CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 6f36
authors Jacobson, I., Christerson, M., Jonsson, P. and Overgaard, G.
year 1992
title Object-Oriented Software Engineering
source A Use Case Driven Approach. New York, NY: Addison-Wesley
summary A text on industrial system development using object- oriented techniques, rather than a book on object-oriented programming. Will be useful to systems developers and those seeking a deeper understanding of object orientation as it relates to the development process.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 7ce5
authors Gal, Shahaf
year 1992
title Computers and Design Activities: Their Mediating Role in Engineering Education
source Sociomedia, ed. Edward Barret. MIT Press
summary Sociomedia: With all the new words used to describe electronic communication (multimedia, hypertext, cyberspace, etc.), do we need another one? Edward Barrett thinks we do; hence, he coins the term "sociomedia." It is meant to displace a computing economy in which technicity is hypostasized over sociality. Sociomedia, a compilation of twenty-five articles on the theory, design and practice of educational multimedia and hypermedia, attempts to re-value the communicational face of computing. Value, of course, is "ultimately a social construct." As such, it has everything to do with knowledge, power, education and technology. The projects discussed in this book represent the leading edge of electronic knowledge production in academia (not to mention major funding) and are determining the future of educational media. For these reasons, Sociomedia warrants close inspection. Barrett's introduction sets the tone. For him, designing computer media involves hardwiring a mechanism for the social construction of knowledge (1). He links computing to a process of social and communicative interactivity for constructing and desseminating knowledge. Through a mechanistic mapping of the university as hypercontext (a huge network that includes classrooms as well as services and offices), Barrett models intellectual work in such a way as to avoid "limiting definitions of human nature or human development." Education, then, can remain "where it should be--in the human domain (public and private) of sharing ideas and information through the medium of language." By leaving education in a virtual realm (where we can continue to disagree about its meaning and execution), it remains viral, mutating and contaminating in an intellectually healthy way. He concludes that his mechanistic model, by means of its reductionist approach, preserves value (7). This "value" is the social construction of knowledge. While I support the social orientation of Barrett's argument, discussions of value are related to power. I am not referring to the traditional teacher-student power structure that is supposedly dismantled through cooperative and constructivist learning strategies. The power to be reckoned with in the educational arena is foundational, that which (pre)determines value and the circulation of knowledge. "Since each of you reading this paragraph has a different perspective on the meaning of 'education' or 'learning,' and on the processes involved in 'getting an education,' think of the hybris in trying to capture education in a programmable function, in a displayable object, in a 'teaching machine'" (7). Actually, we must think about that hybris because it is, precisely, what informs teaching machines. Moreover, the basic epistemological premises that give rise to such productions are too often assumed. In the case of instructional design, the episteme of cognitive sciences are often taken for granted. It is ironic that many of the "postmodernists" who support electronic hypertextuality seem to have missed Jacques Derrida's and Michel Foucault's "deconstructions" of the epistemology underpinning cognitive sciences (if not of epistemology itself). Perhaps it is the glitz of the technology that blinds some users (qua developers) to the belief systems operating beneath the surface. Barrett is not guilty of reactionary thinking or politics; he is, in fact, quite in line with much American deconstructive and postmodern thinking. The problem arises in that he leaves open the definitions of "education," "learning" and "getting an education." One cannot engage in the production of new knowledge without orienting its design, production and dissemination, and without negotiating with others' orientations, especially where largescale funding is involved. Notions of human nature and development are structural, even infrastructural, whatever the medium of the teaching machine. Although he addresses some dynamics of power, money and politics when he talks about the recession and its effects on the conference, they are readily visible dynamics of power (3-4). Where does the critical factor of value determination, of power, of who gets what and why, get mapped onto a mechanistic model of learning institutions? Perhaps a mapping of contributors' institutions, of the funding sources for the projects showcased and for participation in the conference, and of the disciplines receiving funding for these sorts of projects would help visualize the configurations of power operative in the rising field of educational multimedia. Questions of power and money notwithstanding, Barrett's introduction sets the social and textual thematics for the collection of essays. His stress on interactivity, on communal knowledge production, on the society of texts, and on media producers and users is carried foward through the other essays, two of which I will discuss. Section I of the book, "Perspectives...," highlights the foundations, uses and possible consequences of multimedia and hypertextuality. The second essay in this section, "Is There a Class in This Text?," plays on the robust exchange surrounding Stanley Fish's book, Is There a Text in This Class?, which presents an attack on authority in reading. The author, John Slatin, has introduced electronic hypertextuality and interaction into his courses. His article maps the transformations in "the content and nature of work, and the workplace itself"-- which, in this case, is not industry but an English poetry class (25). Slatin discovered an increase of productive and cooperative learning in his electronically- mediated classroom. For him, creating knowledge in the electronic classroom involves interaction between students, instructors and course materials through the medium of interactive written discourse. These interactions lead to a new and persistent understanding of the course materials and of the participants' relation to the materials and to one another. The work of the course is to build relationships that, in my view, constitute not only the meaning of individual poems, but poetry itself. The class carries out its work in the continual and usually interactive production of text (31). While I applaud his strategies which dismantle traditional hierarchical structures in academia, the evidence does not convince me that the students know enough to ask important questions or to form a self-directing, learning community. Stanley Fish has not relinquished professing, though he, too, espouses the indeterminancy of the sign. By the fourth week of his course, Slatin's input is, by his own reckoning, reduced to 4% (39). In the transcript of the "controversial" Week 6 exchange on Gertrude Stein--the most disliked poet they were discussing at the time (40)--we see the blind leading the blind. One student parodies Stein for three lines and sums up his input with "I like it." Another, finds Stein's poetry "almost completey [sic] lacking in emotion or any artistic merit" (emphasis added). On what grounds has this student become an arbiter of "artistic merit"? Another student, after admitting being "lost" during the Wallace Steven discussion, talks of having more "respect for Stevens' work than Stein's" and adds that Stein's poetry lacks "conceptual significance[, s]omething which people of varied opinion can intelligently discuss without feeling like total dimwits...." This student has progressed from admitted incomprehension of Stevens' work to imposing her (groundless) respect for his work over Stein's. Then, she exposes her real dislike for Stein's poetry: that she (the student) missed the "conceptual significance" and hence cannot, being a person "of varied opinion," intelligently discuss it "without feeling like [a] total dimwit." Slatin's comment is frightening: "...by this point in the semester students have come to feel increasingly free to challenge the instructor" (41). The students that I have cited are neither thinking critically nor are their preconceptions challenged by student-governed interaction. Thanks to the class format, one student feels self-righteous in her ignorance, and empowered to censure. I believe strongly in student empowerment in the classroom, but only once students have accrued enough knowledge to make informed judgments. Admittedly, Slatin's essay presents only partial data (there are six hundred pages of course transcripts!); still, I wonder how much valuable knowledge and metaknowledge was gained by the students. I also question the extent to which authority and professorial dictature were addressed in this course format. The power structures that make it possible for a college to require such a course, and the choice of texts and pedagogy, were not "on the table." The traditional professorial position may have been displaced, but what took its place?--the authority of consensus with its unidentifiable strong arm, and the faceless reign of software design? Despite Slatin's claim that the students learned about the learning process, there is no evidence (in the article) that the students considered where their attitudes came from, how consensus operates in the construction of knowledge, how power is established and what relationship they have to bureaucratic insitutions. How do we, as teaching professionals, negotiate a balance between an enlightened despotism in education and student-created knowledge? Slatin, and other authors in this book, bring this fundamental question to the fore. There is no definitive answer because the factors involved are ultimately social, and hence, always shifting and reconfiguring. Slatin ends his article with the caveat that computerization can bring about greater estrangement between students, faculty and administration through greater regimentation and control. Of course, it can also "distribute authority and power more widely" (50). Power or authority without a specific face, however, is not necessarily good or just. Shahaf Gal's "Computers and Design Activities: Their Mediating Role in Engineering Education" is found in the second half of the volume, and does not allow for a theory/praxis dichotomy. Gal recounts a brief history of engineering education up to the introduction of Growltiger (GT), a computer-assisted learning aid for design. He demonstrates GT's potential to impact the learning of engineering design by tracking its use by four students in a bridge-building contest. What his text demonstrates clearly is that computers are "inscribing and imaging devices" that add another viewpoint to an on-going dialogue between student, teacher, earlier coursework, and other teaching/learning tools. The less proficient students made a serious error by relying too heavily on the technology, or treating it as a "blueprint provider." They "interacted with GT in a way that trusted the data to represent reality. They did not see their interaction with GT as a negotiation between two knowledge systems" (495). Students who were more thoroughly informed in engineering discourses knew to use the technology as one voice among others--they knew enough not simply to accept the input of the computer as authoritative. The less-advanced students learned a valuable lesson from the competition itself: the fact that their designs were not able to hold up under pressure (literally) brought the fact of their insufficient knowledge crashing down on them (and their bridges). They also had, post factum, several other designs to study, especially the winning one. Although competition and comparison are not good pedagogical strategies for everyone (in this case the competitors had volunteered), at some point what we think we know has to be challenged within the society of discourses to which it belongs. Students need critique in order to learn to push their learning into auto-critique. This is what is lacking in Slatin's discussion and in the writings of other avatars of constructivist, collaborative and computer-mediated pedagogies. Obviously there are differences between instrumental types of knowledge acquisition and discoursive knowledge accumulation. Indeed, I do not promote the teaching of reading, thinking and writing as "skills" per se (then again, Gal's teaching of design is quite discursive, if not dialogic). Nevertheless, the "soft" sciences might benefit from "bridge-building" competitions or the re-institution of some forms of agonia. Not everything agonistic is inhuman agony--the joy of confronting or creating a sound argument supported by defensible evidence, for example. Students need to know that soundbites are not sound arguments despite predictions that electronic writing will be aphoristic rather than periodic. Just because writing and learning can be conceived of hypertextually does not mean that rigor goes the way of the dinosaur. Rigor and hypertextuality are not mutually incompatible. Nor is rigorous thinking and hard intellectual work unpleasurable, although American anti-intellectualism, especially in the mass media, would make it so. At a time when the spurious dogmatics of a Rush Limbaugh and Holocaust revisionist historians circulate "aphoristically" in cyberspace, and at a time when knowledge is becoming increasingly textualized, the role of critical thinking in education will ultimately determine the value(s) of socially constructed knowledge. This volume affords the reader an opportunity to reconsider knowledge, power, and new communications technologies with respect to social dynamics and power relationships.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 130d
authors Hoinkes, R. and Mitchell, R.
year 1994
title Playing with Time - Continuous Temporal Mapping Strategies for Interactive Environments
source 6th Canadian GIS Conference, (Ottawa Natura Resources Canada), pp. 318-329
summary The growing acceptance of GIS technology has had far- reaching effects on many fields of research. The recent developments in the area of dynamic and temporal GIS open new possibilities within the realm of historical research where temporal relationship analysis is as important as spatial relationship analysis. While topological structures have had wide use in spatial GIS and have been the subject of most temporal GIS endeavours, the different demands of many of these temporally- oriented analytic processes questions the choice of the topological direction. In the fall of 1992 the Montreal Research Group (MRG) of the Canadian Centre for Architecture mounted an exhibition dealing with the development of the built environment in 18th- century Montreal. To aid in presenting the interpretive messages of their data, the MRG worked with the Centre for Landscape Research (CLR) to incorporate the interactive capabilities of the CLR's PolyTRIM research software with the MRG's data base to produce a research tool as well as a public- access interactive display. The interactive capabilities stemming from a real- time object- oriented structure provided an excellent environment for both researchers and the public to investigate the nature of temporal changes in such aspects as landuse, ethnicity, and fortifications of the 18th century city. This paper describes the need for interactive real- time GIS in such temporal analysis projects and the underlying need for object- oriented vs. topologically structured data access strategies to support them.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 181b
authors Liou, Shuenn-Ren
year 1992
title A computer-based framework for analyzing and deriving the morphological structure of architectural designs
source University of Michigan
summary An approach to the acquisition and utilization of knowledge about the morphological structure of notable orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is formulated and tested. This approach consists of two levels of abstraction within which the analysis and comparison of existing designs and the derivation of new designs can be undertaken systematically and efficiently. Specifically, the morphological structure of orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is conceived as a language defined by shape grammar and architectural grammar corresponding to the geometric and spatial structures of the compositions. Lines constitute the shape grammar and walls and columns the architectural grammar. A computer program named ANADER is designed and implemented using the C++ object-oriented language to describe feasible compositions. It is argued that the gap between morphological analysis and synthesis is bridged partially because the proposed framework facilitates systematic comparisons of the morphological structures of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions and provides insight into the form-making process used to derive them. As an analytical system, the framework contributes to the generation of new and the assessment of existing morphological knowledge. Specifically, it is demonstrated that it is feasible to specify an existing architectural design by a set of universal rule schemata and the sequence of their application. As a generative system, the framework allows many of the tasks involved in the derivation of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions to be carried out. As well, it promotes the use of analytical results. In conclusion, it is argued that the proposed computer-based framework will provide the research and the educator with increasing opportunities for addressing persistent architectural questions in new ways. Of particular interest to this author are questions concerning the decision-making activities involved in form- and space-making as well as the description, classification, and derivation of architecutural form and space. It is suggested that, at least in reference to the cases examined, but probably also in reference to many other morphological classes, these and other related questions can be addressed systematically, efficiently, and fruitfully by using the proposed framework.  
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 46c7
id 46c7
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1992
title Data Modeling Needs of Life Safety Code (LSC) Compliance Applications
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 177-185
summary One of the most complex code compliance issues originates from the conformance of designs to Life Safety Code (NFPA 101). The development of computer based code compliance checking programs attracted the attention of building researchers and practitioners alike. These studies represent a number of approaches ranging from CAD based procedural approaches to rule based, non graphic ones, but they do not address the interaction of the rule base of such systems with graphic data bases that define the geometry of architectural objects. Automatic extraction of the attributes and the configuration of building systems requires 11 architectural object - graphic entity" data models that allow access and retrieval of the necessary data for code compliance checking. This study aims to specifically focus on the development of such a data model through the use of AutoLISP feature of AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc.) graphic system. This data model is intended to interact with a Life Safety Code rule base created through Level5-Object (Focus Inc.) expert system.

Assuming the availability of a more general building data model, one must define life and fire safety features of a building before any automatic checking can be performed. Object oriented data structures are beginning to be applied to design objects, since they allow the type versatility demanded by design applications. As one generates a functional view of the main data model, the software user must provide domain specific information. A functional view is defined as the process of generating domain specific data structures from a more general purpose data model, such as defining egress routes from wall or room object data structure. Typically in the early design phase of a project, these are related to the emergency egress design features of a building. Certain decisions such as where to provide sprinkler protection or the location of protected egress ways must be made early in the process.

series ACADIA
email ozel@asu.edu
last changed 2004/03/23 07:42

_id aa6d
authors Nichols, Foster Jr., Canete, Isabel J. and Tuladhar, Sagun
year 1992
title Designing for Pedestrians : A CAD-Network Analysis Approach
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 379-398 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary Microcomputer techniques have been developed that combine CAD drawings with transportation network analysis software that uses spreadsheets and stand-alone programs activated from the DOS operating system. The CAD feature simplifies and improves the methods used to design pedestrian circulation facilities and evaluate the impact of new development on existing pedestrian flows. Through the use of customized software, the need for manual data entry is reduced, and the graphical display of analysis results in most intermediate steps in the process are automated. Three hypothetical case studies are presented, concentrating on proposed pedestrian circulation improvements at Penn Station, New York
keywords evaluation, networks, management, CAD, analysis, applications, planning, transportation, prediction, simulation, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id eabb
authors Boeykens, St. Geebelen, B. and Neuckermans, H.
year 2002
title Design phase transitions in object-oriented modeling of architecture
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 310-313
summary The project IDEA+ aims to develop an “Integrated Design Environment for Architecture”. Its goal is providing a tool for the designer-architect that can be of assistance in the early-design phases. It should provide the possibility to perform tests (like heat or cost calculations) and simple simulations in the different (early) design phases, without the need for a fully detailed design or remodeling in a different application. The test for daylighting is already in development (Geebelen, to be published). The conceptual foundation for this design environment has been laid out in a scheme in which different design phases and scales are defined, together with appropriate tests at the different levels (Neuckermans, 1992). It is a translation of the “designerly” way of thinking of the architect (Cross, 1982). This conceptual model has been translated into a “Core Object Model” (Hendricx, 2000), which defines a structured object model to describe the necessary building model. These developments form the theoretical basis for the implementation of IDEA+ (both the data structure & prototype software), which is currently in progress. The research project addresses some issues, which are at the forefront of the architect’s interest while designing with CAAD. These are treated from the point of view of a practicing architect.
series eCAADe
email stefan.boeykens@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8d37
authors Bradford, J.W., Ng, F.F. and Will, B.F.
year 1992
title Models and Hypermedia for Architectural Education
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 19-42
summary Hypermedia uses the hypertext style of interactive navigation through computer-based multimedia materials to provide access to a wealth of information for use by teachers and students. Academic disciplines concerned about the enlightenment of future designers of the built environment require an additional medium not yet available in hypermedia - interactive 3-D computer models. This paper discusses a hypermedia CAI system currently being developed at the University of Hong Kong for use in architectural education. The system uses interactive 3D computer models as another medium for instructional information, and as user orientation and database access devices. An object oriented, 3-D model hierarchy is used as the organizational structure for the database. A prototype which uses the system to teach undergraduate architecture students about a traditional Chinese temple is also illustrated. The prototype demonstrates the use of a computer as the medium for bilingual English and Chinese instruction.

keywords 3-D Modelling, Architectural Education, Computer Aided Instruction, Hypermedia, Multimedia
series eCAADe
email bradford@hkucc.hku.hk, hrrbnff@hkucc.hku.hk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id b4c4
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 2000
title A framework for an Architectural Collaborative Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 57-60
summary The building industry involves a larger number of disciplines, operators and professionals than other industrial processes. Its peculiarity is that the products (building objects) have a number of parts (building elements) that does not differ much from the number of classes into which building objects can be conceptually subdivided. Another important characteristic is that the building industry produces unique products (de Vries and van Zutphen, 1992). This is not an isolated situation but indeed one that is spreading also in other industrial fields. For example, production niches have proved successful in the automotive and computer industries (Carrara, Fioravanti, & Novembri, 1989). Building design is a complex multi-disciplinary process, which demands a high degree of co-ordination and co-operation among separate teams, each having its own specific knowledge and its own set of specific design tools. Establishing an environment for design tool integration is a prerequisite for network-based distributed work. It was attempted to solve the problem of efficient, user-friendly, and fast information exchange among operators by treating it simply as an exchange of data. But the failure of IGES, CGM, PHIGS confirms that data have different meanings and importance in different contexts. The STandard for Exchange of Product data, ISO 10303 Part 106 BCCM, relating to AEC field (Wix, 1997), seems to be too complex to be applied to professional studios. Moreover its structure is too deep and the conceptual classifications based on it do not allow multi-inheritance (Ekholm, 1996). From now on we shall adopt the BCCM semantic that defines the actor as "a functional participant in building construction"; and we shall define designer as "every member of the class formed by designers" (architects, engineers, town-planners, construction managers, etc.).
keywords Architectural Design Process, Collaborative Design, Knowledge Engineering, Dynamic Object Oriented Programming
series eCAADe
email fioravanti@uniroma1.it
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id ddss9207
id ddss9207
authors Gauchel, J., Hovestadt, L., van Wyk, S. and Bhat, R.R.
year 1993
title Modular building models
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The development and implementation of a modular building model appropriate for computer aided design is described. The limitations of a unified building model with regard to concurrence and complexity in design is discussed. Current research suggests that to model real-world complexity, one must trade centralized control for autonomy. In this paper we develop a modular approach to building modelling that is based on object-oriented autonomy and makes it possible to define these models in a distributed concurrent manner. Such a modular and autonomous implementation brings inherent uncertainty and conflict which cannot be determined a priori.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id fd02
authors Tsou, Jin-Yeu
year 1992
title Using conceptual modelling and an object-oriented environment to support building cost control during early design
source College of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Michigan
summary This research investigated formal information modelling techniques and the object-oriented knowledge representation on the domain of building cost control during early design stages. The findings contribute to an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of applying formal modelling techniques to the analysis of architectural problems and the representation of domain knowledge in an object-oriented environment. In this study, information modelling techniques were reviewed, formal information analysis was performed, a conceptual model based on the cost control problem domain was created, a computational model based on the object-oriented approach was developed, a mechanism to support information broadcasting for representing interrelationships was implemented, and an object-oriented cost analysis system for early design (OBCIS) was demonstrated. The conceptual model, based on the elemental proposition analysis of NIAM, supports a formal approach for analyzing the problem domain; the analysis results are represented by high-level graphical notations, based on the AEC Building System Model, to visually display the information framework of the domain. The conceptual model provides an intermediate step between the system designer's view of the domain and the internal representation of the implementation platform. The object-oriented representation provides extensive data modelling abilities to help system designers intuitively represent the semantics of the problem domain. The object-oriented representation also supports more structured and integrated modules than conventional programming approaches. Although there are many advantages to applying this technique to represent the semantics of cost control knowledge, there are several issues which need to be considered: no single satisfactory classification method can be directly applied; object-oriented systems are difficult to learn; and designing reusable classes is difficult. The dependency graph and information broadcasting implemented in this research is an attempt to represent the interrelationships between domain objects. The mechanism allows users to explicitly define the interrelationships, based on semantic requirements, among domain objects. In the conventional approach, these relationships are directly interpreted by system designers and intertwined into the programming code. There are several issues which need to be studied further: indirect dependency relationship, conflict resolution, and request-update looping based on least-commitment approach.
series thesis:PhD
email jinyeutsou@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 63aa
authors Pozo, José Manuel
year 1992
title The Use of Graphic Data Bases in the Teaching of Geometry
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 133-136
summary The paper doesn't intend to provide relevant innovations in the field of processing program designs or software technology. Although I respect other opinions, I feel that the uncontested aid which using computers to teach architecture means should preferably and primarily be oriented towards searching for ways to better transmit and explain what we have, up to now, been teaching through other means.

However, the novelty and advantages of reccuring to this new instrument should not make us fall into the mistake of letting it be used as a substitute of teachers' and students' work. The computer is simply another instrument; of great potential efficacy, but nevertheless just an instrument.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:04

_id 91c4
authors Checkland, P.
year 1981
title Systems Thinking, Systems Practice
source John Wiley & Sons, Chichester
summary Whether by design, accident or merely synchronicity, Checkland appears to have developed a habit of writing seminal publications near the start of each decade which establish the basis and framework for systems methodology research for that decade."" Hamish Rennie, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 1992 Thirty years ago Peter Checkland set out to test whether the Systems Engineering (SE) approach, highly successful in technical problems, could be used by managers coping with the unfolding complexities of organizational life. The straightforward transfer of SE to the broader situations of management was not possible, but by insisting on a combination of systems thinking strongly linked to real-world practice Checkland and his collaborators developed an alternative approach - Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) - which enables managers of all kinds and at any level to deal with the subtleties and confusions of the situations they face. This work established the now accepted distinction between hard systems thinking, in which parts of the world are taken to be systems which can be engineered, and soft systems thinking in which the focus is on making sure the process of inquiry into real-world complexity is itself a system for learning. Systems Thinking, Systems Practice (1981) and Soft Systems Methodology in Action (1990) together with an earlier paper Towards a Systems-based Methodology for Real-World Problem Solving (1972) have long been recognized as classics in the field. Now Peter Checkland has looked back over the three decades of SSM development, brought the account of it up to date, and reflected on the whole evolutionary process which has produced a mature SSM. SSM: A 30-Year Retrospective, here included with Systems Thinking, Systems Practice closes a chapter on what is undoubtedly the most significant single research programme on the use of systems ideas in problem solving. Now retired from full-time university work, Peter Checkland continues his research as a Leverhulme Emeritus Fellow. "
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c434
authors Colajanni, B., Pellitteri, G. and Scianna, A.
year 1992
title Two Approaches to Teaching Computers in Architecture: The Experience in the Faculty of Engineering in Palermo, Italy
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 295-306
summary Teaching the use of computers in architecture poses the same kind of problems as teaching mathematics. To both there are two possible approaches. The first presents the discipline as a tool of which the merely instrumental aspect is emphasized. Teaching is limited to show the results obtainable by existing programs and how to get them. The second approach, on the contrary emphasizes the autonomous nature of the discipline, mathematics as much as computing, on the basis of the convincement that the maximum of instrumental usefulness can be obtained through the knowledge at the highest degree of generality and, then, of abstraction. The first approach changes little in the mind of the student. He simply learns that is possible, and then worthy doing, a certain amount of operations, mainly checks of performances (and not only the control of the aspect, now easy with one of the many existing CAD) or searches of technical informations in some database. The second approach gives the student the consciousness of the manageability of abstract structures of relationships. He acquires then the idea of creating by himself particular structures of relationships and managing them. This can modify the very idea of the design procedure giving the student the consciousness that he can intervene directly in every segment of the design procedure, reshaping it to some extent in a way better suited to the particular problem he is dealing with. Of course this second approach implies learning not only a language but also the capability of coming to terms with languages. And again it is a cultural acquisition that can be very useful when referred to the languages of architecture. Furthermore the capability of simulating on the computer also a small segment of the design process gives the student a better understanding both of the particular problem he is dealing with and of the very nature of design. As for the first effect, it happens whenever a translation is done from a language to another one. One is obliged to get to the core of the matter in order to overcome the difficulties rising from the different bias of the two languages. The second effect comes from the necessity of placing the studied segment in the general flow of the design process. The organisation in a linear sequence of action to be accomplished recursively in an order always varying in any design occasion is an extremely useful exercise to understand the signification and the techniques of formalisation of design problems.
series eCAADe
email bcolajan@mbox.unipa.it
last changed 1998/08/18 14:26

_id cbed
authors Yakubu, G.S.
year 1994
title Maximising the Benefits of CAD Systems in Architectural Education
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 228
summary The positive impact of Computer Aided Design (CAD) in professional architectural practice has been in focus in recent times but relatively little has been written on its significance in the education of the contemporary architect. It is common knowledge that the profession of architecture is currently undergoing enormous strains as it battles to keep abreast of trends and developments in a period of series of rapid advancement in science, technology and management (RIBA, 1992). Whilst attempts are being made to redress the shortcomings of the profession in the above context, the requirements for architectural education are yet to forge a coherent strategy for the implementation of CAD/IT in the curriculum of schools of architecture. In almost every other field, including engineering, medicine and the humanities, computing application to problem-solving and decision-making is seen as a way forward as we move into 21st century. Architectural education must integrate CAD/IT into the teaching of core modules that give the architect distinctive competence: studio design. That is one of the best ways of doing justice to the education of the architect of today and the future. Some approaches to the teaching of CAD in schools of architecture have been touched upon in the recent past. Building upon this background as well as an understanding of the nature of design teaching/learning, this paper examines ways of maximising the benefits of CAD systems in architectural education and of bringing computer aided designing into the studio not only to enhance design thinking and creativity but also to support interactive processes. In order to maximise or optimise any function, one approach is to use the hard systems methodology which utilises analytic, analogic and iconic models to show the effect of those factors which are significant for the purposes being considered. The other approach is to use the soft systems methodology in which the analysis encompasses the concept of a human activity system as a means of improving a situation. The use of soft systems methodology is considered more appropriate for dealing with the problem of design which is characterised by a flux of interacting events and ideas that unroll through time. The paper concludes that the main impediment to maximising the benefits of CAD systems in architectural education is not only the inappropriate definition of the objectives for the implementation of CAD education but also that the control subsystems are usually ill-structured and relatively poorly defined. Schools must attempt to define a coherent and consistent policy on the use of CAD systems as an integral part of studio design and evolve an in-house strategic and operational controls that enable the set objectives to be met. Furthermore, it is necessary to support the high level of productivity from CAD systems with a more efficient management system, especially in dealing with communication, data sharing via relational database, co-ordination and integration. Finally, the use of soft systems methodology is recommended as the way forward to optimising CAD systems in design education as it would provide continuous improvements while maintaining their productive value.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:16

_id ebc6
authors Stoker, Douglas F. and Jones, Dennis B.
year 1992
title RISCAD: A SIMPLIFIED APPROACH TO CAD SYSTEM DESIGN
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 113-123
summary When employing CAD systems to the design task, it is usually the case that 90% of the work is accomplished by 10% of the capabilities of the system. These capabilities are often more appropriate to the tasks of modeling and drafting rather than exploring design alternatives. CAD system design might well benefit from the application of the RISC philosophy, namely, identify and incorporate only those capabilities most appropriate and frequently used in the design process and make them very powerful and efficient, provide the ability to combine those capabilities to form compound operations, simplify and streamline the user interface and maximize the use of computational power. The RISCAD system (Reduced Instruction Set Computer Aided Design System) takes this approach.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email dbjones@vt.edu
last changed 2006/03/22 20:41

_id sigradi2017_068
id sigradi2017_068
authors da Motta Gaspar, João Alberto; Regina Coeli Ruschel
year 2017
title A evolução do significado atribuído ao acrônimo BIM: Uma perspectiva no tempo [The evolution of the meaning ascribed to the acronym BIM: A perspective in time]
source SIGraDi 2017 [Proceedings of the 21th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-227-439-5] Chile, Concepción 22 - 24 November 2017, pp.461-469
summary The term Building Information Model emerged in 1992. It has evolved over time and has its meaning currently associated with an object-oriented modeling technology and an associated set of processes to produce, communicate and analyze building models. Its origin is related to several other, older terms. This paper registers the evolution of BIM and related definitions over time by means of a systematic literature review. We present a list of BIM-related terms and their meanings, organized by date of emergence, and charts showing which ones are most used over time, contributing to better understanding of the meaning of BIM.
keywords BIM; History of BIM; Building Information Model.
series SIGraDi
email 192355@unicamp.br
last changed 2018/07/27 08:08

_id 11b6
authors Kalmychkov, Vitaly A. and Smolyaninov, Alexander V.
year 1992
title Design of Object-Oriented Data Visualization System
source East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI'92 1992 pp. 463-470
summary The report is devoted to the data visualization system design and implementation, which provides the means for design of the image of the user's numeric information on the personal computer. The problems of design, architecture and operation of data visualization system which provides to user convenient means for constructing the numeric information image of required type is considered. Image constructing is executed by means of required sizes fields placing and filling of them by necessary content (coordinates system, graphs, inscriptions). User's interface with instrument system is object-oriented: after object (field or its content) choice user can manipulate of it, executing only those operations, that are determined for it as object of appointed function. Ergonomical and comfortable constructing is ensured by careful coordinated system of possible actions on each of image constructing stage and supported by icons menu and textual menu.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id bdbb
authors Pugh, D.
year 1992
title Designing solid objects using interactive sketch interpretation
source Computer Graphics (1992 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics), 25(2):117-126, Mar. 1992
summary Before the introduction of Computer Aided Design and solid modeling systems, designers had developed a set of techniques for designing solid objects by sketching their ideas on pencil and paper and refining them into workable designs. Unfortunately, these techniques are different from those for designing objects using a solid modeler. Not only does this waste avast reserve of talent and experience (people typically start drawing from the moment they can hold a crayon), but it also has a more fundamental problem: designers can use their intuition more effectively when sketching than they can when using a solid modeler. Viking is a solid modeling system whose user-interface is based on interactive sketch interpretation. Interactive sketch interpretation lets the designer create a line-drawing of a de- sired object while Viking generates a three-dimensional ob- ject description. This description is consistent with both the designer's line-drawing, and a set of geometric constraints either derived from the line-drawing or placed by the de- signer. Viking's object descriptions are fully compatible with the object descriptions used by traditional solid modelers. As a result, interactive sketch interpretation can be used with traditional solid modeling techniques, combining the advan- tages of both sketching and solid modeling.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id c93a
authors Saggio, Antonino
year 1992
title Object Based Modeling and Concept-Testing: A Framework for Studio Teaching
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 49-63
summary This chapter concludes with a proposal for a studio structure that incorporates computers as a creative stimulus in the design process. Three related experiences support this hypothesis: the role played in concrete designs by an Object Based Modeling environment, teaching with Computer Aided Architectural Design and OBM in the realm of documentation and analysis of architecture, previous applications of the Concept-Testing methodology in design studios. Examples from these three areas provide the framework for mutual support between OBM and a C-T approach for studio teaching. The central sections of the chapter focus on the analysis of these experiences, while the last section provides a 15 week, semester based, studio structure that incorporates OBM in the overall calendar and in key assignments.

series ACADIA
email Antonino.Saggio@Uniroma1.it
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

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