CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 238

_id 7e68
authors Holland, J.
year 1992
title Genetic Algorithms
source Scientific America, July 1992
summary Living organisms are consummate problem solvers. They exhibit a versatility that puts the best computer programs to shame. This observation is especially galling for computer scientists, who may spend months or years of intellectual effort on an algorithm, whereas organisms come by their abilities through the apparently undirected mechanism of evolution and natural selection. Pragmatic researchers see evolution's remarkable power as something to be emulated rather than envied. Natural selection eliminates one of the greatest hurdles in software design: specifying in advance all the features of a problem and the actions a program should take to deal with them. By harnessing the mechanisms of evolution, researchers may be able to "breed" programs that solve problems even when no person can fully understand their structure. Indeed, these so-called genetic algorithms have already demonstrated the ability to made breakthroughs in the design of such complex systems as jet engines. Genetic algorithms make it possible to explore a far greater range of potential solutions to a problem than do conventional programs. Furthermore, as researchers probe the natural selection of programs under controlled an well-understood conditions, the practical results they achieve may yield some insight into the details of how life and intelligence evolve in the natural world.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 15f6
authors Holyer, Andy
year 1992
title Top-Down Object-Based User Interface Definition and Design Paradigms
source East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI'92 1992 pp. 421-428
summary Currently, the main emphasis in User Interface design tools is on the low-level manipulation of Interaction Components, such as widgets. This paper proposes a design architecture which approaches User Interface development in a top-down manner, to avoid particular shortcomings in current design methodologies.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id cf2009_poster_09
id cf2009_poster_09
authors Hsu, Yin-Cheng
year 2009
title Lego Free-Form? Towards a Modularized Free-Form Construction
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009 CD-Rom
summary Design Media is the tool designers use for concept realization (Schon and Wiggins, 1992; Liu, 1996). Design thinking of designers is deeply effected by the media they tend to use (Zevi, 1981; Liu, 1996; Lim, 2003). Historically, architecture is influenced by the design media that were available within that era (Liu, 1996; Porter and Neale, 2000; Smith, 2004). From the 2D plans first used in ancient egypt, to the 3D physical models that came about during the Renaissance period, architecture reflects the media used for design. When breakthroughs in CAD/CAM technologies were brought to the world in the twentieth century, new possibilities opened up for architects.
keywords CAD/CAM free-form construction, modularization
series CAAD Futures
type poster
last changed 2009/07/08 20:12

_id ab4d
authors Huang, Tao-Kuang, Degelman, Larry O., and Larsen, Terry R.
year 1992
title A Visualization Model for Computerized Energy Evaluation During the Conceptual Design Stage (ENERGRAPH)
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 195-206
summary Energy performance is a crucial step toward responsible design. Currently there are many tools that can be applied to reach this goal with reasonable accuracy. Often times, however, major flaws are not discovered until the final stage of design when it is too late to change. Not only are existing simulation models complicated to apply at the conceptual design stage, but energy principles and their applications are also abstract and hard to visualize. Because of the lack of suitable tools to visualize energy analysis output, energy conservation concepts fail to be integrated into the building design. For these reasons, designers tend not to apply energy conservation concepts at the early design stage. However, since computer graphics is a new phase of visual communication in design process, the above problems might be solved properly through a computerized graphical interface in the conceptual design stage.

The research described in this paper is the result of exploring the concept of using computer graphics to support energy efficient building designs. It focuses on the visualization of building energy through a highly interactive graphical interface in the early design stage.

series ACADIA
email l-degelman@neo.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 56e9
authors Huang, Tao-Kuang
year 1992
title A Graphical Feedback Model for Computerized Energy Analysis during the Conceptual Design Stage
source Texas A&M University
summary During the last two decades, considerable effort has been placed on the development of building design analysis tools. Architects and designers have begun to take advantage of computers to generate and examine design alternatives. However, because it has been difficult to adapt computer technologies to the visual orientation of the building designer, the majority of computer applications have been limited to numerical analysis and office automation tasks. Only recently, because of advances in hardware and software techniques, computers have entered into a new phase in the development of architectural design. haveters are now able to interactively display graphics solutions to architectural related problems, which is fundamental to the design process. The majority of research programs in energy efficient design have sharpened people's understanding of energy principles and their application of those principles. Energy conservation concepts, however, have not been widely used. A major problem in the implementation of these principles is that energy principles their applications are abstract, hard to visualize and separated from the architectural design process. Furthermore, one aspect of energy analysis may contain thousands of pieces of numerical information which often leads to confusion on the part of designers. If these difficulties can be overcome, it would bring a great benefit to the advancement of energy conservation concepts. This research explores the concept of an integrated computer graphics program to support energy efficient design. It focuses on (1) the integration of energy efficiently and architectural design, and (2) the visualization of building energy use through graphical interfaces during the conceptual design stage. It involves (1) the discussion of frameworks of computer-aided architectural design and computer-aided energy efficient building design, and (2) the development of an integrated computer prototype program with a graphical interface that helps the designer create building layouts, analyze building energy interactively and receive visual feedbacks dynamically. The goal is to apply computer graphics as an aid to visualize the effects of energy related decisions and therefore permit the designer to visualize and understand energy conservation concepts in the conceptual phase of architectural design.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id abce
authors Ishii, Hiroshi and Kobayashi, Minoru
year 1992
title ClearBoard: A Seamless Medium for Shared Drawing and Conversation with Eye Contact Systems for Media-Supported Collaboration
source Proceedings of ACM CHI'92 Conference on HumanFactors in Computing Systems 1992 pp. 525-532
summary This paper introduces a novel shared drawing medium called ClearBoard. It realizes (1) a seamless shared drawing space and (2) eye contact to support realtime and remote collaboration by two users. We devised the key metaphor: "talking through and drawing on a transparent glass window" to design ClearBoard. A prototype of ClearBoard is implemented based on the "Drafter-Mirror" architecture. This paper first reviews previous work on shared drawing support to clarify the design goals. We then examine three metaphors that fulfill these goals. The design requirements and the two possible system architectures of ClearBoard are described. Finally, some findings gained through the experimental use of the prototype, including the feature of "gaze awareness", are discussed.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 4b2a
id 4b2a
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 2004
title A FRAMEWORK FOR COMPUTER-SUPPORTED COLLABORATION IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
source University of Michigan
summary The development of appropriate research frameworks and guidelines for the construction of software aids in the area of architectural design can lead to a better understanding of designing and computer support for designing (Gero and Maher 1997). The field of research and development in computer-supported collaborative architectural design reflects that of the early period in the development of the field of computersupported cooperative work (CSCW). In the early 1990s, the field of CSCW relied on unsystematic attempts to generate software that increases the productivity of people working together (Robinson 1992). Furthermore, a shift is taking place by which researchers in the field of architecture are increasingly becoming consumers of rather than innovators of technology (Gero and Maher . In particular, the field of architecture is rapidly becoming dependent on commercial software implementations that are slow to respond to new research or to user demands. Additionally, these commercial systems force a particular view of the domain they serve and as such might hinder rather than help its development. The aim of this dissertation is to provide information to architects and others to help them build their own tools or, at a minimum, be critical of commercial solutions.
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email jabi@njit.edu
last changed 2004/10/24 20:35

_id 2467
authors Jockusch, Peter R.A.
year 1992
title How Can We Achieve a Good Building?
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 51-65 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper is concerned with the reasons and purposes for which we evaluate and predict building performance. The discussion is based on the author's experience, gained through the preparation and evaluation of more than 50 major architectural competitions
keywords An attempt is made to discover for whom and in what respect a building can be considered a 'good building,' by asking the following questions: What can prediction and evaluation of building performance achieve? How well can we assess the performance and value of an existing building within its socio-technical context? For what purposes and with what degree of confidence can the eventual performance of a designed and specified building be predicted? How do these evaluations compare to actual post occupancy performance? To what extent do the roles and motivations of assessors, evaluators, and decision makers affect the value-stating process? prediction, evaluation, performance, building, life cycle, design, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ed78
authors Jog, Bharati
year 1993
title Integration of Computer Applications in the Practice of Architecture
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 89-97
summary Computer Applications in Architecture is emerging as an important aspect of our profession. The field, which is often referred to as Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) has had a notable impact on the profession and academia in recent years. A few professionals have predicted that as slide rules were replaced by calculators, in the coming years drafting boards and parallel bars will be replaced by computers. On the other hand, many architects do not anticipate such a drastic change in the coming decade as present CAD systems are supporting only a few integral aspects of architectural design. However, all agree that architecture curricula should be modified to integrate CAAD education.

In 1992-93, in the Department of Architecture of the 'School of Architecture and interior Design' at the University of Cincinnati, a curriculum committee was formed to review and modify the entire architecture curriculum. Since our profession and academia relate directly to each other, the author felt that while revising the curriculum, the committee should have factual information about CAD usage in the industry. Three ways to obtain such information were thought of, namely (1) conducting person to person or telephone interviews with the practitioners (2) requesting firms to give open- ended feed back and (3) surveying firms by sending a questionnaire. Of these three, the most effective, efficient and suitable method to obtain such information was an organized survey through a questionnaire. In mid December 1992, a survey was organized which was sponsored by the School of Architecture and Interior Design, the Center for the Study of the Practice of Architecture (CSPA) and the University Division of Professional Practice, all from the University of Cincinnati.

This chapter focuses on the results of this survey. A brief description of the survey design is also given. In the next section a few surveys organized in recent years are listed. In the third section the design of this survey is presented. The survey questions and their responses are given in the fourth section. The last section presents the conclusions and brief recommendations regarding computer curriculum in architecture.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/02/25 09:25

_id cc2f
authors Jog, Bharati
year 1992
title Evaluation of Designs for Energy Performance Using A Knowledge-Based System
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 293-304 : ill. includes a bibliography
summary Principles of knowledge-based (or expert) systems have been applied in different knowledge-rich domains such as geology, medicine, and very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI). There have been some efforts to develop expert systems for evaluation and prediction of architectural designs in this decade. This paper presents a prototype system, Energy Expert, which quickly computes the approximate yearly energy performance of a building design, analyzes the energy performance, and gives advice on possible ways of improving the design. These modifications are intended to make the building more energy efficient and help cut down on heating and cooling costs. The system is designed for the schematic design phase of an architectural project. Also discussed briefly is the reasoning behind developing such a system for the schematic design rather than the final design phase
keywords expert systems, energy, evaluation, performance, knowledge base, architecture, reasoning, programming, prediction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 49bf
authors Johnson, Robert E.
year 1992
title Design Inquiry and Resource Allocation
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 51-65 : ill. tables. includes bibliography
summary This paper proposes that the primary role of resource allocation in design is to assist design decision makers in ordering preferences and exploring trade-offs. Most existing cost evaluation paradigms focus on assessing costs after design decisions are made. This view unnecessarily restricts the active participation of economic knowledge in design decision-making. The approach described in this research suggests that the exploration and definition of values and references should be the major focus of economic analysis within the design process. A conceptual framework for this approach is presented along with several examples that illustrate the use of this framework. Computational approaches are suggested which play a central role in clarifying preference and exploring trade-offs during design
keywords economics, architecture, building, construction, resource allocation, design, cost, evaluation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id acaa
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1992
title Evaluating and Predicting Design Performance
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 399-404
summary This article is the conclusion chapter of the book by the same title. Evaluation can be defined as measuring the fit between achieved or expected performances to stated criteria. Prediction is the process whereby expected performance characteristics are simulated, or otherwise made tangible, when evaluation is applied to hypothetical design solutions. The multifaceted nature of design solutions precludes optimization of any one performance characteristic. Rather, a good design solution will strike a balance in the degree to which any performance criterion is achieved, such that overall performance will be maximized. This paper discusses the nature of evaluation and prediction, their multilevel and multifaceted dimensions, and some of the approaches that have been proposed to perform quantitative and qualitative evaluations
keywords evaluation, performance, prediction, multicriteria, architecture, design process
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id caadria2004_k-1
id caadria2004_k-1
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 2004
title CONTEXTUALIZATION AND EMBODIMENT IN CYBERSPACE
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 5-14
summary The introduction of VRML (Virtual Reality Markup Language) in 1994, and other similar web-enabled dynamic modeling software (such as SGI’s Open Inventor and WebSpace), have created a rush to develop on-line 3D virtual environments, with purposes ranging from art, to entertainment, to shopping, to culture and education. Some developers took their cues from the science fiction literature of Gibson (1984), Stephenson (1992), and others. Many were web-extensions to single-player video games. But most were created as a direct extension to our new-found ability to digitally model 3D spaces and to endow them with interactive control and pseudo-inhabitation. Surprisingly, this technologically-driven stampede paid little attention to the core principles of place-making and presence, derived from architecture and cognitive science, respectively: two principles that could and should inform the essence of the virtual place experience and help steer its development. Why are the principles of place-making and presence important for the development of virtual environments? Why not simply be content with our ability to create realistically-looking 3D worlds that we can visit remotely? What could we possibly learn about making these worlds better, had we understood the essence of place and presence? To answer these questions we cannot look at place-making (both physical and virtual) from a 3D space-making point of view alone, because places are not an end unto themselves. Rather, places must be considered a locus of contextualization and embodiment that ground human activities and give them meaning. In doing so, places acquire a meaning of their own, which facilitates, improves, and enriches many aspects of our lives. They provide us with a means to interpret the activities of others and to direct our own actions. Such meaning is comprised of the social and cultural conceptions and behaviors imprinted on the environment by the presence and activities of its inhabitants, who in turn, ‘read’ by them through their own corporeal embodiment of the same environment. This transactional relationship between the physical aspects of an environment, its social/cultural context, and our own embodiment of it, combine to create what is known as a sense of place: the psychological, physical, social, and cultural framework that helps us interpret the world around us, and directs our own behavior in it. In turn, it is our own (as well as others’) presence in that environment that gives it meaning, and shapes its social/cultural character. By understanding the essence of place-ness in general, and in cyberspace in particular, we can create virtual places that can better support Internet-based activities, and make them equal to, in some cases even better than their physical counterparts. One of the activities that stands to benefit most from understanding the concept of cyber-places is learning—an interpersonal activity that requires the co-presence of others (a teacher and/or fellow learners), who can point out the difference between what matters and what does not, and produce an emotional involvement that helps students learn. Thus, while many administrators and educators rush to develop webbased remote learning sites, to leverage the economic advantages of one-tomany learning modalities, these sites deprive learners of the contextualization and embodiment inherent in brick-and-mortar learning institutions, and which are needed to support the activity of learning. Can these qualities be achieved in virtual learning environments? If so, how? These are some of the questions this talk will try to answer by presenting a virtual place-making methodology and its experimental implementation, intended to create a sense of place through contextualization and embodiment in virtual learning environments.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/20 16:37

_id ed4a
authors Kalisperis, Loukas N. and Groninger, Randal L.
year 1992
title Design Philosophy: Implications for Computer Integration in the Practice of Architecture
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 27-37
summary The growing complexities of modern environments and the socioeconomic pressures to maintain efficient design/build cycles have forced architects to seek new tools and methods to help them manage the processes that have developed as a result of new knowledge in architectural design. This trend has accelerated in the past few decades because of developments in both cognitive and computer sciences. In allied disciplines, the introduction and use of comPuters have significantly improved design practices. Yet at best, in disciplines such as architectural design, computational aids have attained marginal improvements in the design process despite efforts by universities in the professional education of architects.
series ACADIA
email lnk@email.psu.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id e7c8
authors Kalisperis, Loukas N., Steinman, Mitch and Summers, Luis H.
year 1992
title Design Knowledge, Environmental Complexity in Nonorthogonal Space
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 273-291 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Mechanization and industrialization of society has resulted in most people spending the greater part of their lives in enclosed environments. Optimal design of indoor artificial climates is therefore of increasing importance. Wherever artificial climates are created for human occupation, the aim is that the environment be designed so that individuals are in thermal comfort. Current design methodologies for radiant panel heating systems do not adequately account for the complexities of human thermal comfort, because they monitor air temperature alone and do not account for thermal neutrality in complex enclosures. Thermal comfort for a person is defined as that condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. Thermal comfort is dependent on Mean Radiant Temperature and Operative Temperature among other factors. In designing artificial climates for human occupancy the interaction of the human with the heated surfaces as well the surface-to-surface heat exchange must be accounted for. Early work in the area provided an elaborate and difficult method for calculating radiant heat exchange for simplistic and orthogonal enclosures. A new improved method developed by the authors for designing radiant panel heating systems based on human thermal comfort and mean radiant temperature is presented. Through automation and elaboration this method overcomes the limitations of the early work. The design procedure accounts for human thermal comfort in nonorthogonal as well as orthogonal spaces based on mean radiant temperature prediction. The limitation of simplistic orthogonal geometries has been overcome with the introduction of the MRT-Correction method and inclined surface-to-person shape factor methodology. The new design method increases the accuracy of calculation and prediction of human thermal comfort and will allow designers to simulate complex enclosures utilizing the latest design knowledge of radiant heat exchange to increase human thermal comfort
keywords applications, architecture, building, energy, systems, design, knowledge
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 11b6
authors Kalmychkov, Vitaly A. and Smolyaninov, Alexander V.
year 1992
title Design of Object-Oriented Data Visualization System
source East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI'92 1992 pp. 463-470
summary The report is devoted to the data visualization system design and implementation, which provides the means for design of the image of the user's numeric information on the personal computer. The problems of design, architecture and operation of data visualization system which provides to user convenient means for constructing the numeric information image of required type is considered. Image constructing is executed by means of required sizes fields placing and filling of them by necessary content (coordinates system, graphs, inscriptions). User's interface with instrument system is object-oriented: after object (field or its content) choice user can manipulate of it, executing only those operations, that are determined for it as object of appointed function. Ergonomical and comfortable constructing is ensured by careful coordinated system of possible actions on each of image constructing stage and supported by icons menu and textual menu.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 6d34
authors Kensek, Karen and Noble, Doug (Eds.)
year 1992
title Mission - Method - Madness [Conference Proceedings]
source ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2 ) 1992, 232 p.
summary The papers represent a wide variety of exploration into the uses of computers in architecture. We have tried to impose order onto the collection by organizing them into six sessions: Metaphor, Mission, Method, Modeling for Visualization, Modeling, and Generative Systems. As with any ordering system for such a diverse selection, some session papers are strongly related while others are loosely grouped. Madness, an additional session not in the proceedings, will include short presentations of work in progress. Regarding the individual papers, it is particularly exciting to see research being conducted that is founded on previous work done by others. It is also interesting to note that half of the papers have been submitted by teams of authors. Whether this represents "computer supported cooperative work" remains to be seen. Certainly the work in this book represents an interesting and wide variety of explorations into computer supported design in architecture.
series ACADIA
email dnoble@usc.edu
more http://www.acadia.org
last changed 1999/03/29 13:51

_id ddss9217
id ddss9217
authors Kim, Y.S. and Brawne, M.
year 1993
title An approach to evaluating exhibition spaces in art galleries
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary There are certain building types in which movement of people is the most significant evaluation factor. Among these are art galleries and museums. Unlike other building types, which are often explicated by investigating the relationship between people and people, and between people and the built environment, art galleries and museums are a building type in which the social relationship between people hardly exists and peoples movement through space, that is, the functional relationship between people and space, is one of the most significant factors for their description. The typical museum experience is through direct, sequential, and visual contact with static objects on display as the visitor moves. Therefore, the movement pattern of the visitors must exert a significant influence on achieving the specific goal of a museum. There is a critical need for predicting the consequences of particular spatial configurations with respect to visitors movement. In this sense, it is the intention of this paper to find out the relationship between the spatial configuration of exhibition space and the visitors' movement pattern.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 7b9d
authors Klosterman, R. and Langendorf, R.
year 1992
title Visualization in urban analysis and design
source Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 19, pp. 611-612
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (spietsch@arch.adelaide.edu.au)
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:38

_id ddss9202
id ddss9202
authors Koutamanis, A. and Mitossi, V.
year 1993
title Architectural computer vision: Automated recognition of architectural drawings
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Computer vision offers the ability to transform digitized drawings into documents that can be used with computer systems. Recognition of digitized drawings can occur at the levels of (a) geometric elements, (b) building elements, and (c) spatial articulation. The last two levels apply not only to digitized images but also to computer-produced ones. The enormous burden placed on the user for inputting and manipulating CAD drawings suggests that automated recognition can add to the capabilities of CAD by making the computer more flexible with respect to inputting design information and more responsive to the actual concerns of the designer.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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