CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 61 to 80 of 243

_id 25b7
authors Smeltzer, G., Roelen, W. and Maver, T.W.
year 1992
title Design Modelling and Design Presentation From a Computer-Generated Image Towards a Multi-user Design System
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 137-144
summary CAD systems regularly offer new techniques for the presentation of design proposals like computer-generated (stereo-) images, animations, holography and virtual reality. These techniques are mainly used for the presentation of a final design or for the presentation of buildings that have already been constructed. As in the course of time the quality of the CAD systems and their users have improved enormously, it is also possible to use these systems for the evaluation of several temporary design proposals during the design process. Since 'beautiful pictures' and 'wonderful animations' have already shown their great value when presenting a design, it is sometimes as if CAD systems are considered suitable for this propose only. Even new techniques like virtual reality systems seem to be valued only through the 'tinted glasses' of the presentation capabilities. Hardly any attention is paid to the possibilities that these new techniques offer as an instrument to support modelling and evaluation during the design process. This article will outline the results of research and development in the field of virtual reality. Virtual reality systems are based on the combination of a number of already existing presentation techniques like photo-realistic images, stereo images and real time animations. The added value of this type of CAD system is determined by the use of a new type of user interface. In effect this interface consists of sensors that register how its user moves and looks around. Through this, and by using a so- called 'eye phone' (comparable to stereo headphones for sound) the user, with some imaginative powers, thinks he is standing in the environment that he modelled, or in front of his building design. After this we will first sketch the outlines of some presentation techniques, that can also be found in a virtual reality system. Special attention will be paid to some specific characteristics of these techniques themselves. Next, a more detailed description will be given of virtual reality systems, focusing on the system that is being developed at Calibre itself.

series eCAADe
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 61e0
authors Streich, Bernd
year 1992
title Should We Integrate Programming Knowledge into the Architect's CAAD-Education? Basic Considerations and Experiences from Kaiserslautern
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 399-409
summary At the ECAADE-congress 1991 in Munich, the teaching concept of computer-aided architectural design of the faculty of architecture and environmental/urban planning at the University of Kaiserslautern has been presented. On that occasion, this brought about the question whether the curriculum should include programming knowledge. In this paper, the discussion shall be taken up again with several arguments in favour of the computer programming instruction. At first, a survey of the current discussion of the subject shall be given, then there will follow some reflections on the theoretical relationship between designing and programming, and finally, examples from the teaching experience in Kaiserslautern will be presented.

series eCAADe
email streich@rhrk.uni-kl.de
last changed 1998/08/18 14:38

_id 1963
authors Tweed, Chris and Woolley, Tom
year 1992
title USER PARTICIPATION IN DESIGN: TECHNIQUES FOR DIALOGUE
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part B, pp. 17-24
summary Many projects in which users participate in the design process are merely examples of professionals communicating their ideas to their clients. Conventional computer systems can be powerful tools for helping designers to present design informations to lay audiences, but when combined with computer modelling and simulation, they create opportunities for users to construct their own sequences of images and thus explore designs from their own viewpoint. Building on extensive experience of traditional methods of user participation, this paper explores the use of narratives to create dialogues between users, designers and computers. The concept of "design stories" as a route to fully shared creativity is explained. The paper also argues that this approach is needed to bring into focus design issues that cannot be described or resolved by computer modelling alone.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:41

_id a89d
authors Wiederhold, G.
year 1992
title Mediators in the Architecture of Future Information Systems
source IEEE Computer 25, no. 3: 38-48
summary The installation of high-speed networks using optical fiber and high bandwidth messsage forwarding gateways is changing the physical capabilities of information systems. These capabilities must be complemented with corresponding software systems advances to obtain a real benefit. Without smart software we will gain access to more data, but not improve access to the type and quality of information needed for decision making. To develop the concepts needed for future information systems we model information processing as an interaction of data and knowledge. This model provides criteria for a high-level functional partitioning. These partitions are mapped into information processing modules. The modules are assigned to nodes of the distributed information systems. A central role is assigned to modules that mediate between the users' workstations and data resources. Mediators contain the administrative and technical knowledge to create information needed for decision-making.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 8aab
authors Wiezel, Avi and Becker, Rachel
year 1992
title Integration of Performance Evaluation in Computer Aided Design
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 171-181 : ill. includes bibliography
summary An integrated computerized system for evaluation of the overall performance of a building was developed. The system exemplifies the capability of appropriate CAD techniques to upgrade the decision making process and the quality of the design. This paper describes the specific problems arising from the integration of the performance evaluation within the existing CAAD process
keywords CAD, systems, evaluation, civil engineering, integration, performance, building
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id avocaad_2001_17
id avocaad_2001_17
authors Ying-Hsiu Huang, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, Yu-Chen Chiu
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels¡@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design media¡Xvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
series AVOCAAD
email yinghsiu@iaaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id a3f5
authors Zandi-Nia, Abolfazl
year 1992
title Topgene: An artificial Intelligence Approach to a Design Process
source Delft University of Technology
summary This work deals with two architectural design (AD) problems at the topological level and in presence of the social norms community, privacy, circulation-cost, and intervening opportunity. The first problem concerns generating a design with respect to a set of above mentioned norms, and the second problem requires evaluation of existing designs with respect to the same set of norms. Both problems are based on the structural-behavioral relationship in buildings. This work has challenged above problems in the following senses: (1) A working system, called TOPGENE (The TOpological Pattern GENErator) has been developed. (2) Both problems may be vague and may lack enough information in their statement. For example, an AD in the presence of the social norms requires the degrees of interactions between the location pairs in the building. This information is not always implicitly available, and must be explicated from the design data. (3) An AD problem at topological level is intractable with no fast and efficient algorithm for its solution. To reduce the search efforts in the process of design generation, TOPGENE uses a heuristic hill climbing strategy that takes advantage of domain specific rules of thumbs to choose a path in the search space of a design. (4) TOPGENE uses the Q-analysis method for explication of hidden information, also hierarchical clustering of location-pairs with respect to their flow generation potential as a prerequisite information for the heuristic reasoning process. (5) To deal with a design of a building at topological level TOPGENE takes advantage of existing graph algorithms such as path-finding and planarity testing during its reasoning process. This work also presents a new efficient algorithm for keeping track of distances in a growing graph. (6) This work also presents a neural net implementation of a special case of the design generation problem. This approach is based on the Hopfield model of neural networks. The result of this approach has been used test TOPGENE approach in generating designs. A comparison of these two approaches shows that the neural network provides mathematically more optimal designs, while TOPGENE produces more realistic designs. These two systems may be integrated to create a hybrid system.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 3ff5
authors Abbo, I.A., La Scalea, L., Otero, E. and Castaneda, L.
year 1992
title Full-Scale Simulations as Tool for Developing Spatial Design Ability
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part C, pp. 7-10
summary Spatial Design Ability has been defined as the capability to anticipate effects (psychological impressions on potential observers or users) produced by mental manipulation of elements of architectural or urban spaces. This ability, of great importance in choosing the appropriate option during the design process, is not specifically developed in schools of architecture and is partially obtained as a by-product of drawing, designing or architectural criticism. We use our Laboratory as a tool to present spaces to people so that they can evaluate them. By means of a series of exercises, students confront their anticipations with the psychological impressions produced in other people. For this occasion, we present an experience in which students had to propose a space for an exhibition hag in which architectural projects (student thesis) were to be shown. Following the Spatial Design Ability Development Model which we have been using for several years, students first get acquainted with the use of evaluation instruments for psychological impressions as well as with research methodology. In this case, due to the short period available, we reduced research to investigate the effects produced by the manipulation of only 2 independents variables: students manipulated first the form of the roof, walls and interiors elements, secondly, color and texture of those elements. They evaluated spatial quality, character and the other psychological impressions that manipulations produced in people. They used three dimensional scale models 1/10 and 1/1.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
email iabadi@ceea.arq.ucv.ve
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2003/08/25 08:12

_id 6208
authors Abou-Jaoude, Georges
year 1992
title To Master a Tool
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part B, p. 15
summary The tool here is the computer or to be precise, a unit that includes the computer, the peripherals and the software needed to fulfill a task. These tools are getting very sophisticated and user interfaces extremly friendly, therefore it is very easy to become the slave of such electronic tools and reach self satisfaction with strait forward results and attractive images. In order to master and not to become slaves of sophisticated tools, a very solid knowledge of related fields or domains of application becomes necessary. In the case of this seminar, full scale modelling, is a way to understand the relation between a mental model and it's full-scale modelling, it is a way of communicating what is in a designers mind. Computers and design programs can have the same goal, rather than chosing one method or the other let us try to say how important it is today to complement designing with computer with other means and media such as full scale modelling, and what computer modelling and simulation can bring to full scale modelling or other means.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2003/08/25 08:12

_id 735a
authors Anh, Tran Hoai
year 1992
title FULL-SCALE EXPERIMENT ON KITCHEN FUNCTION IN HANOI
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part A, pp. 19-30
summary This study is a part of a licentiate thesis on "Functional kitchen for the Vietnamese cooking way"at the Department of Architecture and Development studies, Lund University. The issues it is dealing with are: (1) Inadequacy of kitchen design in the apartment buildings in Hanoi, where the kitchen is often designed as a mere cooking place - other parts of the food making process are not given any attention. (2) Lack of standard dimensional and planning criteria for functional kitchen which can serve as bases for kitchen design. // The thesis aims at finding out indicators on functional spatial requirements for kitchen, which can serve as guide-line for designing functional kitchen for Hanoi. One of the main propositions in the thesis is that functional kitchens for Hanoi should be organised to permit the culinary activities done according to the Vietnamese urban culinary practice. This is based on the concept that the culinary activity is an expression Of culture, thus the practice of preparing meal in the present context of the urban households in Hanoi has an established pattern, method which demand a suitable area and arrangement in the kitchen. This pattern and cooking method should make up the functional requirement for kitchen in Hanoi, and be taken in to account if functional kitchen designing is to be achieved. In the context of the space-limited apartment building of Hanoi, special focus is given to find out indicators on the minimum functional spatial requirements of the kitchen works.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:29

_id 898a
authors Bay, J.H.
year 2002
title Cognitive Biases and Precedent Knowledge in Human and Computer-Aided Design Thinking
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 213-220
summary Cognitive biases (illusions) and potential errors can occur when using precedent knowledge for analogical, pre-parametric and qualitative design thinking. This paper refers largely to part of a completed research (Bay 2001) on how heuristic biases, discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) in cognitive psychology, can affect judgement and learning of facts from precedents in architectural design, made explicit using a kernel of conceptual system (Tzonis et. al., 1978) and a framework of architectural representation (Tzonis 1992). These are used here to consider how such illusions and errors may be transferred to computer aided design thinking.
series CAADRIA
email akibayp@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 2cb4
authors Bille, Pia
year 1992
title CAD at the AAA
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 279-288
summary Teaching computer science at the Aarhus School of Architecture goes back as far as to the beginning of the 80’s, when a few teachers and students were curious towards the new media seeing its great developing perspectives and its possible use in the design of architecture. The curiosity and excitement about technology continued, although the results were modest and the usefulness not a dominant aspect in this early period. In the middle of the 80’s the School of Architecture was given the opportunity by means of state funding to buy the first 10 IBM PC's to run AutoCad among other programmes. Beside this a bigger CAD-system Gable 4D Series was introduced running on MicroVax Workstations. The software was dedicated to drafting buildings in 2 and 3 dimensions - an important task within the profession of architects.

series eCAADe
email pia.bille@a-aarhus.dk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id eabb
authors Boeykens, St. Geebelen, B. and Neuckermans, H.
year 2002
title Design phase transitions in object-oriented modeling of architecture
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 310-313
summary The project IDEA+ aims to develop an “Integrated Design Environment for Architecture”. Its goal is providing a tool for the designer-architect that can be of assistance in the early-design phases. It should provide the possibility to perform tests (like heat or cost calculations) and simple simulations in the different (early) design phases, without the need for a fully detailed design or remodeling in a different application. The test for daylighting is already in development (Geebelen, to be published). The conceptual foundation for this design environment has been laid out in a scheme in which different design phases and scales are defined, together with appropriate tests at the different levels (Neuckermans, 1992). It is a translation of the “designerly” way of thinking of the architect (Cross, 1982). This conceptual model has been translated into a “Core Object Model” (Hendricx, 2000), which defines a structured object model to describe the necessary building model. These developments form the theoretical basis for the implementation of IDEA+ (both the data structure & prototype software), which is currently in progress. The research project addresses some issues, which are at the forefront of the architect’s interest while designing with CAAD. These are treated from the point of view of a practicing architect.
series eCAADe
email stefan.boeykens@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8d37
authors Bradford, J.W., Ng, F.F. and Will, B.F.
year 1992
title Models and Hypermedia for Architectural Education
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 19-42
summary Hypermedia uses the hypertext style of interactive navigation through computer-based multimedia materials to provide access to a wealth of information for use by teachers and students. Academic disciplines concerned about the enlightenment of future designers of the built environment require an additional medium not yet available in hypermedia - interactive 3-D computer models. This paper discusses a hypermedia CAI system currently being developed at the University of Hong Kong for use in architectural education. The system uses interactive 3D computer models as another medium for instructional information, and as user orientation and database access devices. An object oriented, 3-D model hierarchy is used as the organizational structure for the database. A prototype which uses the system to teach undergraduate architecture students about a traditional Chinese temple is also illustrated. The prototype demonstrates the use of a computer as the medium for bilingual English and Chinese instruction.

keywords 3-D Modelling, Architectural Education, Computer Aided Instruction, Hypermedia, Multimedia
series eCAADe
email bradford@hkucc.hku.hk, hrrbnff@hkucc.hku.hk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 89d9
authors Cajati, Claudio
year 1992
title The New Teaching of an Architect: The Rôle of Expert Systems in Technological Culture
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 435-442
summary We already have the EEC, that is the European Economic Community. We have to build the CCE, that is the Common Cultural Europe. Architects and building engineers of any european country will be allowed to freely practise in any other country of the EEC. Of course, it is not only matter of coming down of the frontiers, of a greater labour mobility. Not even it will be enough that the university degree courses of the different countries agree to and put into effect the EEC common directives. They need rules and guidelines entering into the merits of practice: rules and guidelines which, rather than a legal and bureaucratic matter, must be the result of a common cultural and technical work, about clear and delimited questions of shared subjects, in which all the community countries be deeply concerned. Analogously, in the very field of research, the project "Human Capital and Mobility" has in view a greater european scientific and technological competitiveness, through an integration of human and material resources of different research centres, such as in shared-cost research projects and in concerted research actions. Such an integration is neither easy nor rapid. The political, social, cultural, technological peculiarities of the countries of the European Community certainly constitute an obstacle for the creation of a supernational cultural and technological pool. of common opportunities. These peculiarities, however, aren't only a restraint for the european community effort of unification and construction of shared goals, constraints, rules, methods, techniques, tools. They mean also a richness, an unrepeatable resourse: they are the result of a historical millenary stratification, which gave rise to urban and architectural contexts, to cultural and technological traditions it would be a serious mistake to waste.
series eCAADe
email cajatic@libero.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id cf5c
authors Carpenter, B.
year 1992
title The logic of typed feature structures with applications to unification grammars, logic programs and constraint resolution
source Cambridge Tracts in Theoretical Computer Science, Cambridge University Press
summary This book develops the theory of typed feature structures, a new form of data structure that generalizes both the first-order terms of logic programs and feature-structures of unification-based grammars to include inheritance, typing, inequality, cycles and intensionality. It presents a synthesis of many existing ideas into a uniform framework, which serves as a logical foundation for grammars, logic programming and constraint-based reasoning systems. Throughout the text, a logical perspective is adopted that employs an attribute-value description language along with complete equational axiomatizations of the various systems of feature structures. Efficiency concerns are discussed and complexity and representability results are provided. The application of feature structures to phrase structure grammars is described and completeness results are shown for standard evaluation strategies. Definite clause logic programs are treated as a special case of phrase structure grammars. Constraint systems are introduced and an enumeration technique is given for solving arbitrary attribute-value logic constraints. This book with its innovative approach to data structures will be essential reading for researchers in computational linguistics, logic programming and knowledge representation. Its self-contained presentation makes it flexible enough to serve as both a research tool and a textbook.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2312
authors Carrara, G., Kalay Y.E. and Novembri, G.
year 1992
title Multi-modal Representation of Design Knowledge
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 55-66
summary Explicit representation of design knowledge is needed if scientific methods are to be applied in design research, and if computers are to be used in the aid of design education and practice. The representation of knowledge in general, and design knowledge in particular, have been the subject matter of computer science, design methods, and computer-aided design research for quite some time. Several models of design knowledge representation have been developed over the last 30 years, addressing specific aspects of the problem. This paper describes a different approach to design knowledge representation that recognizes the multimodal nature of design knowledge. It uses a variety of computational tools to encode different kinds of design knowledge, including the descriptive (objects), the prescriptive (goals) and the operational (methods) kinds. The representation is intended to form a parsimonious, communicable and presentable knowledge-base that can be used as a tool for design research and education as well as for CAAD.
keywords Design Methods, Design Process Goals, Knowledge Representation, Semantic Networks
series eCAADe
email kalay@ced.berkeley.edu
last changed 1998/08/18 13:58

_id 6ef4
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1992
title Multi-Model Representation of Design Knowledge
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 77-88
summary Explicit representation of design knowledge is needed if scientific methods are to be applied in design research, and if comPuters are to be used in the aid of design education and practice. The representation of knowledge in general, and design knowledge in particular, have been the subject matter of computer science, design methods, and computer- aided design research for quite some time. Several models of design knowledge representation have been developed over the last 30 years, addressing specific aspects of the problem. This paper describes a different approach to design knowledge representation that recognizes the Multi-modal nature of design knowledge. It uses a variety of computational tools to encode different kinds of design knowledge, including the descriptive (objects), the prescriptive (goals) and the operational (methods) kinds. The representation is intended to form a parsimonious, communicable and presentable knowledge-base that can be used as a tool for design research and education as well as for CAAD.
keywords Design Methods, Design Process, Goals, Knowledge Representation, Semantic Networks
series ACADIA
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 2325
authors Chilton, John C.
year 1992
title Computer Aided Structural Design in Architectural Instruction
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 443-450
summary In schools of architecture there is a tendency to associate the use of computers solely with the production of graphic images as part of the architectural design process. However, if the architecture is to work as a building it is also essential that technical aspects of the design are adequately investigated. One of the problem areas for most architectural students is structural design and they are often reluctant to use hand calculations to determine sizes of structural elements within their projects. In recent years, much of the drudgery of hand calculation has been removed from the engineer by the use of computers, and this has, hopefully, allowed a more thorough investigation of conceptual ideas and alternatives. The same benefit is now becoming available to architectural students. This is in the form of structural analysis and design programs that can be used, even by those having a limited knowledge of structural engineering, to assess the stability of designs and obtain approximate sizes for individual structural elements. The paper discusses how the use of such programs is taught, within the School of Architecture at Nottingham. Examples will be given of how they can assist students in the architectural design process. In particular, the application of GLULAM, a program for estimating sizes of laminated timber elements and SAND, a structural analysis and design package, will be described.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:41

_id caadria2006_617
id caadria2006_617
authors CHING-CHIEN LIN
year 2006
title A GREATER SENSE OF PRESENCE: SPATIAL INTERFACE IN VR CAVE
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 617-619
summary Virtual environments are three–dimensional spaces presented visually. They combine the user’s experience and sense of 'being there' in the virtual environment. Presence is a central element of virtual reality that it is seen as a part of its definition (Steuer, 1992). Direct interactions between participants and the virtual environment generate a more enhanced sense of immersion, thus making the participants feels they are part of that environment (Witmer & Singer, 1998).
series CAADRIA
email karenlin@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

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