CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 41 to 60 of 243

_id a081
authors Greenberg S., Roseman M. and Webster, D.
year 1992
title Issues and Experiences Designing and Implementing Two Group Drawing Tools
source Readings in Groupware, 609-620
summary Groupware designers are now developing multi-user equivalents of popular paint and draw applications. Their job is not an easy one. First, human factors issues peculiar to group interaction appear that, if ignored, seriously limit the usability of the group tool. Second, implementation is fraught with considerable hurdles. This paper describes the issues and experiences we have met and handled in the design of two systems supporting remote real time group interaction: GroupSketch, a multi-user sketchpad; and GroupDraw, an object-based multi-user draw package. On the human factors side, we summarize empirically-derived design principles that we believe are critical to building useful and usable collaborative drawing tools. On the implementation side, we describe our experiences with replicated versus centralized architectures, schemes for participant registration, multiple cursors, network requirements, and the structure of the drawing primitives.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 56de
authors Handa, M., Hasegawa, Y., Matsuda, H., Tamaki, K., Kojima, S., Matsueda, K., Takakuwa, T. and Onoda, T.
year 1996
title Development of interior finishing unit assembly system with robot: WASCOR IV research project report
source Automation in Construction 5 (1) (1996) pp. 31-38
summary The WASCOR (WASeda Construction Robot) research project was organized in 1982 by Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, aiming at automatizing building construction with a robot. This project is collaborated by nine general contractors and a construction machinery manufacturer. The WASCOR research project has been divided into four phases with the development of the study and called WASCOR I, II, III, and IV respectively. WASCOR I, II, and III finished during the time from 1982 to 1992 in a row with having 3-4 years for each phase, and WASCOR IV has been continued since 1993. WASCOR IV has been working on a automatized building interior finishing system. This system consists of following three parts. (1) Development of building system and construction method for automated interior finishing system. (2) Design of hardware system applied to automated interior finishing system. (3) Design of information management system in automated construction. As the research project has been developing, this paper describes the interim report of (1) Development of building system and construction method for automated interior finishing system, and (2) Design of hardware system applied to automated interior finishing system.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 32eb
authors Henry, Daniel
year 1992
title Spatial Perception in Virtual Environments : Evaluating an Architectural Application
source University of Washington
summary Over the last several years, professionals from many different fields have come to the Human Interface Technology Laboratory (H.I.T.L) to discover and learn about virtual environments. In general, they are impressed by their experiences and express the tremendous potential the tool has in their respective fields. But the potentials are always projected far in the future, and the tool remains just a concept. This is justifiable because the quality of the visual experience is so much less than what people are used to seeing; high definition television, breathtaking special cinematographic effects and photorealistic computer renderings. Instead, the models in virtual environments are very simple looking; they are made of small spaces, filled with simple or abstract looking objects of little color distinctions as seen through displays of noticeably low resolution and at an update rate which leaves much to be desired. Clearly, for most applications, the requirements of precision have not been met yet with virtual interfaces as they exist today. However, there are a few domains where the relatively low level of the technology could be perfectly appropriate. In general, these are applications which require that the information be presented in symbolic or representational form. Having studied architecture, I knew that there are moments during the early part of the design process when conceptual decisions are made which require precisely the simple and representative nature available in existing virtual environments. This was a marvelous discovery for me because I had found a viable use for virtual environments which could be immediately beneficial to architecture, my shared area of interest. It would be further beneficial to architecture in that the virtual interface equipment I would be evaluating at the H.I.T.L. happens to be relatively less expensive and more practical than other configurations such as the "Walkthrough" at the University of North Carolina. The set-up at the H.I.T.L. could be easily introduced into architectural firms because it takes up very little physical room (150 square feet) and it does not require expensive and space taking hardware devices (such as the treadmill device for simulating walking). Now that the potential for using virtual environments in this architectural application is clear, it becomes important to verify that this tool succeeds in accurately representing space as intended. The purpose of this study is to verify that the perception of spaces is the same, in both simulated and real environment. It is hoped that the findings of this study will guide and accelerate the process by which the technology makes its way into the field of architecture.
keywords Space Perception; Space (Architecture); Computer Simulation
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 6e99
authors Hoffer, Erin Rae
year 1992
title Creating the Electronic Design Studio: Development of a Heterogeneous Networked Environment at Harvard's Graduate School of Design
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 225-240
summary The migration of design education to reliance on computer-based techniques requires new ways of thinking about environments which can effectively support a diverse set of activities. Both from a spatial standpoint and a computing resource standpoint, design studios must be inevitably reconfigured to support new tools and reflect new ways of communicating. At Harvard's GSD, a commitment to incorporating computer literacy as a fundamental component of design education enables us to confront these issues through the implementation of a heterogeneous network imbedded in an electronic design environment. This evolving prototype of a new design studio, its development and its potential, will be the subject of this paper. A new style design environment is built upon an understanding of traditional techniques, and layered with an awareness of new tools and methods. Initially we borrow from existing metaphors which govern our interpretation of the way designers work. Next we seek to extend our thinking to include allied or related metaphors such as the library metaphor which informs collections of software and data, or the laboratory metaphor which informs workspace groupings, or the transportation metaphor which informs computer-based communications such as electronic mail or bulletin boards, or the utility services metaphor which informs the provision of network services and equipment. Our evaluation of this environment is based on direct feedback from its users, both faculty and students, and on subjective observation of the qualitative changes in communication which occur between and among these groups and individuals. Ultimately, the network must be judged as a framework for learning and evaluation, and its success depends both on its ability to absorb our existing metaphors for the process of design, and to prefigure the emerging metaphors to be envisioned in the future.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:15

_id ab4d
authors Huang, Tao-Kuang, Degelman, Larry O., and Larsen, Terry R.
year 1992
title A Visualization Model for Computerized Energy Evaluation During the Conceptual Design Stage (ENERGRAPH)
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 195-206
summary Energy performance is a crucial step toward responsible design. Currently there are many tools that can be applied to reach this goal with reasonable accuracy. Often times, however, major flaws are not discovered until the final stage of design when it is too late to change. Not only are existing simulation models complicated to apply at the conceptual design stage, but energy principles and their applications are also abstract and hard to visualize. Because of the lack of suitable tools to visualize energy analysis output, energy conservation concepts fail to be integrated into the building design. For these reasons, designers tend not to apply energy conservation concepts at the early design stage. However, since computer graphics is a new phase of visual communication in design process, the above problems might be solved properly through a computerized graphical interface in the conceptual design stage.

The research described in this paper is the result of exploring the concept of using computer graphics to support energy efficient building designs. It focuses on the visualization of building energy through a highly interactive graphical interface in the early design stage.

series ACADIA
email l-degelman@neo.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id caadria2004_k-1
id caadria2004_k-1
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 2004
title CONTEXTUALIZATION AND EMBODIMENT IN CYBERSPACE
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 5-14
summary The introduction of VRML (Virtual Reality Markup Language) in 1994, and other similar web-enabled dynamic modeling software (such as SGI’s Open Inventor and WebSpace), have created a rush to develop on-line 3D virtual environments, with purposes ranging from art, to entertainment, to shopping, to culture and education. Some developers took their cues from the science fiction literature of Gibson (1984), Stephenson (1992), and others. Many were web-extensions to single-player video games. But most were created as a direct extension to our new-found ability to digitally model 3D spaces and to endow them with interactive control and pseudo-inhabitation. Surprisingly, this technologically-driven stampede paid little attention to the core principles of place-making and presence, derived from architecture and cognitive science, respectively: two principles that could and should inform the essence of the virtual place experience and help steer its development. Why are the principles of place-making and presence important for the development of virtual environments? Why not simply be content with our ability to create realistically-looking 3D worlds that we can visit remotely? What could we possibly learn about making these worlds better, had we understood the essence of place and presence? To answer these questions we cannot look at place-making (both physical and virtual) from a 3D space-making point of view alone, because places are not an end unto themselves. Rather, places must be considered a locus of contextualization and embodiment that ground human activities and give them meaning. In doing so, places acquire a meaning of their own, which facilitates, improves, and enriches many aspects of our lives. They provide us with a means to interpret the activities of others and to direct our own actions. Such meaning is comprised of the social and cultural conceptions and behaviors imprinted on the environment by the presence and activities of its inhabitants, who in turn, ‘read’ by them through their own corporeal embodiment of the same environment. This transactional relationship between the physical aspects of an environment, its social/cultural context, and our own embodiment of it, combine to create what is known as a sense of place: the psychological, physical, social, and cultural framework that helps us interpret the world around us, and directs our own behavior in it. In turn, it is our own (as well as others’) presence in that environment that gives it meaning, and shapes its social/cultural character. By understanding the essence of place-ness in general, and in cyberspace in particular, we can create virtual places that can better support Internet-based activities, and make them equal to, in some cases even better than their physical counterparts. One of the activities that stands to benefit most from understanding the concept of cyber-places is learning—an interpersonal activity that requires the co-presence of others (a teacher and/or fellow learners), who can point out the difference between what matters and what does not, and produce an emotional involvement that helps students learn. Thus, while many administrators and educators rush to develop webbased remote learning sites, to leverage the economic advantages of one-tomany learning modalities, these sites deprive learners of the contextualization and embodiment inherent in brick-and-mortar learning institutions, and which are needed to support the activity of learning. Can these qualities be achieved in virtual learning environments? If so, how? These are some of the questions this talk will try to answer by presenting a virtual place-making methodology and its experimental implementation, intended to create a sense of place through contextualization and embodiment in virtual learning environments.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/20 16:37

_id ddss9217
id ddss9217
authors Kim, Y.S. and Brawne, M.
year 1993
title An approach to evaluating exhibition spaces in art galleries
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary There are certain building types in which movement of people is the most significant evaluation factor. Among these are art galleries and museums. Unlike other building types, which are often explicated by investigating the relationship between people and people, and between people and the built environment, art galleries and museums are a building type in which the social relationship between people hardly exists and peoples movement through space, that is, the functional relationship between people and space, is one of the most significant factors for their description. The typical museum experience is through direct, sequential, and visual contact with static objects on display as the visitor moves. Therefore, the movement pattern of the visitors must exert a significant influence on achieving the specific goal of a museum. There is a critical need for predicting the consequences of particular spatial configurations with respect to visitors movement. In this sense, it is the intention of this paper to find out the relationship between the spatial configuration of exhibition space and the visitors' movement pattern.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0b53
authors Lawrence, Roderick J.
year 1992
title CHARACTERISTICS OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN-TOOLS
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part B, pp. 7-14
summary The professional roles and fonctions of architects are linked to the societal context in which they practice. Furthermore, this context, which is not static, has a relationship to the ways in which institutions, groups and individuals are involved in processes for the design and construction of the built environment. This presentation illustrates how the roles and functions of architects, other professionals, their clients and the general public have a bearing on the tools and methods used by the architectural profession to simulate design projects. Traditionally, sketches, renderings and pattern books were used. Then, they were supplemented by axonometric and perspective drawings, written and diagrammatic specifications, photographs and small-scale models. In recent decades mathematical models of diverse kinds, simulation techniques -including small- and full-scale modelling kits -as well as computer aided design and drafting systems have been used. This paper briefly presents these kinds of tools and then presents a typology of them. In conclusion, possible applications for the future are discussed.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email lawrence@uni2a.unige.ch
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:39

_id caadria2014_071
id caadria2014_071
authors Li, Lezhi; Renyuan Hu, Meng Yao, Guangwei Huang and Ziyu Tong
year 2014
title Sculpting the Space: A Circulation Based Approach to Generative Design in a Multi-Agent System
source Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014) / Kyoto 14-16 May 2014, pp. 565–574
summary This paper discusses an MAS (multiagent system) based approach to generating architectural spaces that afford better modes of human movement. To achieve this, a pedestrian simulation is carried out to record the data with regard to human spatial experience during the walking process. Unlike common practices of performance oriented generation where final results are achieved through cycles of simulation and comparison, what we propose here is to let human’s movement exert direct influence on space. We made this possible by asking "humans" to project simulation data on architectural surroundings, and thus cause the layout to change for the purpose of affording what we designate as good spatial experiences. A generation experiment of an exhibition space is implemented to explore this approach, in which tentative rules of such spatial manipulation are proposed and tested through space syntax analyse. As the results suggested, by looking at spatial layouts through a lens of human behaviour, this projection-and-generation method provides some insight into space qualities that other methods could not have offered.
keywords Performance oriented generative design; projection; multi-agent system; pedestrian simulation; space syntax
series CAADRIA
email caroline.li.1992@gmail.com
last changed 2014/04/22 08:23

_id a2e6
authors Liggett, R.S., Mitchell, W.J. and Tan, M.
year 1992
title Multi-Level Analysis and Optimization of Design
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 2512-269 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper discusses a knowledge-based computer-aided design system, that provides multi-level analysis capabilities, and that automatically propagates constraints on design variables from level to level. It also Supports formulation and solution of optimization problems at different levels, so that a solution can be approached by solving a sequence of appropriately constrained sub-optimization problems. Theory and implementation are discussed, and a detailed case study of application to the design of small house plans is provided
keywords constraints, design, methods, knowledge base, CAD, systems, analysis, optimization, automation, user interface, shape grammars
series CADline
email rliggett@ucla.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id ddss9208
id ddss9208
authors Lucardie, G.L.
year 1993
title A functional approach to realizing decision support systems in technical regulation management for design and construction
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Technical building standards defining the quality of buildings, building products, building materials and building processes aim to provide acceptable levels of safety, health, usefulness and energy consumption. However, the logical consistency between these goals and the set of regulations produced to achieve them is often hard to identify. Not only the large quantities of highly complex and frequently changing building regulations to be met, but also the variety of user demands and the steadily increasing technical information on (new) materials, products and buildings have produced a very complex set of knowledge and data that should be taken into account when handling technical building regulations. Integrating knowledge technology and database technology is an important step towards managing the complexity of technical regulations. Generally, two strategies can be followed to integrate knowledge and database technology. The main emphasis of the first strategy is on transferring data structures and processing techniques from one field of research to another. The second approach is concerned exclusively with the semantic structure of what is contained in the data-based or knowledge-based system. The aim of this paper is to show that the second or knowledge-level approach, in particular the theory of functional classifications, is more fundamental and more fruitful. It permits a goal-directed rationalized strategy towards analysis, use and application of regulations. Therefore, it enables the reconstruction of (deep) models of regulations, objects and of users accounting for the flexibility and dynamics that are responsible for the complexity of technical regulations. Finally, at the systems level, the theory supports an effective development of a new class of rational Decision Support Systems (DSS), which should reduce the complexity of technical regulations and restore the logical consistency between the goals of technical regulations and the technical regulations themselves.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id a582
authors Marshall, Tony B.
year 1992
title The Computer as a Graphic Medium in Conceptual Design
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 39-47
summary The success CAD has experienced in the architectural profession demonstrates that architects have been willing to replace traditional drafting media with computers and electronic plotters for the production of working drawings. Its expanded use in the design development phase for 3D modeling and rendering further justifies CAD's usefulness as a presentation medium. The schematic design phase however, has hardly been influenced by the evolution of CAD. Most architects simply have not come to view the computer as a viable design medium. One reason for this might be the strong correspondence between architectural CAD and plan view graphics, as used in working drawings, compared to the weak correspondence between architectural CAD and plan view graphics, as used in schematic design. The role of the actual graphic medium during schematic design should not be overlooked in the development of CAD applications.

In order to produce practical CAD applications for schematic design we must explore the computer’s potential as a form of expression and its role as a graphic medium. An examination of the use of traditional graphic media during schematic design will provide some clues regarding what capabilities CAD must provide and how a system should operate in order to be useful during conceptual design.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 13:56

_id 2c22
authors O'Neill, Michael J.
year 1992
title Neural Network Simulation as a Computer- Aided design Tool For Predicting Wayfinding Performance
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 347-366 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Complex public facilities such as libraries, hospitals, and governmental buildings often present problems to users who must find their way through them. Research shows that difficulty in wayfinding has costs in terms of time, money, public safety, and stress that results from being lost. While a wide range of architectural research supports the notion that ease of wayfinding should be a criterion for good design, architects have no method for evaluating how well their building designs will support the wayfinding task. People store and retrieve information about the layout of the built environment in a knowledge representation known as the cognitive map. People depend on the information stored in the cognitive map to find their way through buildings. Although there are numerous simulations of the cognitive map, the mechanisms of these models are not constrained by what is known about the neurophysiology of the brain. Rather, these models incorporate search mechanisms that act on semantically encoded information about the environment. In this paper the author describes the evaluation and application of an artificial neural network simulation of the cognitive map as a means of predicting wayfinding behavior in buildings. This simulation is called NAPS-PC (Network Activity Processing Simulator--PC version). This physiologically plausible model represents knowledge about the layout of the environment through a network of inter-connected processing elements. The performance of NAPS-PC was evaluated against actual human wayfinding performance. The study found that the simulation generated behavior that matched the performance of human participants. After the validation, NAPS-PC was modified so that it could read environmental information directly from AutoCAD (a popular micro-computer-based CAD software package) drawing files, and perform 'wayfinding' tasks based on that environmental information. This prototype tool, called AutoNet, is conceptualized as a means of allowing designers to predict the wayfinding performance of users in a building before it is actually built
keywords simulation, cognition, neural networks, evaluation, floor plans, applications, wayfinding, layout, building
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c804
authors Richens, P.
year 1994
title Does Knowledge really Help?
source G. Carrara and Y.E. Kalay (Eds.), Knowledge-Based Computer-Aided Architectural Design, Elsevier
summary The Martin Centre CADLAB has recently been established to investigate software techniques that could be of practical importance to architects within the next five years. In common with most CAD researchers, we are interested in the earlier, conceptual, stages of design, where commercial CAD systems have had little impact. Our approach is not Knowledge-Based, but rather focuses on using the computer as a medium for design and communication. This leads to a concentration on apparently superficial aspects such as visual appearance, the dynamics of interaction, immediate feedback, plasticity. We try to avoid building-in theoretical attitudes, and to reduce the semantic content of our systems to a low level on the basis that flexibility and intelligence are inversely related; and that flexibility is more important. The CADLAB became operational in January 1992. First year work in three areas – building models, experiencing architecture, and making drawings – is discussed.
series other
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2003/03/05 12:19

_id daff
authors Richens, P.
year 1994
title CAD Research at the Martin Centre
source Automation in Construction, No. 3
summary The Martin Centre CADLAB has recently been established to investigate software techniques that could be of practical importance to architects within the next five years. In common with most CAD researchers, we are interested in the earlier, conceptual, stages of design, where commercial CAD systems have had little impact. Our approach is not Knowledge-Based, but rather focuses on using the computer as a medium for design and communication. This leads to a concentration on apparently superficial aspects such as visual appearance, the dynamics of interaction, immediate feedback, plasticity. We try to avoid building-in theoretical attitudes, and to reduce the semantic content of our systems to a low level on the basis that flexibility and intelligence are inversely related; and that flexibility is more important. The CADLAB became operational in January 1992. First year work in three areas – building models, experiencing architecture, and making drawings – is discussed.
series journal
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/pdfs/rich94a.pdf
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 1992
authors Russell, Peter
year 2002
title Using Higher Level Programming in Interdisciplinary teams as a means of training for Concurrent Engineering
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 14-19
summary The paper explains a didactical method for training students that has been run three times to date. The premise of the course is to combine students from different faculties into interdisciplinary teams. These teams then have a complex problem to resolve within an extremely short time span. In light of recent works from Joy and Kurzweil, the theme Robotics was chosen as an exercise that is timely, interesting and related, but not central to the studies of the various faculties. In groups of 3 to 5, students from faculties of architecture, computer science and mechanical engineering are entrusted to design, build and program a robot which must successfully execute a prescribed set of actions in a competitive atmosphere. The entire course lasts ten days and culminates with the competitive evaluation. The robots must navigate a labyrinth, communicate with on another and be able to cover longer distances with some speed. In order to simplify the resources available to the students, the Lego Mindstorms Robotic syshed backgrounds instaed of synthetic ones. The combination of digitally produced (scanned) sperical images together with the use of HDR open a wide range of new implementation in the field of architecture, especially in combining synthetic elements in existing buildings, e.g. new interior elements in an existing historical museum).ural presentations in the medium of computer animation. These new forms of expression of design thoughts and ideas go beyond mere model making, and move more towards scenemaking and storytelling. The latter represents new methods of expression within computational environments for architects and designers.its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosg and programming a winning robot. These differences became apparent early in the sessions and each group had to find ways to communicate their ideas and to collectively develop them by building on the strengths of each team member.
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2013/02/04 06:17

_id 831d
authors Seebohm, Thomas
year 1992
title Discoursing on Urban History Through Structured Typologies
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 157-175
summary How can urban history be studied with the aid of three-dimensional computer modeling? One way is to model known cities at various times in history, using historical records as sources of data. While such studies greatly enhance the understanding of the form and structure of specific cities at specific points in time, it is questionable whether such studies actually provide a true understanding of history. It can be argued that they do not because such studies only show a record of one of many possible courses of action at various moments in time. To gain a true understanding of urban history one has to place oneself back in historical time to consider all of the possible courses of action which were open in the light of the then current situation of the city, to act upon a possible course of action and to view the consequences in the physical form of the city. Only such an understanding of urban history can transcend the memory of the actual and hence the behavior of the possible. Moreover, only such an understanding can overcome the limitations of historical relativism, which contends that historical fact is of value only in historical context, with the realization, due to Benedetto Croce and echoed by Rudolf Bultmann, that the horizon of "'deeper understanding" lies in "'the actuality of decision"' (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990).

One cannot conduct such studies on real cities except, perhaps, as a point of departure at some specific point in time to provide an initial layout for a city knowing that future forms derived by the studies will diverge from that recorded in history. An entirely imaginary city is therefore chosen. Although the components of this city at the level of individual buildings are taken from known cities in history, this choice does not preclude alternative forms of the city. To some degree, building types are invariants and, as argued in the Appendix, so are the urban typologies into which they may be grouped. In this imaginary city students of urban history play the role of citizens or groups of citizens. As they defend their interests and make concessions, while interacting with each other in their respective roles, they determine the nature of the city as it evolves through the major periods of Western urban history in the form of threedimensional computer models.

My colleague R.J. van Pelt and I presented this approach to the study of urban history previously at ACADIA (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990). Yet we did not pay sufficient attention to the manner in which such urban models should be structured and how the efforts of the participants should be coordinated. In the following sections I therefore review what the requirements are for three-dimensional modeling to support studies in urban history as outlined both from the viewpoint of file structure of the models and other viewpoints which have bearing on this structure. Three alternative software schemes of progressively increasing complexity are then discussed with regard to their ability to satisfy these requirements. This comparative study of software alternatives and their corresponding file structures justifies the present choice of structure in relation to the simpler and better known generic alternatives which do not have the necessary flexibility for structuring the urban model. Such flexibility means, of course, that in the first instance the modeling software is more timeconsuming to learn than a simple point and click package in accord with the now established axiom that ease of learning software tools is inversely related to the functional power of the tools. (Smith 1987).

series ACADIA
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id ddss9213
id ddss9213
authors Shabha, G.S.
year 1993
title Development of objective methods for measuring flexibility of school buildings
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary This research investigates many problems related to the design for change and flexibility of school buildings. The problem of change proves to be highly complex due to the unpredictability and the difficulty of measuring change. Many deficiencies have been identified in the previous methods concerning lack of indicators for measuring flexibility, reliability and insufficiency of data for indicating change in buildings over use. In the light of the above problems, two main objectives have been established: (i) to propose operational measures of the extent of incorporation of design variables in school designs, and (ii) to propose operational measures of the extent of flexibility of school buildings in use. However, due to the limitations this paper is bound to, the investigation will focus on the second objective. It is anticipated that such operational measures might provide a framework for both architects and researchers, during the early design stage, to ensure that their conjectures about the potential of flexibility might be enhanced during use; hence, improving their prediction of buildings performance over use. This might assist in developing a more coherent objective body of knowledge, which could be fruitfully manipulated during the early design stage to enhance the effectiveness of flexibility in use.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0719
authors Shiffer, M.J.
year 1992
title Towards a collaborative planning system
source Environment and Planning B, Volume 19, 1992, pp. 709-722
summary This article begins by exploring the problem of combining the elements of group cognition, access to media, and access to tools into a holistic planning process. It then discusses a way in which technology can be used to help combine these activities by incorporating graphical interfaces, associative information structuring, and computer-supported collaborative work into a microcomputer-based Collaborative Planning System (CPS). Methods for the development of a CPS are proposed and two systems are explored as examples. It is concluded that increased access to relevant information, aided by the implementation of a CPS, can ultimately lead to greater communication amongst participants in a group planning situation. This will ultimately have a positive effect on the quality of plans and decisions.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9203
id ddss9203
authors Smeets, J.
year 1993
title Housing tenancy, data management and quality control
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary This paper deals with housing tenancy, data management and quality control. The proposed method is focused on quality characteristics of housing estates in view of rentability risks. It entails a cycle of registration, analysis and implementation of measures. The starting point is the behaviour of the housing consumer in a market-oriented context. The model is framed within theories of strategic management and marketing. Systematic registration and evaluation of consumer behaviour, by means of a set of relevant process and product indicators, can yield relevant information in the four phases of the rental process: orientation, intake, dwelling and exit. This information concerns the way in which the dwelling (characterized by product indicators) fits the needs of the consumer. The systematic analysis of the process and product indicators during the phases of the rental process makes a 'strength-weakness analysis' of housing estates possible. The indicators can be presented in aggregated form by way of a 'rentability index. The 'strength-weakness analysis' steers the intervention in the quality characteristics of housing estates. The possibilities for readjustment, however, are different. The quality control system is not only an early warning system, but also has several other functions: evaluation, planning and communication. The method described here lays a solid foundation for a decision-support system in the area of housing tenancy.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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