conduct such studies on real cities except, perhaps, as a point of departure at some specific point in time to provide an initial layout for a city knowing that future forms derived by the studies will diverge from that recorded in history. An entirely imaginary city is therefore chosen. Although the components of this city at the level of individual buildings are taken from known cities in history, this choice does not preclude alternative forms of the city. To some degree, building types are invariants and, as argued in the Appendix, so are the urban typologies into which they may be grouped. In this imaginary city students of urban history play the role of citizens or groups of citizens. As they defend their interests and make concessions, while interacting with each other in their respective roles, they determine the nature of the city as it evolves through the major periods of Western urban history in the form of threedimensional computer models.

My colleague R.J. van Pelt and I presented this approach to the study of urban history previously at ACADIA (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990). Yet we did not pay sufficient attention to the manner in which such urban models should be structured and how the efforts of the participants should be coordinated. In the following sections I therefore review what the requirements are for three-dimensional modeling to support studies in urban history as outlined both from the viewpoint of file structure of the models and other viewpoints which have bearing on this structure. Three alternative software schemes of progressively increasing complexity are then discussed with regard to their ability to satisfy these requirements. This comparative study of software alternatives and their corresponding file structures justifies the present choice of structure in relation to the simpler and better known generic alternatives which do not have the necessary flexibility for structuring the urban model. Such flexibility means, of course, that in the first instance the modeling software is more timeconsuming to learn than a simple point and click package in accord with the now established axiom that ease of learning software tools is inversely related to the functional power of the tools. (Smith 1987).

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 0719
authors Shiffer, M.J.
year 1992
title Towards a collaborative planning system
source Environment and Planning B, Volume 19, 1992, pp. 709-722
summary This article begins by exploring the problem of combining the elements of group cognition, access to media, and access to tools into a holistic planning process. It then discusses a way in which technology can be used to help combine these activities by incorporating graphical interfaces, associative information structuring, and computer-supported collaborative work into a microcomputer-based Collaborative Planning System (CPS). Methods for the development of a CPS are proposed and two systems are explored as examples. It is concluded that increased access to relevant information, aided by the implementation of a CPS, can ultimately lead to greater communication amongst participants in a group planning situation. This will ultimately have a positive effect on the quality of plans and decisions.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 27eb
authors Steuer, Jonathan
year 1992
title Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence
source Journal of Communication, Vol. 24 No. 4 (Autumn 1992): 73-93
summary Virtual reality (VR) is typically defined in terms of technological hardware. This paper attempts to cast a new, variable-based definition of virtual reality that can be used to classify virtual reality in relation to other media. The defintion of virtual reality is based on concepts of "presence" and "telepresence," which refer to the sense of being in an environment, generated by natural or mediated means, respectively. Two technological dimensions that contribute to telepresence, vividness and interactivity, are discussed. A variety of media are classified according to these dimensions. Suggestions are made for the application of the new definition of virtual reality within the field of communication research.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 41a6
authors Thomas, Wolfgang
year 1993
title Oberhausen ”Center” — Marketstreet under One Roof
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 99-108
summary Oberhausen/Germany is said to be the birth place of the Ruhr industry. At present we can witness a unique structural change in the history of this city. Well into the sixties still an internationally renowned industrial location for coal and steel Oberhausen shall, according to the plans of local and regional governments, be developed into a center of service industries of top European niveau within the next three years. This development was and is the logical consequence of its salient position in the nexus of important European traffic routes. If one includes nearby Holland which is situated to the northwest Oberhausen can draw on the resources of a substantial market area. Attractive services provided, it can and shall be developed into an international center of attraction for more than 13 million people within a travel time radius of only 60 minutes. In its present borders, the town comprises the communities of Sterkrade, Osterfeld and old Oberhausen which had been independent up to 1929. On their joint boundaries a competitive metropolis of coal related and heavy industry developed, and that particularly after the Second World War. Oberhausen had excellent connections on water, rail and road with all the supraregional transportation networks. The continuous economic power of the settlement area could, apparently, not be questioned. At the beginning of the sixties Oberhausen was hit the harder by the downfall of this seemingly safe economic branch. Up to 1992 almost 40 000 jobs were lost in the city. Within 30 years Oberhausen lost everything it had gained in the years since its foundation. In the heart of the city a huge industrial wasteland was left.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 9feb
authors Turk, G.
year 1992
title Re-tiling polygonal surfaces
source E.E. Catmull, (ed) Computer Graphics (Siggraph ¥92 proc.), vol 26, pp. 55-64, July 1992
summary This paper presents an automatic method of creating surface models at several levels of detail from an original polygonal description of a given object. Representing models at various levels of detail is important for achieving high frame rates in interactive graphics applications and also for speeding-up the off-line rendering of complex scenes. Unfortunately, generating these levels of detail is a time-consuming task usually left to a human modeler. This paper shows how a new set of vertices can be distributed over the surface of a model and connected to one another to create a re-tiling of a surface that is faithful to both the geometry and the topology of the original surface. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) a robust method of connecting together new vertices over a surface, 2) a way of using an estimate of surface curvature to distribute more new vertices at regions of higher curvature and 3) a method of smoothly interpolating between models that represent the same object at different levels of detail. The key notion in the re-tiling procedure is the creation of an intermediate model called the mutual tessellation of a surface that contains both the vertices from the original model and the new points that are to become vertices in the re-tiled surface. The new model is then created by removing each original vertex and locally re-triangulating the surface in a way that matches the local connectedness of the initial surface. This technique for surface retessellation has been successfully applied to iso-surface models derived from volume data, Connolly surface molecular models and a tessellation of a minimal surface of interest to mathematicians.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 89ab
authors Villegas, A.F. and Esparta, J.B.
year 1992
title Didactic Interactive Tools in Architectural Education: A Case Study
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 145-155
summary This paper presents a proposal based on the use of new didactic interactive tools, mainly multimedia and hypertext, the combination of which is sometimes known as hypermedia.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:07

_id f1f2
authors Watt, Alan
year 1992
title Advanced animation and rendering techniques
source New York: ACM Press
summary This book is an exposition of state-of-the-art techniques in rendering and animation. It provides a unique synthesis of techniques and theory. Four sections describe: Basics, Theoretical Foundations, Advanced Rendering Techniques, and Advanced Animation Techniques. Each technique is illustrated with a series of full color frames showing the development of the example. Many code examples and some complete implementations are given in C for interesting and advanced algorithms such as soft shadows and marching cubes.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c54a
authors Welch, W. and Witkin, A.
year 1992
title Variational surface modeling
source Computer Graphics, 26, Proceedings, SIGGRAPH 92
summary We present a newapproach to interactivemodeling of freeform surfaces. Instead of a fixed mesh of control points, the model presented to the user is that of an infinitely malleable surface, with no fixed controls. The user is free to apply control points and curves which are then available as handles for direct manipulation. The complexity of the surface's shape may be increased by adding more control points and curves, without apparent limit. Within the constraints imposed by the controls, the shape of the surface is fully determined by one or more simple criteria, such as smoothness. Our method for solving the resulting constrained variational optimization problems rests on a surface representation scheme allowing nonuniform subdivision of B-spline surfaces. Automatic subdivision is used to ensure that constraints are met, and to enforce error bounds. Efficient numerical solutions are obtained by exploiting linearities in the problem formulation and the representation.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 3b2a
authors Westin, S., Arvo, J. and Torrance, K.
year 1992
title Predicting reflectance functions from complex surfaces
source Computer Graphics, 26(2):255-264, July 1992
summary We describe a physically-based Monte Carlo technique for approximating bidirectional re•ectance distribution functions (BRDFs) for a large class of geometries by directly simulating optical scattering. The technique is more general than previous analytical models: it removes most restrictions on surface microgeometry. Three main points are described: a new representation of the BRDF, a Monte Carlo technique to estimate the coef•cients of the representation, and the means of creating a milliscale BRDF from microscale scattering events. These allowthe prediction of scattering from essentially arbitrary roughness geometries. The BRDF is concisely represented by a matrix of spherical harmonic coef•cients; the matrix is directly estimated from a geometric optics simulation, enforcing exact reciprocity. The method applies to roughness scales that are large with respect to the wavelength of light and small with respect to the spatial density at which the BRDF is sampled across the surface; examples include brushed metal and textiles. The method is validated by comparing with an existing scattering model and sample images are generated with a physically-based global illumination algorithm.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a89d
authors Wiederhold, G.
year 1992
title Mediators in the Architecture of Future Information Systems
source IEEE Computer 25, no. 3: 38-48
summary The installation of high-speed networks using optical fiber and high bandwidth messsage forwarding gateways is changing the physical capabilities of information systems. These capabilities must be complemented with corresponding software systems advances to obtain a real benefit. Without smart software we will gain access to more data, but not improve access to the type and quality of information needed for decision making. To develop the concepts needed for future information systems we model information processing as an interaction of data and knowledge. This model provides criteria for a high-level functional partitioning. These partitions are mapped into information processing modules. The modules are assigned to nodes of the distributed information systems. A central role is assigned to modules that mediate between the users' workstations and data resources. Mediators contain the administrative and technical knowledge to create information needed for decision-making.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 96cf
authors Woolley, B.
year 1992
title Virtual Worlds: A Journey in Hype and Hyperreality
source Oxford: Blackwell
summary In Virtual Worlds, Benjamin Woolley examines the reality of virtual reality. He looks at the dramatic intellectual and cultural upheavals that gave birth to it, the hype that surrounds it, the people who have promoted it, and the dramatic implications of its development. Virtual reality is not simply a technology, it is a way of thinking created and promoted by a group of technologists and thinkers that sees itself as creating our future. Virtual Worlds reveals the politics and culture of these virtual realists, and examines whether they are creating reality, or losing their grasp of it.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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