CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 101 to 120 of 244

_id 2467
authors Jockusch, Peter R.A.
year 1992
title How Can We Achieve a Good Building?
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 51-65 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper is concerned with the reasons and purposes for which we evaluate and predict building performance. The discussion is based on the author's experience, gained through the preparation and evaluation of more than 50 major architectural competitions
keywords An attempt is made to discover for whom and in what respect a building can be considered a 'good building,' by asking the following questions: What can prediction and evaluation of building performance achieve? How well can we assess the performance and value of an existing building within its socio-technical context? For what purposes and with what degree of confidence can the eventual performance of a designed and specified building be predicted? How do these evaluations compare to actual post occupancy performance? To what extent do the roles and motivations of assessors, evaluators, and decision makers affect the value-stating process? prediction, evaluation, performance, building, life cycle, design, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cc2f
authors Jog, Bharati
year 1992
title Evaluation of Designs for Energy Performance Using A Knowledge-Based System
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 293-304 : ill. includes a bibliography
summary Principles of knowledge-based (or expert) systems have been applied in different knowledge-rich domains such as geology, medicine, and very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI). There have been some efforts to develop expert systems for evaluation and prediction of architectural designs in this decade. This paper presents a prototype system, Energy Expert, which quickly computes the approximate yearly energy performance of a building design, analyzes the energy performance, and gives advice on possible ways of improving the design. These modifications are intended to make the building more energy efficient and help cut down on heating and cooling costs. The system is designed for the schematic design phase of an architectural project. Also discussed briefly is the reasoning behind developing such a system for the schematic design rather than the final design phase
keywords expert systems, energy, evaluation, performance, knowledge base, architecture, reasoning, programming, prediction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id ed4a
authors Kalisperis, Loukas N. and Groninger, Randal L.
year 1992
title Design Philosophy: Implications for Computer Integration in the Practice of Architecture
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 27-37
summary The growing complexities of modern environments and the socioeconomic pressures to maintain efficient design/build cycles have forced architects to seek new tools and methods to help them manage the processes that have developed as a result of new knowledge in architectural design. This trend has accelerated in the past few decades because of developments in both cognitive and computer sciences. In allied disciplines, the introduction and use of comPuters have significantly improved design practices. Yet at best, in disciplines such as architectural design, computational aids have attained marginal improvements in the design process despite efforts by universities in the professional education of architects.
series ACADIA
email lnk@email.psu.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id e7c8
authors Kalisperis, Loukas N., Steinman, Mitch and Summers, Luis H.
year 1992
title Design Knowledge, Environmental Complexity in Nonorthogonal Space
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 273-291 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Mechanization and industrialization of society has resulted in most people spending the greater part of their lives in enclosed environments. Optimal design of indoor artificial climates is therefore of increasing importance. Wherever artificial climates are created for human occupation, the aim is that the environment be designed so that individuals are in thermal comfort. Current design methodologies for radiant panel heating systems do not adequately account for the complexities of human thermal comfort, because they monitor air temperature alone and do not account for thermal neutrality in complex enclosures. Thermal comfort for a person is defined as that condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. Thermal comfort is dependent on Mean Radiant Temperature and Operative Temperature among other factors. In designing artificial climates for human occupancy the interaction of the human with the heated surfaces as well the surface-to-surface heat exchange must be accounted for. Early work in the area provided an elaborate and difficult method for calculating radiant heat exchange for simplistic and orthogonal enclosures. A new improved method developed by the authors for designing radiant panel heating systems based on human thermal comfort and mean radiant temperature is presented. Through automation and elaboration this method overcomes the limitations of the early work. The design procedure accounts for human thermal comfort in nonorthogonal as well as orthogonal spaces based on mean radiant temperature prediction. The limitation of simplistic orthogonal geometries has been overcome with the introduction of the MRT-Correction method and inclined surface-to-person shape factor methodology. The new design method increases the accuracy of calculation and prediction of human thermal comfort and will allow designers to simulate complex enclosures utilizing the latest design knowledge of radiant heat exchange to increase human thermal comfort
keywords applications, architecture, building, energy, systems, design, knowledge
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 88ca
authors Kane, Andy and Szalapaj, Peter
year 1992
title Teaching Design By Analysis of Precedents
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 477-496
summary Designers, using their intuitive understanding of the decomposition of particular design objects, whether in terms of structural, functional, or some other analytical framework, should be able to interact with computational environments such that the understanding they achieve in turn invokes changes or transformations to the spatial properties of design proposals. Decompositions and transformations of design precedents can be a very useful method of enabling design students to develop analytical strategies. The benefit of an analytical approach is that it can lead to a structured understanding of design precedents. This in turn allows students to develop their own insights and ideas which are central to the activity of designing. The creation of a 3-D library of user-defined models of precedents in a computational environment permits an under-exploited method of undertaking analysis, since by modelling design precedents through the construction of 3-D Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) models, and then analytically decomposing them in terms of relevant features, significant insights into the nature of designs can be achieved. Using CAAD systems in this way, therefore, runs counter to the more common approach of detailed modelling, rendering and animation; which produces realistic pictures that do not reflect the design thinking that went into their production. The significance of the analytical approach to design teaching is that it encourages students to represent design ideas, but not necessarily the final form of design objects. The analytical approach therefore, allows students to depict features and execute tasks that are meaningful with respect to design students' own knowledge of particular domains. Such computational interaction can also be useful in helping students explore the consequences of proposed actions in actual design contexts.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:43

_id c5d7
authors Kuffer, Monika
year 2003
title Monitoring the Dynamics of Informal Settlements in Dar Es Salaam by Remote Sensing: Exploring the Use of Spot, Ers and Small Format Aerial Photography
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary Dar es Salaam is exemplary for cities in the developing world facing an enormous population growth. In the last decades, unplanned settlements have tremendously expanded, causing that around 70 percent of the urban dwellers are living now-a-days in these areas. Tools for monitoring such tremendous growth are relatively weak in developing countries, thus an effective satellite based monitoring system can provide a useful instrument for monitoring the dynamics of urban development. An investigation to asses the ability of extracting reliable information on the expansion and consolidation levels (density) of urban development of the city of Dar es Salaam from SPOT-HRV and ERS-SAR images is described. The use of SPOT and ERS should provide data that is complementary to data derived from the most recent aerial photography and from digital topographic maps. In a series of experiments various classification and fusion techniques are applied to the SPOT-HRV and ERS-SAR data to extract information on building density that is comparable to that obtained from the 1992 data. Ultimately, building density is estimated by linear and non-linear regression models on the basis of an one ha kernel and further aggregation is made to the level of informal settlements for a final analysis. In order to assess the reliability, use is made of several sample areas that are relatively stable over the study period, as well as, of data derived from small format aerial photography. The experiments show a high correlation between the density data derived from the satellite images and the test areas.
series other
email monika.kuffer@oeaw.ac.at
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id ca47
authors Lee, Shu Wan
year 1996
title A Cognitive Approach to Architectural Style Several Characteristics of Design Thinking in Architecture
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 223-226
summary Designing is a complicated human behaviour and method, and is often treated as a mysterious "black box” operation in human mind. In the early period as for theory-studying of design thinking, the way of thinking that the researchers took were mostly descriptive discussions. Therefore, they lacked direct and empirical evidence although those studies provided significant exploration of design thinking (Wang, 1995). In recent years as for the study of cognitive science, they have tried to make design "glass box”. That is to try to make the thinking processes embedded in designers publicized. That is also to externalize the design procedure which provided the design studies another theoretical basis of more accurate and deeply researched procedure (Jones, 1992). Hence the studying of design thinking has become more important and the method of designing has also progressed a lot. For example, the classification of the nature of design problem such as ill-defined and well-defined (Newell, Shaw, and Simon, 1967), and different theoretical procedure modes for different disciplines, such as viewing architectural models as conjecture-analysis models and viewing engineering models as analysis-synthesis (Cross, 1991).
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:14

_id 8488
authors Liggett, Robin S.
year 1992
title A Designer-Automated Algorithm Partnership : An Interactive Graphic Approach to Facility Layout
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 101-123 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Automated solution technique for spatial allocation problems have long been an interest of researchers in computer-aided design. This paper describes research focusing on the use of an interactive graphic interface for the solution of facility layout problems which have quantifyable but sometimes competing criteria. The ideas presented in the paper have been implemented in a personal computer system
keywords algorithms, user interface, layout, synthesis, floor plans, architecture, facilities planning, automation, space allocation, optimization
series CADline
email rliggett@ucla.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 181b
authors Liou, Shuenn-Ren
year 1992
title A computer-based framework for analyzing and deriving the morphological structure of architectural designs
source University of Michigan
summary An approach to the acquisition and utilization of knowledge about the morphological structure of notable orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is formulated and tested. This approach consists of two levels of abstraction within which the analysis and comparison of existing designs and the derivation of new designs can be undertaken systematically and efficiently. Specifically, the morphological structure of orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is conceived as a language defined by shape grammar and architectural grammar corresponding to the geometric and spatial structures of the compositions. Lines constitute the shape grammar and walls and columns the architectural grammar. A computer program named ANADER is designed and implemented using the C++ object-oriented language to describe feasible compositions. It is argued that the gap between morphological analysis and synthesis is bridged partially because the proposed framework facilitates systematic comparisons of the morphological structures of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions and provides insight into the form-making process used to derive them. As an analytical system, the framework contributes to the generation of new and the assessment of existing morphological knowledge. Specifically, it is demonstrated that it is feasible to specify an existing architectural design by a set of universal rule schemata and the sequence of their application. As a generative system, the framework allows many of the tasks involved in the derivation of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions to be carried out. As well, it promotes the use of analytical results. In conclusion, it is argued that the proposed computer-based framework will provide the research and the educator with increasing opportunities for addressing persistent architectural questions in new ways. Of particular interest to this author are questions concerning the decision-making activities involved in form- and space-making as well as the description, classification, and derivation of architecutural form and space. It is suggested that, at least in reference to the cases examined, but probably also in reference to many other morphological classes, these and other related questions can be addressed systematically, efficiently, and fruitfully by using the proposed framework.  
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id a72b
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 1992
title Design as Formal Language
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 319-330
summary Geometry and language are disciplines with which architecture holds a strong relationship. They have highly structured natures, which make them well-suited for computer implementation. Architecture, on the other hand, lacks such an abstract and hierarchical system. This is one of the main obstacles to the integration of computers in architecture at this point. This paper presents the results of a pedagogic approach based on the association of language, geometry and computers. This association can be successfully used in the education of basic design principles that, although not directly related with architecture, are fundamental to the education of an architect.
series eCAADe
email madrazo@salleURL.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 65aa
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 1992
title From Sketches to Computer Images: A Strategy for the Application of Computers in Architectural Design
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 331-350
summary The use of computer tools in architectural practice has been steadily increasing in recent years. Many architectural offices are already using computer tools, mostly for production tasks. Hardly any design is being done with the computer. With the new computer tools, architects are confronted with the challenge to use computers to express their design ideas right from conception.

This paper describes a project made for a competition which recently took place in Spain. Sketches and computer models were the only tools used in designing this project. A variety of computer tools were used in different stages of this project: two dimensional drawing tools were used in the early stages, then a three-dimensional modeling program for the development of the design and for the production of final drawings, and a rendering program for final presentation images.

series eCAADe
email madrazo@salleURL.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 8b12
authors Manning, Peter and Mattar, Samir
year 1992
title A Preliminary to Development of Expert Systems for Total Design of Entire Buildings
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 215-237 : tables. includes bibliography
summary This paper has two primary objectives. The first is to represent the practicability of making the design of entire buildings a conscious, craftsman-like, activity conducted in the clear, without the mystery that tends, because of designers' usual 'black box' methods, to surround it. To this end, a design strategy and some tactics for resolving decisions at critical stages in the design process, which the authors have described elsewhere, are recapitulated to show how total design of buildings can be pursued in a generic manner. This done, the way is opened for the second objective: to make the large and important field of work that is building design amenable to computerization. The form that pursuit of this second objective is taking is being influenced greatly by growing interest in expert systems, which for everyday professional building design appears a more useful development than previous CAD emphases on drafting and graphics. Application of the authors' design methods to a series of expert systems for the total design of entire buildings is therefore indicated. For such a vast project--the formulation of bases for design assistance and expert systems that can be integrated and used as a generic method for the total design of entire buildings, so that the results are more certain and successful than the outcome of the generality of present-day building design--the most that can be attempted within the limits of a single paper is a set of examples of some of the stages in the process. Nevertheless, since the design method described begins at the 'large end' of the process, where the most consequential decisions are made, it is hoped that the major thrusts and the essential CAD activities will be evident. All design is substantially iterative, and provided that the major iterations are intelligible, there should be no need for this demonstration to labor over the lesser ones
keywords evaluation, integration, architecture, building, expert systems, design methods, design process
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 9d0c
authors McVey, G., McCrobie, D., Evans, D., McIlvaine Parsons, D., Templar, J. Konz, S. and Caldwell, B.
year 1992
title Interactions between Environmental Design and Human Factors Specialists ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Panel
source Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992 v.1 pp. 575-577
summary Most of the interactions between human factors specialists, such as ergonomists, and environmental specialists such as facility planners and architects tend to be task specific and do not follow any accepted process. Consequently, the success of such interactions are usually a function of serendipity rather than informed expectation. It is anticipated that by gathering such specialists in an open discussion, relevant issues may be addressed and successful interaction procedures introduced and discussed. Such a forum is desirable for developing an understanding of the differences, educational and operational, between environmental design specialists, and human factors specialists, as well as for exploring the ways their communications can be enhanced. It is anticipated that by sharing their experiences with the attendees, the presenters will identify relevant on-going knowledge transfer activities, and also introduce and discuss practical problem-solving and communication methods that can be used with assurance by the attendees themselves when faced with similar problems in the future. This panel will focus on issues that arrive out of situations where human factors specialists and environmental design specialists are joined together in project development. The specialties represented include architecture, facility planning, environmental psychology, ergonomic research, industrial design and engineering, and equipment and furniture design and manufacturing.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 677b
authors Mohsini, R.A.
year 1992
title On Measuring Project Performance : Some Problems of Aggregation
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 239-249 : tables. includes bibliography
summary Performance evaluation of buildings--by means of postconstruction evaluation--has traditionally focused on the performance measurement of building subsystems. This approach, based on the horizontal view of the building process, suffers from two important shortcomings. First, its underlying assumption that a completed building's performance can be arrived at simply by aggregating the individual performances of its parts is not valid. Like most complex systems, a completed building is much more than the sum of its parts. Second, the focus of traditional appraisal on subsystems, with its feedback information on individual products and services, actively encourages suboptimization of tasks. It is a condition that is contrary to the requirements imposed by the multiorganizational nature of the building team, and the resulting interdependence of tasks, where useful feedback information is that which relates to the project as a whole. To overcome these shortcomings of the traditional building appraisal model, an alternative model based on the vertical view of the building process is proposed
keywords construction, management, building, multicriteria, evaluation, performance
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ddss9215
id ddss9215
authors Mortola, E. and Giangrande, A.
year 1993
title A trichotomic segmentation procedure to evaluate projects in architecture
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary This paper illustrates a model used to construct the evaluation module for An Interface for Designing (AID), a system to aid architectural design. The model can be used at the end of every cycle of analysis-synthesis-evaluation in the intermediate phases of design development. With the aid of the model it is possible to evaluate the quality of a project in overall terms to establish whether the project is acceptable, whether it should be elaborated ex-novo, or whether it is necessary to begin a new cycle to improve it. In this last case, it is also possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the possible actions and strategies for improvement. The model is based on a procedure of trichotomic segmentation, developed with MCDA (Multi-Criteria Decision Aid), which uses the outranking relation to compare the project with some evaluation profiles taken as projects of reference. An application of the model in the teaching field will also be described.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 3105
authors Novak, T.P., Hoffman, D.L., and Yung, Y.-F.
year 1996
title Modeling the structure of the flow experience
source INFORMS Marketing Science and the Internet Mini-Conference, MIT
summary The flow construct (Csikszentmihalyi 1977) has recently been proposed by Hoffman and Novak (1996) as essential to understanding consumer navigation behavior in online environments such as the World Wide Web. Previous researchers (e.g. Csikszentmihalyi 1990; Ghani, Supnick and Rooney 1991; Trevino and Webster 1992; Webster, Trevino and Ryan 1993) have noted that flow is a useful construct for describing more general human-computer interactions. Hoffman and Novak define flow as the state occurring during network navigation which is: 1) characterized by a seamless sequence of responses facilitated by machine interactivity, 2) intrinsically enjoyable, 3) accompanied by a loss of self-consciousness, and 4) selfreinforcing." To experience flow while engaged in an activity, consumers must perceive a balance between their skills and the challenges of the activity, and both their skills and challenges must be above a critical threshold. Hoffman and Novak (1996) propose that flow has a number of positive consequences from a marketing perspective, including increased consumer learning, exploratory behavior, and positive affect."
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id cb5a
authors Oxman, Rivka E.
year 1992
title Multiple Operative and Interactive Modes in Knowledge-Based Design Systems
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 125-143 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A conceptual basis for the development of an expert system which is capable of integrating various modes of generation and evaluation in design is presented. This approach is based upon two sets of reasoning processes in the design system. The first enables a mapping between design requirements and solution descriptions in a generative mode of design; and the second enables a mapping between solution descriptions and performance evaluation in an evaluative and predictive mode. This concept supports a formal framework necessary for a knowledge-based design system to operate in a design partnership relation with the designer. Another fundamental concept in expert systems for design, dual direction interpretation between graphic and textual modes, is presented and elaborated. This encoding of knowledge behind the geometrical representation can be achieved in knowledge- based design systems by the development of a 'semantic interpreter' which supports a dual direction mapping process employing a geometrical knowledge, typological knowledge and evaluative knowledge. An implemented expert system for design, PREDIKT, demonstrates these concepts in the domain of kitchen design. It provides the user with a choice of alternative modes of interaction, such as: a 'design critic' for the evaluation of a design, a 'design generator' for the generation of a design, or a 'design critic-generator' for the completion of partial solutions
keywords architecture, knowledge base, design, systems, expert systems
series CADline
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 975e
authors Pearce, M. and Goel, A. (et al.)
year 1992
title Case-Based Design support: A case study in architectural design
source IEEE Expert 7(5): 14-20
summary Archie, a small computer-based library of architectural design cases, is described. Archie helps architects in the high-level task of conceptual design as opposed to low-level tasks such as drawing and drafting, numerical calculations, and constraint propagation. Archie goes beyond supporting architects in design proposal and critiquing. It acts as a shared external memory that supports two kinds of design collaboration. First, by including enough knowledge about the goals, plans, outcomes, and lessons of past cases, it lets the designer access the work of previous architects. Second, by providing access to the perspectives of domain experts via the domain models, Archie helps architects anticipate and accommodate experts' views on evolving designs. The lessons learned about building large case-based systems to support real-world decision making in developing Archie are discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 6f8a
authors Pittioni, Gernot
year 1992
title Concepts of CAAD-Instruction
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 363-376
summary Today we can look back on several years of data processing support in architecture. When computer aided architectural design - CAAD - entered the field there was a lot of utter confusion in the beginning, a lot more than usually in other more technical application-fields of CAD. The architect is a very special CAD-user, as he is a very special member of all those other very analytical and scientific faculties around. There is a lot of tradition involved, tradition that has got its roots far back in medieval and classic periods and is rich of art and creativity and intuition. Mostly lots more of this than scientific analysis, exact research, and similar stuff. We could spot a large number of architects who would have been horrified when they are confronted with the analytic research of the very basic problem as how architects are designing - the methods, the procedures and the ways of thinking. And there CAAD was entering the architects' studios. No question that this caused a lot of trouble. CAD in architecture is a very provoking subject as the new tool is going to gain ground against the tradition of centuries of handmade architectural designs and drawings. And there we don't even touch the future aspects of the computer's architectural design support - what about the imminent threat of computer support in the holy domain of architectural creativity and intuition. What about the uneasy idea of CAAD in connection with artificial intelligence? The problem of CAAD-education has been largely neglected through a number of years. If there existed a certain horror looking at the mere idea of CAD-support in architecture, horror became to outrage, when university education was discussed. In our days we can stay a good deal more relaxed, when we speak of CAAD education - we not only got used to it, we are convinced, that the whole subject is of high importance.

keywords Concepts of Education
series eCAADe
email pitt_ing@t-online.de
last changed 1998/08/18 14:31

_id ddss9210
id ddss9210
authors Poortman, E.R.
year 1993
title Ratios for cost control
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The design of buildings takes place in phases representing a development from rough to precision planning. Estimates are made in order to test whether the result is still within the budget set by the client or developer. In this way, the decisions taken during the design phase can be quantified and expressed in monetary terms. To prevent blaming the wrong person when an overrun is discovered, the cost control process has to be improved. For that purpose, two new procedures have been developed: (i) a new translation activity; and (ii) ratios by which quantities can be characterized. 'Translation is the opposite of estimation. A monetary budget is converted -'translated' - into quantities, reflecting the desired quality of the building materials. The financial constraints of the client are thus converted into quantities - the building components used by the designers. Characteristic quantity figures play an important role in this activity. In working out an estimate, the form factor (i.e., the ratio between two characteristic values of a building component) has to be determined. The unit cost is then tested against that ratio. The introduction of the 'translation' activity and the use of characteristic quantity figures and form factors enhance existing estimation methods. By implementing these procedures, cost control becomes considerably more reliable.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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