CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id c434
authors Colajanni, B., Pellitteri, G. and Scianna, A.
year 1992
title Two Approaches to Teaching Computers in Architecture: The Experience in the Faculty of Engineering in Palermo, Italy
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 295-306
summary Teaching the use of computers in architecture poses the same kind of problems as teaching mathematics. To both there are two possible approaches. The first presents the discipline as a tool of which the merely instrumental aspect is emphasized. Teaching is limited to show the results obtainable by existing programs and how to get them. The second approach, on the contrary emphasizes the autonomous nature of the discipline, mathematics as much as computing, on the basis of the convincement that the maximum of instrumental usefulness can be obtained through the knowledge at the highest degree of generality and, then, of abstraction. The first approach changes little in the mind of the student. He simply learns that is possible, and then worthy doing, a certain amount of operations, mainly checks of performances (and not only the control of the aspect, now easy with one of the many existing CAD) or searches of technical informations in some database. The second approach gives the student the consciousness of the manageability of abstract structures of relationships. He acquires then the idea of creating by himself particular structures of relationships and managing them. This can modify the very idea of the design procedure giving the student the consciousness that he can intervene directly in every segment of the design procedure, reshaping it to some extent in a way better suited to the particular problem he is dealing with. Of course this second approach implies learning not only a language but also the capability of coming to terms with languages. And again it is a cultural acquisition that can be very useful when referred to the languages of architecture. Furthermore the capability of simulating on the computer also a small segment of the design process gives the student a better understanding both of the particular problem he is dealing with and of the very nature of design. As for the first effect, it happens whenever a translation is done from a language to another one. One is obliged to get to the core of the matter in order to overcome the difficulties rising from the different bias of the two languages. The second effect comes from the necessity of placing the studied segment in the general flow of the design process. The organisation in a linear sequence of action to be accomplished recursively in an order always varying in any design occasion is an extremely useful exercise to understand the signification and the techniques of formalisation of design problems.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:26

_id 6d1d
authors Daru, R. and Daru, M.
year 1992
title Personal Working Styles in the CMD Studio
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 451-472
summary Normative and problem-solving approaches of architectural design ignore the personality aspects of the designing activity. Every architect approaches projects according to her/his own strategies and tactics. Usually they do not conform to the prescriptive models of design theoreticians. Computer aided design tools should be adapted to their utility within the strategies and tactics of each and every architectural student. We are testing the usefulness of CAAD tools developed by others or ourselves and identifying the needs for missing tools. It is already clear that many CAAD tools reflect the point of view of the programmer about strategies and tactics of designing and that they do not take into account the idiosyncrasies of the end user. Forcing the tools on students breeds the risk of fostering repulsion against ill-adapted tools, and consequently against CMD. Our research group pursues empirical research on working styles of designing by practising architects within the frame of a personality theory of actions. The results indicate that there are three main directions for designing strategies. If we want to take into account the real-world behaviour in design practice within architectural education, this implies the diversification of the exercises we offer to the students in threefold, corresponding with the three directions. To this, we add the didactic options of complementation, compensation and support, depending on what we know about the strong or weak points of the students involved. We have started proposing choices for the exercises of our design morphology studio. Students are offered approaches and tools we consider best adapted to their own working

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 07:25

_id 9f8a
authors Davidow, William H.
year 1992
title The Virtual Corporation: Structuring and Revitalizing the Corporation for the 21St Century
source New York: Harper Collins Publishers
summary The great value of this timely, important book is that it provides an integrated picture of the customer-driven company of the future. We have begun to learn about lean production technology, stripped-down management, worker empowerment, flexible customized manufacturing, and other modern strategies, but Davidow and Malone show for the first time how these ideas are fitting together to create a new kind of corporation and a worldwide business revolution. Their research is fascinating. The authors provide illuminating case studies of American, Japanese, and European companies that have discovered the keys to improved competitiveness, redesigned their businesses and their business relationships, and made extraordinary gains. They also write bluntly and critically about a number of American corporations that are losing market share by clinging to outmoded thinking. Business success in the global marketplace of the future is going to depend upon corporations producing "virtual" products high in added value, rich in variety, and available instantly in response to customer needs. At the heart of this revolution will be fast new information technologies; increased emphasis on quality; accelerated product development; changing management practices, including new alignments between management and labor; and new linkages between company, supplier, and consumer, and between industry and government. The Virtual Corporation is an important cutting-edge book that offers a creative synthesis of the most influential ideas in modern business theory. It has already fired excitement and debate in industry, academia, and government, and it is essential reading for anyone involved in the leadership of America's business and the shaping of America's economic future.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9209
id ddss9209
authors De Gelder, J.T. and Lucardie, G.L.
year 1993
title Knowledge and data modelling in cad/cam applications
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Modelling knowledge and data in CAD/CAM applications is complex because different goals and contexts have to be taken into account. This complexity makes particular demands upon representation formalisms. Today many modelling tools are based on record structures. By analyzing the requirements for a product model of a portal structure in steel, this paper shows that in many situations record structures are not well suited as a representation formalism for storing knowledge and data in CAD/CAM applications. This is illustrated by performing a knowledge-level analysis of the knowledge and data generated in the design and manufacturing process of a portal structure in steel.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9205
id ddss9205
authors De Scheemaker. A.
year 1993
title Towards an integrated facility management system for management and use of government buildings
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The Government Building Agency in the Netherlands is developing an integrated facility management system for two of its departments. Applications are already developed to support a number of day-to-day facility management activities on an operational level. Research is now being carried out to develop a management control system to better plan and control housing and material resources.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 4129
authors Fargas, Josep and Papazian, Pegor
year 1992
title Metaphors in Design: An Experiment with a Frame, Two Lines and Two Rectangles
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 13-22
summary The research we will discuss below originated from an attempt to examine the capacity of designers to evaluate an artifact, and to study the feasibility of replicating a designer's moves intended to make an artifact more expressive of a given quality. We will present the results of an interactive computer experiment, first developed at the MIT Design Research Seminar, which is meant to capture the subject’s actions in a simple design task as a series of successive "moves"'. We will propose that designers use metaphors in their interaction with design artifacts and we will argue that the concept of metaphors can lead to a powerful theory of design activity. Finally, we will show how such a theory can drive the project of building a design system.

When trying to understand how designers work, it is tempting to examine design products in order to come up with the principles or norms behind them. The problem with such an approach is that it may lead to a purely syntactical analysis of design artifacts, failing to capture the knowledge of the designer in an explicit way, and ignoring the interaction between the designer and the evolving design. We will present a theory about design activity based on the observation that knowledge is brought into play during a design task by a process of interpretation of the design document. By treating an evolving design in terms of the meanings and rules proper to a given way of seeing, a designer can reduce the complexity of a task by focusing on certain of its aspects, and can manipulate abstract elements in a meaningful way.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/14 20:02

_id e51d
authors Fazio, P., Bedard, C. and Gowri, K.
year 1992
title Constraints for Generating Building Envelope Design Alternatives
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 145-155 : charts. includes bibliography
summary The building envelope design process involves selecting materials and constructional types for envelope components. Many different materials need to be combined together for wall and roof assemblies to meet the various performance requirements such as thermal efficiency, cost, acoustic and fire resistances. The number of performance attributes to be considered in the design process is large. Lack of information, time limitations and the large number of feasible design alternatives generally force the designer to rely on past experience and practical judgement to make rapid design decisions. Current work at the Centre for Buildings Studies focuses on the development of knowledge-based synthesis and evaluation techniques for reducing the problems of information handling and decision making in building envelope design. The generation of design alternatives is viewed as a search process that identifies feasible combinations of building envelope components satisfying a set of performance requirements, material compatibility, practicality of design, etc. This paper discusses knowledge acquisition and representation issues involved in the definition of constraints to guide the generation of feasible combinations of envelope components
keywords envelope, knowledge base, knowledge acquisition, representation, performance, design, structures, architecture, evaluation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 83f7
authors Fenves, Stephen J., Flemming, Ulrich and Hendrickson, Craig (et al)
year 1992
title Performance Evaluation in an Integrated Software Environment for Building Design and Construction Planning
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 159-169 : ill. includes bibliography
summary In this paper the authors describe the role of performance evaluation in the Integrated Software Environment for Building Design and Construction Planning (IBDE), which is a testbed for examining integration issues in the same domain. Various processes in IBDE deal with the spatial configuration, structural design, and construction planning of high-rise office buildings. Performance evaluations occur within these processes based on different representation schemes and control mechanisms for the handling of performance knowledge. Within this multiprocess environment, opportunities also exist for performance evaluation across disciplines through design critics
keywords evaluation, performance, integration, systems, building, design, construction, architecture, planning, structures, representation, control
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 2b7a
authors Ferguson, H., Rockwood, A. and Cox, J.
year 1992
title Topological Design of Sculptured Surfaces
source Computer Graphics, no. 26, pp.149-156
summary Topology is primal geometry. Our design philosophy embodies this principle. We report on a new surface &sign perspective based on a "marked" polygon for each object. The marked polygon captures the topology of the object surface. We construct multiply periodic mappings from polygon to sculptured surface. The mappings arise naturally from the topology and other design considerations. Hence we give a single domain global parameteriration for surfaces with handles. Examples demonstrate the design of sculptured objects and their ntanufimture.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9214
id ddss9214
authors Friedman, A.
year 1993
title A decision-making process for choice of a flexible internal partition option in multi-unit housing using decision theory techniques
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Recent demographic changes have increased the heterogeneity of user groups in the North American housing market. Smaller households (e.g. elderly, single parent) have non-traditional spatial requirements that cannot be accommodated within the conventional house layout. This has created renewed interest in Demountable/Flexible internal partition systems. However, the process by which designers decide which project or user groups are most suited for the use of these systems is quite often complex, non-linear, uncertain and dynamic, since the decisions involve natural processes and human values that are apparently random. The anonymity of users when mass housing projects are conceptualized, and the uncertainty as to the alternative to be selected by the user, given his/her constantly changing needs, are some contributing factors to this effect. Decision Theory techniques, not commonly used by architects, can facilitate the decision-making process through a systematic evaluation of alternatives by means of quantitative methods in order to reduce uncertainty in probabilistic events or in cases when data is insufficient. The author used Decision Theory in the selection of flexible partition systems. The study involved a multi-unit, privately initiated housing project in Montreal, Canada, where real site conditions and costs were used. In this paper, the author outlines the fundamentals of Decision Theory and demonstrates the use of Expected Monetary Value and Weighted Objective Analysis methods and their outcomes in the design of a Montreal housing project. The study showed that Decision Theory can be used as an effective tool in housing design once the designer knows how to collect basic data.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id cc68
authors García, Agustín Pérez
year 1992
title Learning Structural Design - Computers and Virtual Laboratories
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 525-534
summary This paper shows how the spreading use of computers can improve the quality of education, specially in the field of architecture. An Innovative Teaching Project oriented to the discipline Structural Design of Buildings has been implemented at the School of Architecture of Valencia. The main objective of this project is the transformation of the computer room into a virtual laboratory for simulating the behaviour of structural typologies using mathematical models of them. An environment, specially oriented to Structural Design, has been integrated in a Computer Aided Design platform to teach how design the Structure of Buildings.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:45

_id 1076
authors Gero, John S. and Saunders, Robert
year 2000
title Constructed Representations and Their Functions in Computational Models of Designing
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 215-224
summary This paper re-examines the conclusions made by Schön and Wiggins in 1992 that computers were unable to reproduce processes crucial to designing. We propose that recent developments in artificial intelligence and design computing put us in a position where we can begin to computationally model designing as conceived by Schön and Wiggins. We present a computational model of designing using situated processes that construct representations. We show how constructed representations support computational processes that model the different kinds of seeing reported in designing. We also present recently developed computational processes that can identify unexpected consequences of design actions using adaptive novelty detection.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id ea96
authors Hacfoort, Eek J. and Veldhuisen, Jan K.
year 1992
title A Building Design and Evaluation System
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 195-211 : ill. table. includes bibliography
summary Within the field of architectural design there is a growing awareness of imbalance among the professionalism, the experience, and the creativity of the designers' response to the up-to-date requirements of all parties interested in the design process. The building design and evaluating system COSMOS makes it possible for various participants to work within their own domain, so that separated but coordinated work can be done. This system is meant to organize the initial stage of the design process, where user-defined functions, geometry, type of construction, and building materials are decided. It offers a tool to design a building to calculate a number of effects and for managing the information necessary to evaluate the design decisions. The system is provided with data and sets of parameters for describing the conditions, along with their properties, of the main building functions of a selection of well-known building types. The architectural design is conceptualized as being a hierarchy of spatial units, ranking from building blocks down to specific rooms or spaces. The concept of zoning is used as a means of calculating and directly evaluating the structure of the design without working out the details. A distinction is made between internal and external calculations and evaluations during the initial design process. During design on screen, an estimation can be recorded of building costs, energy costs, acoustics, lighting, construction, and utility. Furthermore, the design can be exported to a design application program, in this case AutoCAD, to make and show drawings in more detail. Through the medium of a database, external calculation and evaluation of building costs, life-cycle costs, energy costs, interior climate, acoustics, lighting, construction, and utility are possible in much more advanced application programs
keywords evaluation, applications, integration, architecture, design, construction, building, energy, cost, lighting, acoustics, performance
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6cfd
authors Harfmann, Anton C. and Majkowski, Bruce R.
year 1992
title Component-Based Spatial Reasoning
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 103-111
summary The design process and ordering of individual components through which architecture is realized relies on the use of abstract "models" to represent a proposed design. The emergence and use of these abstract "models" for building representation has a long history and tradition in the field of architecture. Models have been made and continue to be made for the patron, occasionally the public, and as a guide for the builders. Models have also been described as a means to reflect on the design and to allow the design to be in dialogue with the creator.

The term "model" in the above paragraph has been used in various ways and in this context is defined as any representation through which design intent is expressed. This includes accurate/ rational or abstract drawings (2- dimensional and 3-dimensional), physical models (realistic and abstract) and computer models (solid, void and virtual reality). The various models that fall within the categories above have been derived from the need to "view" the proposed design in various ways in order to support intuitive reasoning about the proposal and for evaluation purposes. For example, a 2-dimensional drawing of a floor plan is well suited to support reasoning about spatial relationships and circulation patterns while scaled 3-dimensional models facilitate reasoning about overall form, volume, light, massing etc. However, the common denominator of all architectural design projects (if the intent is to construct them in actual scale, physical form) are the discrete building elements from which the design will be constructed. It is proposed that a single computational model representing individual components supports all of the above "models" and facilitates "viewing"' the design according to the frame of reference of the viewer.

Furthermore, it is the position of the authors that all reasoning stems from this rudimentary level of modeling individual components.

The concept of component representation has been derived from the fact that a "real" building (made from individual components such as nuts, bolts and bar joists) can be "viewed" differently according to the frame of reference of the viewer. Each individual has the ability to infer and abstract from the assemblies of components a variety of different "models" ranging from a visceral, experiential understanding to a very technical, physical understanding. The component concept has already proven to be a valuable tool for reasoning about assemblies, interferences between components, tracing of load path and numerous other component related applications. In order to validate the component-based modeling concept this effort will focus on the development of spatial understanding from the component-based model. The discussions will, therefore, center about the representation of individual components and the development of spatial models and spatial reasoning from the component model. In order to frame the argument that spatial modeling and reasoning can be derived from the component representation, a review of the component-based modeling concept will precede the discussions of spatial issues.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 578d
authors Helpenstein, H. (Ed.)
year 1993
title CAD geometry data exchange using STEP
source Berlin: Springer-Verlag
summary With increasing demand for data exchange in computer integrated manufacturing, a neutral connection between dissimilar systems is needed. After a few national and European attempts, a worldwide standardization of product data has been developed. Standard ISO 10303 (STEP - STandard for Exchange of Product data) produced in its first version those parts that are relevant for CAD geometrical data. A European consortium of 14 CAD vendors and users was supported by the ESPRIT programme to influence the emerging standard and implement early applications for it. Over the years 1989-1992, project CADEX (CAD geometry data EXchange) worked out application protocols as a contribution to STEP; developed a software toolkit that reads, writes, and manipulates STEP data; and, based on this toolkit, implemented data exchange processors for ten different CAD and FEA systems. This book reports the work done in project CADEX and describes all its results in detail.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9218
id ddss9218
authors Hensen, J.L.M.
year 1993
title Design support via simulation of building and plant thermal interaction
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Design decision support related to building energy consumption and/or indoor climate should be based on an integral approach to the environment, the building, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, and the occupants. The tools to achieve this are now available in the form of computer simulation systems which treat the building and plant as an integrated dynamic system. Although its potentials reach beyond the area of Computer Aided Building Design, the paper describes building and plant energy simulation within the context of CABD, design decision support and design evaluation. Currently, computer simulation is only used indirectly as a design decision support mechanism; that is, its power is not delivered very efficiently to the design profession. This paper suggests some future research directions. These are aimed at providing a mechanism to overcome this problem by developing an intelligent front end' which bridges the gap between sophisticated computer simulation tools and the design profession.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 7bf4
authors Hornyanszky-Dalholm, Elisabeth and Rydberg-Mitchell, Birgitta
year 1992
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part B, pp. 25-32
summary The purpose of the architect's tools is, as generally stated, to help the architects themselves to develop and visualize their spatial ideas and intentions. But the tools can also be used to communicate with other groups of professionals and with laypeople. This paper deals with the question how the choice of tools can effect the communication between laypeople and architects. It also stresses the need of combining different media in order to create the best conditions for user's participation. If the users will be able to influence the planning of an environment they must understand the "language" of the medium and have the ability to use it themselves. Models on diverse scales, and first of all the scale 1:1, fulfil these demands better than drawings. There are distinct limitations of the full-scale model, when it comes to give the users a comprehension of the entire mock-up, and thus models on smaller scales are required. Limitations of both full-scale and small scale models concerning visualizing the exterior and the building's interaction with the environment could possibly be worked out with the help of computer technique.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 13:39

_id ascaad2006_paper18
id ascaad2006_paper18
authors Huang, Chie-Chieh
year 2006
title An Approach to 3D Conceptual Modelling
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary This article presents a 3D user interface required by the development of conceptual modeling. This 3D user interface provides a new structure for solving the problems of difficult interface operations and complicated commands due to the application of CAD 2D interface for controlling 3D environment. The 3D user interface integrates the controlling actions of “seeing – moving –seeing” while designers are operating CAD (Schön and Wiggins, 1992). Simple gestures are used to control the operations instead. The interface also provides a spatial positioning method which helps designers to eliminate the commands of converting a coordinate axis. The study aims to discuss the provision of more intuitively interactive control through CAD so as to fulfil the needs of designers. In our practices and experiments, a pair of LED gloves equipped with two CCD cameras for capturing is used to sense the motions of hands and positions in 3D. In addition, circuit design is applied to convert the motions of hands including selecting, browsing, zoom in / zoom out and rotating to LED switches in different colours so as to identify images.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id abce
authors Ishii, Hiroshi and Kobayashi, Minoru
year 1992
title ClearBoard: A Seamless Medium for Shared Drawing and Conversation with Eye Contact Systems for Media-Supported Collaboration
source Proceedings of ACM CHI'92 Conference on HumanFactors in Computing Systems 1992 pp. 525-532
summary This paper introduces a novel shared drawing medium called ClearBoard. It realizes (1) a seamless shared drawing space and (2) eye contact to support realtime and remote collaboration by two users. We devised the key metaphor: "talking through and drawing on a transparent glass window" to design ClearBoard. A prototype of ClearBoard is implemented based on the "Drafter-Mirror" architecture. This paper first reviews previous work on shared drawing support to clarify the design goals. We then examine three metaphors that fulfill these goals. The design requirements and the two possible system architectures of ClearBoard are described. Finally, some findings gained through the experimental use of the prototype, including the feature of "gaze awareness", are discussed.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 2467
authors Jockusch, Peter R.A.
year 1992
title How Can We Achieve a Good Building?
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. pp. 51-65 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper is concerned with the reasons and purposes for which we evaluate and predict building performance. The discussion is based on the author's experience, gained through the preparation and evaluation of more than 50 major architectural competitions
keywords An attempt is made to discover for whom and in what respect a building can be considered a 'good building,' by asking the following questions: What can prediction and evaluation of building performance achieve? How well can we assess the performance and value of an existing building within its socio-technical context? For what purposes and with what degree of confidence can the eventual performance of a designed and specified building be predicted? How do these evaluations compare to actual post occupancy performance? To what extent do the roles and motivations of assessors, evaluators, and decision makers affect the value-stating process? prediction, evaluation, performance, building, life cycle, design, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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