CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 254

_id e00f
authors Harfmann, A.C., Majkowski, B. and Chen, S.S.
year 1993
title A Component-Based Approach to Building Product Representation and Design Development
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 437-452
summary This paper presents the development of the component-based approach for building product representation and suggests its appropriateness for incorporation at any stage in the design process. The efforts focus on resolving the conflicts that arise when the common denominator of component level representation in utilized throughout the process of designing a building.
keywords Component-Based Modeling, Component Modeling; Product Models; Building Models, Object-Oriented Modelling, Relational Databases
series CAAD Futures
email HARFMAAC@UCMAIL.UC.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 2ff9
id 2ff9
authors Ataman, Osman
year 1993
title Knowledge-based Stair Design
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 163-171
summary The application of computer--based technique to support architectural design has often concentrated on matters of representation. Typically, this means computer-aided drafting, and less frequently, computer-aided modeling and visualization. The promise of new computer-based tools to support the process of design has thus far failed to produce any significant tool that has had a widespread impact on the architectural profession. Most developments remain in university based research labs where they are used as teaching instruments in CAD courses or less often in design studios. While there are many reasons for this lack of dissemination, including a reluctance on the part of the architectural profession itself, the primary obstacles deal with difficulties in explicating design knowledge, representing this knowledge in a manner that can be used for design, and providing an intuitive and effective user interface, allowing the designer to easily use the tool for its intended purpose.

This study describes a system that has been developed to address a number of these issues. Based on research findings from the field of Artificial Intelligence which expounds on the need for multiple techniques to represent any complex area of knowledge, we have selected a particular approach that focuses on multiple techniques for design representation. We review this approach in depth by considering its many facets necessary when implementing a knowledge-based system. We then partially test the viability of this approach through a small case study, implementing a knowledge-based system for designing stairs. While this effort only deals with a small part of the total design process, it does explore a number of significant issues facing the development of computer-based design assistants, and suggests several techniques for addressing these concerns.

series ACADIA
email oataman@uiuc.edu
last changed 2003/12/20 04:40

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email m.barros@ipt.pt
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cad5
authors Coyne, R.F., Flemming, U., Piela, P. and Woodbury, R.
year 1993
title Behavior Modeling in Design System Development
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 335-354
summary We describe the development approach for a software environment to support the early phases in building design called SEED. The combination of capabilities offered by SEED to designers is novel and includes the integrated handling of solution prototypes. We give the reasons for using an object-oriented software engineering approach in the development of the system, which starts with a comprehensive behavioral model of the system from the user's perspective based on actors and use cases. We illustrate results from the first development phase and sketch the next phases. At the time of the CAAD Futures '93 conference, we will be able to report our experience in developing a first system prototype and to demonstrate the prototype.
keywords Object-Oriented Software Engineering, Integrated Design Systems, Architectural Programming, Schematic Layout Design
series CAAD Futures
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/02/26 16:24

_id ddss9207
id ddss9207
authors Gauchel, J., Hovestadt, L., van Wyk, S. and Bhat, R.R.
year 1993
title Modular building models
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The development and implementation of a modular building model appropriate for computer aided design is described. The limitations of a unified building model with regard to concurrence and complexity in design is discussed. Current research suggests that to model real-world complexity, one must trade centralized control for autonomy. In this paper we develop a modular approach to building modelling that is based on object-oriented autonomy and makes it possible to define these models in a distributed concurrent manner. Such a modular and autonomous implementation brings inherent uncertainty and conflict which cannot be determined a priori.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9208
id ddss9208
authors Lucardie, G.L.
year 1993
title A functional approach to realizing decision support systems in technical regulation management for design and construction
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Technical building standards defining the quality of buildings, building products, building materials and building processes aim to provide acceptable levels of safety, health, usefulness and energy consumption. However, the logical consistency between these goals and the set of regulations produced to achieve them is often hard to identify. Not only the large quantities of highly complex and frequently changing building regulations to be met, but also the variety of user demands and the steadily increasing technical information on (new) materials, products and buildings have produced a very complex set of knowledge and data that should be taken into account when handling technical building regulations. Integrating knowledge technology and database technology is an important step towards managing the complexity of technical regulations. Generally, two strategies can be followed to integrate knowledge and database technology. The main emphasis of the first strategy is on transferring data structures and processing techniques from one field of research to another. The second approach is concerned exclusively with the semantic structure of what is contained in the data-based or knowledge-based system. The aim of this paper is to show that the second or knowledge-level approach, in particular the theory of functional classifications, is more fundamental and more fruitful. It permits a goal-directed rationalized strategy towards analysis, use and application of regulations. Therefore, it enables the reconstruction of (deep) models of regulations, objects and of users accounting for the flexibility and dynamics that are responsible for the complexity of technical regulations. Finally, at the systems level, the theory supports an effective development of a new class of rational Decision Support Systems (DSS), which should reduce the complexity of technical regulations and restore the logical consistency between the goals of technical regulations and the technical regulations themselves.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0ab2
authors Amor, R., Hosking, J., Groves, L. and Donn, M.
year 1993
title Design Tool Integration: Model Flexibility for the Building Profession
source Proceedings of Building Systems Automation - Integration, University of Wisconsin-Madison
summary The development of ICAtect, as discussed in the Building Systems Automation and Integration Symposium of 1991, provides a way of integrating simulation tools through a common building model. However, ICAtect is only a small step towards the ultimate goal of total integration and automation of the building design process. In this paper we investigate the next steps on the path toward integration. We examine how models structured to capture the physical attributes of the building, as required by simulation tools, can be used to converse with knowledge-based systems. We consider the types of mappings that occur in the often different views of a building held by these two classes of design tools. This leads us to examine the need for multiple views of a common building model. We then extend our analysis from the views required by simulation and knowledge-based systems, to those required by different segments of the building profession (e.g. architects, engineers, developers, etc.) to converse with such an integrated system. This indicates a need to provide a flexible method of accessing data in the common building model to facilitate use by different building professionals with varying specialities and levels of expertise.
series journal paper
email john@cs.auckland.ac.nz
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 0ffe
authors Bhat, R.R., Gauchel, J. and Van Wyk, S.
year 1993
title Communication in Cooperative Building Design
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 481-493
summary This paper addresses communication issues, which are crucial in any implementation of distributed design environments. Communication needs are specified and implemented in a prototype based on a modular knowledge-based approach for simulation of a distributed multi-user system. The results of these simulations are reported, which show communication to be scalable as the numbers of applications and the size of the design increases. Finally, the implications of the results on real distributed systems are discussed.
keywords Building Design, Distributed Design Environments, Cooperative Design, Communication
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss9219
id ddss9219
authors Bourdakis, V. and Fellows, R.F.
year 1993
title A model appraising the performance of structural systems used in sports hall and swimming pool buildings in greece
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The selection of the best performing structural system (among steel, timber laminated, concrete, fabric tents) for medium span (30-50m) sports halls and swimming pools in Greece formed the impetus for this research. Decision-making concerning selection of the structural system is difficult in this sector of construction, as was explained in the "Long Span Structures" conference (November 1990, Athens. Greece). From the literature it has been found that most building appraisals end up at the level of data analysis and draw conclusions on the individual aspects they investigate. These approaches usually focus on a fraction of the problem, examining it very deeply and theoretically. Their drawback is loss of comprehensiveness and ability to draw conclusions on an overall level and consequently being applicable to the existing conditions. Research on an inclusive level is sparse. In this particular research project, an inclusive appraisal approach was adopted, leading to the identification of three main variables: resources, human-user-satisfaction, and technical. Consequently, this led to a combination of purely quantitative and qualitative data. Case studies were conducted on existing buildings in order to assess the actual performance of the various alternative structural systems. This paper presents the procedure followed for the identification of the research variables and the focus on the development of the model of quantification. The latter is of vital importance if the problem of incompatibility of data is to be solved, overall relation of findings is to be achieved and holistic conclusions are to be drawn.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a336
authors Calvo, Charles M.
year 1993
title SOME EPISTEMOLOGICAL CONCERNS REGARDING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACHES TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN - A RENEWED AGENDA
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 155-162
summary It has been noted that designers - when confronted with computers - have, by and large, refused to accept the introduction of apparently new design methodologies, and it has been speculated that this is the result of a failure of those methodologies to address the cognitive processes which take place in the course of designing. This position is somewhat suspect in that such innovations as computer-aided drafting -which also fail to recognize these processes have been widely accepted. It is perhaps more likely that the lack of acceptance results from a perception on the part of designers that the new methodologies either do not reflect some or all of those concerns that designers consider fundamental to design, or that they actively interfere with the designer's ability to accomplish what he/she sees as the goals of design. Given that the application of artificial intelligence and related work to architecture is still in its infancy, all of this suggests the need for a reassessment of the role of computing in design in order to clarify and strengthen those roles deemed appropriate.

Two approaches to the integration of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based systems into architectural design practice are currently dominant. One attempts to create systems which can on their own produce designs, the other provides intelligent support for those doing design. It was, in part, the recognition of limitations in the ability of traditional CAD systems and building modelers to reflect what designers actually do that led to explorations into the idea of intelligent assistants. Development of such assistants was aided by research into the act and process of design through protocol and other studies. Although some work is currently being done in the development of artificial intelligence and knowledge based applications in architecture, and work continues to be done on the study of design methodologies, the bulk of available information in each of these areas remains in the realm of design disciplines related to but outside of architecture and do not reflect the explicit role of architectural design in the embodiment and expression of culture.

The relationship of intelligence to culture has resulted in some skepticism regarding the ultimate capacity of neural nets and symbolically programmed computers in general. Significant work has been done questioning the rational tradition in computer development for its failure to address phenomena which are not easily subject to scientific analysis. Further skepticism regarding the role of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based or expert systems in architectural design has been emerging recently. Such criticism tends to focus on two issues: the nature of drawing as an activity which involves both the generation and interpretation of graphic artifacts, and the nature of the human designer as an active agent in the design process.

series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2006/03/14 20:20

_id ddss9209
id ddss9209
authors De Gelder, J.T. and Lucardie, G.L.
year 1993
title Knowledge and data modelling in cad/cam applications
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Modelling knowledge and data in CAD/CAM applications is complex because different goals and contexts have to be taken into account. This complexity makes particular demands upon representation formalisms. Today many modelling tools are based on record structures. By analyzing the requirements for a product model of a portal structure in steel, this paper shows that in many situations record structures are not well suited as a representation formalism for storing knowledge and data in CAD/CAM applications. This is illustrated by performing a knowledge-level analysis of the knowledge and data generated in the design and manufacturing process of a portal structure in steel.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 6c55
authors Dosti, P., Linzer, H. Martens, B. and Voigt, A.
year 1993
title Multimedia for Environmental Simulation - Framework of Research
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Nature as complete entity having existed before us, having produced us, of which we are a part of and which reaches far beyond us and our knowledge stands both for productivity and product, for stones, earth, water, air, plants, animals, human beings, for energy as such. On account of his activity and his intellectual powers and faculties the human being represents the center of this interrelation comprising his vital space, being perceived by him either consciously or unconsciously, the structure and formation of which he changes, which in turn, however, significantly codetermines his behavior and also his development. Spatial effect analysis and spatial impact analysis take the cross- linked interrelations of nature into account and thus the correlated diverse interactions by means of integral representation, determine the direct and indirect as well as the immediate and mediate decisions as to space and furnish us with decision-conclusions by means of modifications. Based on the all-in-all outlook encompassing nature- mankind-space spatial impact also means in particular compatibility within systems giving due regard to the factor time. The following topics are treated within the framework of research: (1.) Elaboration of a methodical framework regarding research and development in the field of multimedia-implementation for environmental planning. (2.) Preparative work concerning implementation areas of multimedia focussing on urban & regional planning and architecture. (3.) Planning process and planning levels,furthermore in the fields of information and decision process and accompanying verification. (4.) Optimizing interaction of multimedia and environmental simulation. (5.) Definition of research- and development-requirements as far as subject-specific and EDP-technical aspects are concerned. (6.) Structurizing of projects regarding realization of framework of research.

series eCAADe
email linzer@ifoer.tuwien.ac.at, b.martens@tuwien.ac.at, voigt@ifoer.tuwien.ac.at
more http://www.tuwien.ac.at/
last changed 2001/02/11 17:55

_id 68c8
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R. and Fenves, S. (et al.)
year 1994
title SEED: A Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design
source Proceeding of IKM '94, Weimar, Germany, pp. 5-10
summary The SEED project intends to develop a software environment that supports the early phases in building design (Flemming et al., 1993). The goal is to provide support, in principle, for the preliminary design of buildings in all aspects that can gain from computer support. This includes using the computer not only for analysis and evaluation, but also more actively for the generation of designs, or more accurately, for the rapid generation of design representations. A major motivation for the development of SEED is to bring the results of two multi-generational research efforts focusing on `generative' design systems closer to practice: 1. LOOS/ABLOOS, a generative system for the synthesis of layouts of rectangles (Flemming et al., 1988; Flemming, 1989; Coyne and Flemming, 1990; Coyne, 1991); 2. GENESIS, a rule-based system that supports the generation of assemblies of 3-dimensional solids (Heisserman, 1991; Heisserman and Woodbury, 1993). The rapid generation of design representations can take advantage of special opportunities when it deals with a recurring building type, that is, a building type dealt with frequently by the users of the system. Design firms - from housing manufacturers to government agencies - accumulate considerable experience with recurring building types. But current CAD systems capture this experience and support its reuse only marginally. SEED intends to provide systematic support for the storing and retrieval of past solutions and their adaptation to similar problem situations. This motivation aligns aspects of SEED closely with current work in Artificial Intelligence that focuses on case-based design (see, for example, Kolodner, 1991; Domeshek and Kolodner, 1992; Hua et al., 1992).
series other
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4203
authors Fraser, Michael
year 1993
title Boundary Representation in Practice
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 173-185
summary There is an essential contradiction between the making of buildings or built environments in a threedimensional modeler and the graphic control of this process. Three-dimensional modeling is a constructive activity, in which solids are assembled as they would be in an actual structure; it benefits the designer. Presentation and documentation, on the other hand, are prescriptive activities that direct some of the construction and all the visualization and criticism of the proposal; they benefit the user and builder.

A building while being designed can be visualized and criticized from its solid model, and the model can take a variety of forms depending on its part): computer-based, drawn in orthographic or perspective projection, constructed of cardboard or wood, or described narratively by means of text, programmatic data, performance model or animation. However, practicing architecture is the process of recording and communicating the decision making process and the contractual obligations that result. In actual practice, in contrast to the designer directed ideal, more participants are brought in sooner at the beginning of a project and with more publicity, which in turn means keeping more, not fewer, records. As the profession evolves, records of the string of design decisions will become more automated, more carefully structured and more retrievable. More buildings will be "tracked" and exposed to review in this way because public environmental sensitivity will improve. The communication between a single designer and his own thoughts will become less and less important.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/02/25 09:39

_id c9de
authors Harfmann, Anton C.
year 1993
title Component-Based, Three-Dimensional "Working Drawings"
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 141-151
summary It is now possible to communicate technical information about a building utilizing accurate threedimensional computer modeling of component assemblies of an entire building for the production of an alternative set of "working drawings." Most assembly illustrations and final appearance can be presented as output from the computer model. The use of these three-dimensional images in the practice of architecture may improve communication between the members of the building design team and, therefore, may improve the overall design integration of the various systems in a building.

Additionally, this type of component model construction for the production of technical drawings offers a unique bridge over the gap between the practice of architecture and the teaching of architecture. Rather than teaching students how to "do working drawings," something all practitioners wish the academic institutions did, students would develop the ability to design, integrate, and construct complex three-dimensional assemblies and present them in a variety of ways using the standard sections, layers, view, etc. inherent in any reasonable threedimensional computer based modeling system.

series ACADIA
email HARFMAAC@UCMAIL.UC.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id ddss9218
id ddss9218
authors Hensen, J.L.M.
year 1993
title Design support via simulation of building and plant thermal interaction
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Design decision support related to building energy consumption and/or indoor climate should be based on an integral approach to the environment, the building, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, and the occupants. The tools to achieve this are now available in the form of computer simulation systems which treat the building and plant as an integrated dynamic system. Although its potentials reach beyond the area of Computer Aided Building Design, the paper describes building and plant energy simulation within the context of CABD, design decision support and design evaluation. Currently, computer simulation is only used indirectly as a design decision support mechanism; that is, its power is not delivered very efficiently to the design profession. This paper suggests some future research directions. These are aimed at providing a mechanism to overcome this problem by developing an intelligent front end' which bridges the gap between sophisticated computer simulation tools and the design profession.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 09b4
authors Ismail, Ashraf and McCartney, Kevin
year 1993
title A Tool for Conceptual Design Evaluation Based on Compliance with Site-Development Briefs and Related Planning Regulations
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The need has been established for a computer based decision support tool to use during the conceptual stages of architectural design. The main functions are to check design compliance with the requirements of local planning authorities; characteristics evaluated will include building size, height, plot ratios, circulation and accessibility, and the preservation of natural features on site. This tool is being developed to operate under AutoCAD environment; the construction industry standard computer aided design software, following standard layering convention, integrated command lines, and pull-down menus. In addition to the common graphical output; i.c. plans, elevations and three dimensional models, it will generate textual analysis in report format to use as part of the Environmental Impact Analysis of proposed development. The tool's functions will be based upon the result of two types of field studies. First, interviews and questionnaires will be carried out with architects and planners of both private and public sectors. These will cover issues related to the performance of Computer Aided Architectural Design applications with regard to the evaluation of design schematics, and decision-making for the production of data for environmental statements. Second, field observation and participation will be carried out to observe decision-makers behaviour during assessment of building design proposals. A prototype is currently under development and will be tested against the expectations of the tool designer, Ashraf Ismail, and a team of professionals to be involved in the field studies. A critical analysis of the prototype design methodology and the study findings will be documented in the research thesis to be presented in June 1995.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:01

_id 37b2
authors Johansson, P.
year 2000
title Case-Based Structural Design - using weakly structured product and process information
source Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Steel and Timber Structures, Publ. S 00:7, Göteborg
summary Empirical knowledge plays a significant role in the human reasoning process. Previous experiences help in understanding new situations and in finding solutions to new problems. Experience is used when performing different tasks, both those of routine character and those that require specific skill. This is also the case for structural designers. Over 50% of the work done by the designer on a day-to-day basis is routine design that consists of modifying past designs (Moore 1993). That is, most of the design problems that the designer solves have been solved before, in many cases over and over again. In recent years, researchers have started to study if cases (information about specific problem-solving experiences) could be used as a representation of experiential knowledge. Making use of past experience in the form of cases is commonly known as Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). A requirement for Case-Based Design (Case-Based Reasoning applied in design) to be successful is that the design information is computerized. One information type used in structural design that is starting to become computerized is the one in design calculation documents. Such information is weakly structured (which holds for much of the information representing experience) and it contains both product and process information. In this thesis it is shown how the weak structure of this information can be used to subdivide it into components, which in turn makes it possible to apply the object-oriented abstraction principles also to this kind of information. It is also shown how the detailed design process can be represented and how this representation can facilitate automatic acquisition, retrieval of relevant old design information, and adaptation of this information. Two prototypes BridgeBase and ARCADE have been developed, where the principles described above are applied. Using ARCADE, the more general of these two prototypes, it is presented how information in computerized design calculation documents, gathered from real projects, can serve as containers and carriers for both project information and experience. The experience from the two prototypes shows that Case-Based Design can be usable as a tool for structural engineers.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id f485
authors Kolarevic, Branko Radomir
year 1993
title Geometric Relations as a Framework For Design Conceptualization
source Harvard University, Graduate School of Design
summary This study introduces geometric relations as a framework for design conceptualiza-tion-its key premise is that nothing is more fundamental in design than formation and discovery of relationships. The study attempts to establish a formal model for the development of a dynamic computer based graphic environment for design conceptualization that can recognize, record and maintain geometric design relations, merge "depictive" and "propositional", explicit and implicit in design, and provide a qualitatively different way to explore shape, dimension, and geometric organization. The study presents an approach to this task of formalization, and explores some of the fundamental issues pertinent to the subject, such as computability and applicability to the task of designing. Specifically, the study explores a relational description of shapes based on the concept of regulating or construction lines as an explicit formulation of a strategy to form generation and creative discovery, and proposes a lexicon of geometric relations to serve as a basis for composition. It hypothesizes that the construction lines can become much more useful and interesting when they are used not just as a rigid skeleton, but to regulate the behavior of a drawing and to maintain its essential structure as its parts are manipulated. As a consequence, designers could structure the behavior of the object being designed under future transformations; drawings could become seman-tically charged and could be manipulated in a semantically sophisticated fashion. The first chapter places the issue in the broader context by arguing that designers form implicit relational models of their designs. This contention is supported by introducing some of the relevant literature on mental imagery. Second chapter introduces design relations and in particular geometric relations, as a focal point of this study. A dynamic computer -based graphic context for design conceptualization is presented and evalu-ated in the next two chapters and conclusions are drawn. In the third chapter, the model's computability is demonstrated and evaluated through ReDRAW, a limited implementation of a relations based graphic system. In the fourth chapter, the model's applicability in design conceptualization is discussed and supported by examples.
series thesis:PhD
email branko@pobox.upenn.edu
more http://www.gsd.harvard.edu/academic/asp/ddes/thesis_titles.html
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id cd30
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 1993
title On the Correlation of Design and Computational Techniques in Architectural Education
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Many studies employ analyses of human intelligence as justification or guideline for the development of machine intelligence. The main benefit brought on by such studies has been the improvement of our understanding of both human and machine intelligence. In teaching architecture with computers the same approach can make explicit design techniques architects use by means of equivalent or similar computational techniques. Explicitation of design techniques leads to a better understanding of architects' activities, as well as to which computer tools can offer automated support to these activities. In the curriculum of the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, relations and correspondences between computational and design techniques form a major underlying theme in computer-aided design courses. The purposes of this theme are (i) comprehension of the computational structure of a computer design tool, and (ii) explanation of how such computational structures relate to architectural design. (correspondences between the computational principles of computer programs and design techniques are instrumental in defining the scope of each computer tool in architectural design while improving the students' understanding of architectural design as a cognitive process and thus promoting automation as a natural extension of established conventional practices. The paper outlines the correlation of computational and design techniques in the case of electronic spreadsheets. Spreadsheets are introduced through a thorough presentation of the various kinds and aspects of constraint propagation, their underlying computational principle. Numerical constraint propagation is explained by means of spreadsheet applications for simple numerical calculations. Symbolic constraint propagation is presented in the framework of machine perception. Both forms are then linked to architectural design through parametric design and the recognition of spaces in floor plans. Exercises linked to spreadsheets and constraint propagation include the parametric calculation of stairs and making parametric variations of a building on the basis of floor area calculations.

series eCAADe
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://caad.bk.tudelft.nl/koutamanis/
last changed 1998/08/24 08:56

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