CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 6737
authors Casaus, A., Fargas, J. and Papuzian, P.
year 1993
title Hybrid Design Environments - A Research Program on Creative Collaboration and Communication
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary This paper gives an overview of a research program initiated in the Architectural Design Department of the Escola Tècnica Superior d'Arquitectura de Barcelona on issues of communication and collaboration in computer aided design. The work is centered around emerging design situations which can be attributed directly to the incorporation of new technologies in education and practice. One of these is the "design triangle" composed of a traditional designer, a CAD workstation and a computer literate collaborator acting as the design medium. Another is the "virtual workshop" consisting of design collaboration involving large-scale distributed communications networks. The research program stresses three common characteristics of these situations which it aims to study in parallel in the setting of an design workshop. The first of these is the characteristic of distance, both physical and conceptual, which separates, on the one hand, the traditional designer from the CAD document and, on the other, the participants of a distributed workshop from each other and each others' thinking. The second, is the typically hybrid nature of such situations where computer technology interacts with more traditional techniques and alternative media are combined both at the level of production and in channels and modes of communication. And finally, the third and most significant for the methodology of the research program, is the fact that both the design triangle and the virtual workshop make explicit aspects of design activity, interaction and intentions which remain hidden or are only implicit in traditional designing.

series eCAADe
email cajatic@libero.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id c31c
authors Fantacone, Enrico
year 1993
title Environmental Compatibility and Computer Aided Decision MakingRelated to the Third University in Rome: An Integrated Application of Several Methods
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The EC Human Capital and Mobility Project, has allowed collaboration between Universita' di Roma .'La Sapienza", and University of Strathclyde (Glasgow), on a research programme developed by the author. The research consists on an integrated application of assessment methods that will allow designers, planners, and public administrators to operate on defined rules, to evaluate "a priori" the designing and planning parameters. The new integrated operating method, could be used for the elaboration of developing urban plans, or even for public design competition assessment.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 08:42

_id ed78
authors Jog, Bharati
year 1993
title Integration of Computer Applications in the Practice of Architecture
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 89-97
summary Computer Applications in Architecture is emerging as an important aspect of our profession. The field, which is often referred to as Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) has had a notable impact on the profession and academia in recent years. A few professionals have predicted that as slide rules were replaced by calculators, in the coming years drafting boards and parallel bars will be replaced by computers. On the other hand, many architects do not anticipate such a drastic change in the coming decade as present CAD systems are supporting only a few integral aspects of architectural design. However, all agree that architecture curricula should be modified to integrate CAAD education.

In 1992-93, in the Department of Architecture of the 'School of Architecture and interior Design' at the University of Cincinnati, a curriculum committee was formed to review and modify the entire architecture curriculum. Since our profession and academia relate directly to each other, the author felt that while revising the curriculum, the committee should have factual information about CAD usage in the industry. Three ways to obtain such information were thought of, namely (1) conducting person to person or telephone interviews with the practitioners (2) requesting firms to give open- ended feed back and (3) surveying firms by sending a questionnaire. Of these three, the most effective, efficient and suitable method to obtain such information was an organized survey through a questionnaire. In mid December 1992, a survey was organized which was sponsored by the School of Architecture and Interior Design, the Center for the Study of the Practice of Architecture (CSPA) and the University Division of Professional Practice, all from the University of Cincinnati.

This chapter focuses on the results of this survey. A brief description of the survey design is also given. In the next section a few surveys organized in recent years are listed. In the third section the design of this survey is presented. The survey questions and their responses are given in the fourth section. The last section presents the conclusions and brief recommendations regarding computer curriculum in architecture.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/02/25 09:25

_id bdc5
authors Lehane, A., Wright, D. and Lambourne, E.
year 1993
title Parallel Modeling: Addressing the Issues of Creative Designing in CAD Environments II. Special Applications
source Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1993 v.1 pp. 249-254
summary We postulate that Industrial Designers, in general, solve a given problem by generating a series of proposed solutions to that problem, each proposal, in theory, helps the designer to converge on the ideal solution. Any number of solutions may be under continuous development at any one time and any previous solutions should always be available for appraisal and viewing. The single modeling environment provided in traditional Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems does not support this practice. Thus, CAD systems are primarily used to address the final phases of the design process, such as analysis, visualisation and detailing. This is surely not utilising the full potential of such a powerful design tool. In an attempt to develop a less restrictive working practice for CAD users, we consider a parallel modeling approach. This solution allows the simultaneous development, design and review of a number of computer based solutions.
keywords Paper Based Design Process; Parallel Modeling; Computer Based Design Process; Sets; Industrial Design; Set Theory; Directed Acyclic Graph; Seed
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 1b41
authors McCartney, J., Hinds, B., Zhang, J. and Hamilton, W.
year 1993
title Dedicated CAD for Apparel Design III. Case Studies
source Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1993 v.1 p.410-415
summary The work described here represents an attempt to devise CAD techniques appropriate to the apparel industry. An integrated approach is outlined which provides a greater justification for CAD, other than the ability to produce a single image of a design concept. In addition, high level tools are described which enable 3D design specifications to be evolved without exhaustive dimensional input.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id cf2011_p093
id cf2011_p093
authors Nguyen, Thi Lan Truc; Tan Beng Kiang
year 2011
title Understanding Shared Space for Informal Interaction among Geographically Distributed Teams
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 41-54.
summary In a design project, much creative work is done in teams, thus requires spaces for collaborative works such as conference rooms, project rooms and chill-out areas. These spaces are designed to provide an atmosphere conducive to discussion and communication ranging from formal meetings to informal communication. According to Kraut et al (E.Kraut et al., 1990), informal communication is an important factor for the success of collaboration and is defined as “conversations take place at the time, with the participants, and about the topics at hand. It often occurs spontaneously by chance and in face-to-face manner. As shown in many research, much of good and creative ideas originate from impromptu meeting rather than in a formal meeting (Grajewski, 1993, A.Isaacs et al., 1997). Therefore, the places for informal communication are taken into account in workplace design and scattered throughout the building in order to stimulate face-to-face interaction, especially serendipitous communication among different groups across disciplines such as engineering, technology, design and so forth. Nowadays, team members of a project are not confined to people working in one location but are spread widely with geographically distributed collaborations. Being separated by long physical distance, informal interaction by chance is impossible since people are not co-located. In order to maintain the benefit of informal interaction in collaborative works, research endeavor has developed a variety ways to shorten the physical distance and bring people together in one shared space. Technologies to support informal interaction at a distance include video-based technologies, virtual reality technologies, location-based technologies and ubiquitous technologies. These technologies facilitate people to stay aware of other’s availability in distributed environment and to socialize and interact in a multi-users virtual environment. Each type of applications supports informal interaction through the employed technology characteristics. One of the conditions for promoting frequent and impromptu face-to-face communication is being co-located in one space in which the spatial settings play as catalyst to increase the likelihood for frequent encounter. Therefore, this paper analyses the degree to which sense of shared space is supported by these technical approaches. This analysis helps to identify the trade-off features of each shared space technology and its current problems. A taxonomy of shared space is introduced based on three types of shared space technologies for supporting informal interaction. These types are named as shared physical environments, collaborative virtual environments and mixed reality environments and are ordered increasingly towards the reality of sense of shared space. Based on the problem learnt from other technical approaches and the nature of informal interaction, this paper proposes physical-virtual shared space for supporting intended and opportunistic informal interaction. The shared space will be created by augmenting a 3D collaborative virtual environment (CVE) with real world scene at the virtual world side; and blending the CVE scene to the physical settings at the real world side. Given this, the two spaces are merged into one global structure. With augmented view of the real world, geographically distributed co-workers who populate the 3D CVE are facilitated to encounter and interact with their real world counterparts in a meaningful and natural manner.
keywords shared space, collaborative virtual environment, informal interaction, intended interaction, opportunistic interaction
series CAAD Futures
email g0800518@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 8ce2
authors Szalapaj, Peter J.
year 1993
title Contextual Hypermedia in the Design Studio
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The focus of this paper is on the development and use of hypermedia applications for the presentation of design studio projects, based upon the author's own recent experience of teaching CAD at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. The contention of this paper is that this activity cannot be reduced to routine Hypercard stack development. Instead, the development of applications in this area need to give support to the expression of the design-theoretical issues that are central to the presentation of any design studio project, by exploiting the many issues of concern that are emerging from the field of human- computer interaction (HCI) The hypermedia application i.e. in this case design-theoretical views of a design project, will inevitably influence the specification of a user-interface, and hence the presentation and appearance of the design project. This paper will investigate the extent to which the interface can be separated out from the application and the converse issue namely, whether non-contextual hypermedia environments restrict design applications.

series eCAADe
email P.Szalapaj@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/24 08:58

_id 6637
authors Ward, D., Brown, A.G.P. and Horton, F.F.
year 1994
title A Design Assistant for Environmental Optimisation of Buildings
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 247
summary The dual function of the Environmental Design Assistant which we have developed is to act firstly as a teaching aid and secondly as a design aid. In terms of it's role as a design assistant it is similar in nature to the application described by Papamichael, K, in Novitski, B. J. (1993). However, the work described here forms part of an overall strategy to develop a user friendly design assistant across the spectrum of Architectural design disciplines: this is one particular strand of the project. One aim embodied in the development of the environmental design assistant has been the pragmatic one of the production and refining of a tool to perform environmental assessments of buildings in accordance with the British recommendations made in BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Energy Assessment Method). In this respect the assistant allows for the consequences of design decisions to be readily assessed and then for those decisions to be modified. The Assistant has undergone a series of refinements to make it more user-friendly, efficient and appropriate as an Architectural design aid; and this has been the second aim of the project. The project has acted as a vehicle for the application of design principles applied to the presentation, information structuring and navigation associated with Hypermedia and Multimedia products. We are applying the kind of good design principles which have been summarised well by Schulmeister, R. (1994). These principles include Ariadne's Thread (paths for navigation), Lost in Hyperspace (backward navigation), More-than-browsing (interaction) and Tutoring (providing feedback to the user). Adoption of such principles is, we believe, essential in order to realise the potential of Hypermedia tools. The principal development tool for the work has been SuperCard. This has been used in conjunction with a range of other software including ArchiCad and Intellidraw and a range of image grabbing devices.

series eCAADe
email andygpb@liverpool.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 20c1
authors Alavalkama, Ilkka
year 1993
title Technical Aspects of the Urban Simulator in Tampere University of Technology
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 35-46
summary The colour video recording Urban Simulator in TUT was built very early compared with the development of video systems. A contract for planning the simulator electronics, mechanics and camera systems was made in january 1978 with two TUT students: Jani Granholm (computer science and engineering) and Ilkka Alavalkama (machine design and automation). Ease of control and maintenance were asked by side of ”human movement inside coloured small-scale architectural models”. From the beginning, all components of the system were carefully tested and chosen from various alternatives. Financial resources were quite limited, which lead to a long building process and to self-planned and produced mechanical and electronical elements. Some optical systems were constructed by using elements from various manufacturers.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id aa7f
authors Bollinger, Elizabeth and Hill, Pamela
year 1993
title Virtual Reality: Technology of the Future or Playground of the Cyberpunk?
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 121-129
summary Jaron Lanier is a major spokesperson of our society's hottest new technology: VR or virtual reality. He expressed his faith in the VR movement in this quote which appears in The User's Guide to the New Edge published by Mondo 2000. In its most technical sense, VR has attracted the attention of politicians in Washington who wonder if yet another technology developed in the United States will find its application across the globe in Asia. In its most human element, an entire "cyberpunk movement" has appealed to young minds everywhere as a seemingly safe form of hallucination. As architecture students, educators, and practitioners around the world are becoming attracted to the possibilities of VR technology as an extension of 3D modeling, visualization, and animation, it is appropriate to consider an overview of virtual reality.

In virtual reality a user encounters a computersimulated environment through the use of a physical interface. The user can interact with the environment to the point of becoming a part of the experience, and the experience becomes reality. Natural and

instinctive body movements are translated by the interface into computer commands. The quest for perfection in this human-computer relationship seems to be the essence of virtual reality technology.

To begin to capture the essence of virtual reality without first-hand experience, it is helpful to understand two important terms: presence and immersion. The sense of presence can be defined as the degree to which the user feels a part of the actual environment. The more reality the experience provides, the more presence it has. Immersion can be defined as the degree of other simulation a virtual reality interface provides for the viewer. A highly immersive system might provide more than just visual stimuli; for example, it may additionally provide simulated sound and motion, and simultaneously prevent distractions from being present.

series ACADIA
email EBollinger@uh.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c372
authors Calvert, T., Bruderlin, A., Mah, S., Schiphorst, T. and Welman, C.
year 1993
title The Evolution of an Interface for Choreographers Evolving Design
source Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 1993 pp. 115-122
summary This paper describes the evolution of the interface to Life Forms, a compositional tool for the creation of dance choreography, and highlights some of the important lessons we have learned during a six year design and implementation period. The lessons learned can be grouped into two categories: 1) Process, and 2) Architecture of the Interface. Our goal in developing a tool for choreography has been to provide computer-based creative design support for the conception and development of dance. The evolution was driven by feedback from the choreographers and users who were members of the development team, combined with our knowledge of current thinking on design and composition. Although the interface evolved in a relatively unconstrained way, the resulting system has many of the features that theoretical discussion in human interface design has projected as necessary. The Life Forms interface has evolved incrementally with one major discontinuity where adoption of a new compositional primitive required a completely new version. The choreography and composition of a dance is a complex synthesis task which has much in common with design. Thus, the lessons learned here are applicable to the development of interfaces to such applications as computer aided design.
keywords Composition; Design; User Interface; Dance; Complexity; Choreography; Human Animation
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id a336
authors Calvo, Charles M.
year 1993
title SOME EPISTEMOLOGICAL CONCERNS REGARDING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACHES TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN - A RENEWED AGENDA
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 155-162
summary It has been noted that designers - when confronted with computers - have, by and large, refused to accept the introduction of apparently new design methodologies, and it has been speculated that this is the result of a failure of those methodologies to address the cognitive processes which take place in the course of designing. This position is somewhat suspect in that such innovations as computer-aided drafting -which also fail to recognize these processes have been widely accepted. It is perhaps more likely that the lack of acceptance results from a perception on the part of designers that the new methodologies either do not reflect some or all of those concerns that designers consider fundamental to design, or that they actively interfere with the designer's ability to accomplish what he/she sees as the goals of design. Given that the application of artificial intelligence and related work to architecture is still in its infancy, all of this suggests the need for a reassessment of the role of computing in design in order to clarify and strengthen those roles deemed appropriate.

Two approaches to the integration of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based systems into architectural design practice are currently dominant. One attempts to create systems which can on their own produce designs, the other provides intelligent support for those doing design. It was, in part, the recognition of limitations in the ability of traditional CAD systems and building modelers to reflect what designers actually do that led to explorations into the idea of intelligent assistants. Development of such assistants was aided by research into the act and process of design through protocol and other studies. Although some work is currently being done in the development of artificial intelligence and knowledge based applications in architecture, and work continues to be done on the study of design methodologies, the bulk of available information in each of these areas remains in the realm of design disciplines related to but outside of architecture and do not reflect the explicit role of architectural design in the embodiment and expression of culture.

The relationship of intelligence to culture has resulted in some skepticism regarding the ultimate capacity of neural nets and symbolically programmed computers in general. Significant work has been done questioning the rational tradition in computer development for its failure to address phenomena which are not easily subject to scientific analysis. Further skepticism regarding the role of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based or expert systems in architectural design has been emerging recently. Such criticism tends to focus on two issues: the nature of drawing as an activity which involves both the generation and interpretation of graphic artifacts, and the nature of the human designer as an active agent in the design process.

series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2006/03/14 20:20

_id eaea2005_000
id eaea2005_000
authors Dechène, Sigrun und Manfred Walz (Eds.)
year 2006
title Motion, E-Motion and Urban Space
source Proceedings of the 7th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN-10: 3-00-019070-8 - ISBN-13: 978-3-00-019070-4, 260 p.
summary Simulating the development and the image of architecture and urban design means to show how the environment of the future and the living conditions could develop. At the same time it is part of our task to explain our work to local people and to the public and to passion skills in methods, instruments and knowledge in planning to the next generation of architects, planners and last but not least to discuss and to renew them once more for ourselves. Our aim was also to reflect what we have done since starting the look through the key-hole of endoscopy. Meanwhile this look has been completed since the beginnings in 1993 much more by computer and monitor. It is not the question to take the endoscope or the computer as a methodical and instrumental approach. Nowadays we normally decide to take the endoscope and the computer. In preparing the conference and the workshop we thought that this should now also be the moment not only to inform each other and the participants on methods, tools and best practices in simulating and designing the environment but also to focus on the social and human consequences of perception, movement and use the present urban spaces and the urban space in future. So we proposed the theme “MOTION, E-MOTION and URBAN SPACE” and we invited a scientific expert in experimental psychology to give us some serious reflections and one or another hint on our research themes and methods. The contributions and discussions in the conference showed that the proposal has not only been accepted but has also been completed and enriched especially concerning the theme urban space, it’s processes of usage and it‘s atmosphere. Also in the themes of endoscopy and the research on modelling urban spaces and architecture, meanwhile nearly “traditional” ones, remarkable results were presented and discussed. A very important point of contributions and the following discussions was how to present our subjects to the interested public and to improve our own internal exchange. An object could be to enforce the research tasks in researching together even more.
series EAEA
email dechene@fh-dortmund.de
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id c7c1
authors Glennie, William L.
year 1993
title The Future of CAAD Education
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The field of Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) is composed of two main threads of development, Academic and Professional, and can be described in three decades, which correspond roughly with three generations of computer systems. This paper presents a brief description of the entire period of school- and practice-based research and development on the applications of computers in Architectural design, and shows how these efforts have and have not been relevant to students' future experiences. Educators must take a fresh look at their current courses and research programs to make sure that they are relevant in the rapidly changing world of professional practice. With limited human and financial resources at most institutions, it is critical to make the best possible choices for the immediate and long-term benefit of today's students. While it is not appropriate for Schools of Architecture to operate strictly at the behest of the profession, we must prepare our students for the world in which they will practice. Therefore, I believe that it is important for the faculty at each School to consider the following questions: (-) Are our students prepared to enter realistic positions as soon as they graduate? (-) Do they have the background necessary to use computers effectively in the future? (-) Do our research efforts have results that designers are likely to use today or any time soon to make better buildings or to make buildings better?

series eCAADe
email glennie@rpi.edu
last changed 1998/08/24 08:24

_id 2979
authors Henry, D. and Furness, T.A.
year 1993
title Spatial Perception in Virtual Environments: Evaluating an Architectural Application
source IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, 1993, Seattle
summary Over the last several years, professionals from many different fields have come to the Human Interface Technology Laboratory (H.I.T.L) to discover and learn about virtual environments. In general, they are impressed by their experiences and express the tremendous potential the tool has in their respective fields. But the potentials are always projected far in the future, and the tool remains just a concept. This is justifiable because the quality of the visual experience is so much less than what people are used to seeing; high definition television, breathtaking special cinematographic effects and photorealistic computer renderings. Instead, the models in virtual environments are very simple looking; they are made of small spaces, filled with simple or abstract looking objects of little color distinctions as seen through displays of noticeably low resolution and at an update rate which leaves much to be desired. Clearly, for most applications, the requirements of precision have not been met yet with virtual interfaces as they exist today. However, there are a few domains where the relatively low level of the technology could be perfectly appropriate. In general, these are applications which require that the information be presented in symbolic or representational form. Having studied architecture, I knew that there are moments during the early part of the design process when conceptual decisions are made which require precisely the simple and representative nature available in existing virtual environments.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id caadria2007_675
id caadria2007_675
authors Huang, Joseph Chuen-Huei
year 2007
title Decision Support System for Modular Houses
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary Presently, only a small percentage of people in the world typically hire an architect to design and build a home which is tailored to their preference. Besides the architect’s fee, clients also need to wait an interminable time for design and construction. Factory-made prefabricated housing systems tried to solve this problem previously. However, most pioneers failed to address the issues of variability and individual needs (Kieran & Timberlake, 2004). Plants closed because they produced more than the market demand, and prefabricated housing provided less flexibility than the traditional stick-built housing. The advanced digital technology makes it possible to communicate design ideas and concepts to others more effectively. The project delivery process leads itself to customization, embodying principles of lean production (Pine, 1993), flexible computer-integrated design interaction with clients, and reduced cycle times; all effecting rapid response between consumers and producers.
series CAADRIA
email huanchu1@iit.edu
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id 2864
authors Isakovic, Tatiana and Fischinger, Matej
year 1993
title Making Reinforced Concrete Cross-sections Design Easy and Understandable
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Modern computing facilities provide an alternative graphical approach to the design of cross-sections. A description of this process might be "strength evaluation", since, for any chosen cross-section, concrete strength, and reinforcement size, location, and yield strength, the flexural resistance (capacity) is defined by the bending moment-axial force interaction diagram. The factored forces are then plotted into the diagram and, by comparing the capacity and demand on the computer screen, the designer can decide about the suitability of the chosen cross-section. If necessary, the cross-sectional properties can be changed easily. There are several advantages of this design approach. The design procedure is fast, clear and economical. For example, all loading combinations for all the columns of the frame in Fig. 1 can be checked simultaneously. The procedure is the same for various shapes of cross-sections and it enables simple reinforcement optimization as well as the typization of cross-sections. For example, only two types of cross-sections can satisfy the design requirements for all the columns in the mentioned frame.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/02/26 20:39

_id cd30
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 1993
title On the Correlation of Design and Computational Techniques in Architectural Education
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Many studies employ analyses of human intelligence as justification or guideline for the development of machine intelligence. The main benefit brought on by such studies has been the improvement of our understanding of both human and machine intelligence. In teaching architecture with computers the same approach can make explicit design techniques architects use by means of equivalent or similar computational techniques. Explicitation of design techniques leads to a better understanding of architects' activities, as well as to which computer tools can offer automated support to these activities. In the curriculum of the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, relations and correspondences between computational and design techniques form a major underlying theme in computer-aided design courses. The purposes of this theme are (i) comprehension of the computational structure of a computer design tool, and (ii) explanation of how such computational structures relate to architectural design. (correspondences between the computational principles of computer programs and design techniques are instrumental in defining the scope of each computer tool in architectural design while improving the students' understanding of architectural design as a cognitive process and thus promoting automation as a natural extension of established conventional practices. The paper outlines the correlation of computational and design techniques in the case of electronic spreadsheets. Spreadsheets are introduced through a thorough presentation of the various kinds and aspects of constraint propagation, their underlying computational principle. Numerical constraint propagation is explained by means of spreadsheet applications for simple numerical calculations. Symbolic constraint propagation is presented in the framework of machine perception. Both forms are then linked to architectural design through parametric design and the recognition of spaces in floor plans. Exercises linked to spreadsheets and constraint propagation include the parametric calculation of stairs and making parametric variations of a building on the basis of floor area calculations.

series eCAADe
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://caad.bk.tudelft.nl/koutamanis/
last changed 1998/08/24 08:56

_id 4c52
authors Meyer, Steven and Fenves, Steven J.
year 1993
title Adjacency Structures as Mappings Between Function and Structure in Discrete Static Systems
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 175-193
summary We present a graph-based method for mapping between functional requirements and physical structure in discrete static systems. Through forward or backward chaining, this method may be used in a generative mode to suggest instances Of system structure satisfying the desired functionality, or in a parsing mode to uncover the behavior and function of a given system. The graph may be composed from a geometric model, but the method is independent of any specific geometric modelling representation. We focus on the domain of structural systems in buildings to describe this method.
keywords Computer-Aided Structural Design, Geometric Modelling
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

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