CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id a336
authors Calvo, Charles M.
year 1993
title SOME EPISTEMOLOGICAL CONCERNS REGARDING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACHES TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN - A RENEWED AGENDA
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 155-162
summary It has been noted that designers - when confronted with computers - have, by and large, refused to accept the introduction of apparently new design methodologies, and it has been speculated that this is the result of a failure of those methodologies to address the cognitive processes which take place in the course of designing. This position is somewhat suspect in that such innovations as computer-aided drafting -which also fail to recognize these processes have been widely accepted. It is perhaps more likely that the lack of acceptance results from a perception on the part of designers that the new methodologies either do not reflect some or all of those concerns that designers consider fundamental to design, or that they actively interfere with the designer's ability to accomplish what he/she sees as the goals of design. Given that the application of artificial intelligence and related work to architecture is still in its infancy, all of this suggests the need for a reassessment of the role of computing in design in order to clarify and strengthen those roles deemed appropriate.

Two approaches to the integration of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based systems into architectural design practice are currently dominant. One attempts to create systems which can on their own produce designs, the other provides intelligent support for those doing design. It was, in part, the recognition of limitations in the ability of traditional CAD systems and building modelers to reflect what designers actually do that led to explorations into the idea of intelligent assistants. Development of such assistants was aided by research into the act and process of design through protocol and other studies. Although some work is currently being done in the development of artificial intelligence and knowledge based applications in architecture, and work continues to be done on the study of design methodologies, the bulk of available information in each of these areas remains in the realm of design disciplines related to but outside of architecture and do not reflect the explicit role of architectural design in the embodiment and expression of culture.

The relationship of intelligence to culture has resulted in some skepticism regarding the ultimate capacity of neural nets and symbolically programmed computers in general. Significant work has been done questioning the rational tradition in computer development for its failure to address phenomena which are not easily subject to scientific analysis. Further skepticism regarding the role of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based or expert systems in architectural design has been emerging recently. Such criticism tends to focus on two issues: the nature of drawing as an activity which involves both the generation and interpretation of graphic artifacts, and the nature of the human designer as an active agent in the design process.

series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2006/03/14 20:20

_id 2006_252
id 2006_252
authors Penttilä, Hannu
year 2006
title Managing the Changes within the Architectural Practice - The Effects of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 252-260
summary The architectural working environment has changed during the last 30 years more than ever before. Most of the changes have been related with information and communication technologies (ICT). Architectural working methods and tools have changed profoundly, when CAD has replaced more traditional methods and tools. Communicative working environment and document management within design & construction has also been changed to digital, meaning email and project webs. Completing a traditional architectural profile of the 20th centrury, a drawer-designer, contemporary communicating and managing skills plus mastering ICT are needed today to operate modern architectural practise properly. The objective of this study is to create a change-oriented understanding of the contemporary architectural profession concentrating on architectural information management. The first phase, a literature study, will be followed by interviews and case-studies, to examine three hypothetically different periods of time: a) 1980-85 the era before CAD, the last days of hand-drawing, b) 1993-98 the era of digital drawing, the expansion of architectural CAD, c) 2000-05 the rise of integrated and pervasive web-supported digital design. The study will propose new aspects to be included in the modern architectural profile, namingly project coordination, collaborative team-work, design information integration and profound digital content management.
keywords architectural profession; design practice; architectural ICT; change management
series eCAADe
email hannu.penttila@hut.fi
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 2c7b
authors Stenvert, Ronald
year 1993
title The Vector-drawing as a Means to Unravel Architectural Communication in the Past
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Unlike in painting, in architecture one single person never controls the whole process between conception and realization of a building. Ideas of what the building will eventually look like, have to be conveyed from patron to the actual builders, by way of drawings. Generally the architect is the key-figure in this process of communication of visual ideas. Nowadays many architects design their new buildings by using computers and Computer-Aided (Architectural) Design programs like AutoCad and VersaCAD. Just like traditional drawings, all these computer drawings are in fact vector-drawings; a collection of geometrical primitives like lines, circle segments etc. identified by the coordinates of their end points. Vector-based computer programs can not only be used to design the future, but also as a means to unravel the architectural communication in the past. However, using the computer as an analyzing tool for a better comprehension of the past is not as simple as it seems. Historical data from the past are governed by unique features of date and place. The complexity of the past combined with the straightforwardness of the computer requires a pragmatic and basic approach in which the computer acts as a catalytic agent, enabling the scholar to arrive manually at his own - computer-assisted - conclusions. From this it turns out that only a limited number of projects of a morphological kind are suited to contribute to new knowledge, acquired by the close-reading of the information gained by way of meaningful abstraction. An important problem in this respect is how to obtain the right kind of architectural information. All four major elements of the building process - architect, design, drawing and realization - have their own different and gradually shifting interpretations in the past. This goes especially for the run-of-the-mill architecture which makes up the larger part of the historical urban environment. Starting with the architect, one has to realize that only a very limited part of mainstream architecture was designed by architects. In almost all other cases the role of the patron and the actual builder exceeds that of the architect, even to the extent that they designed buildings themselves. The position of design and drawing as means of communication also changed in the past. Until the middle of the nineteenth century drawings were not the chief means of communication between architects and builders, who got the gist of the design from a model, or, encountering problems, simply asked the architect or supervisor. From the nineteenth century onwards the use of drawings became more common, but almost never represented the building entirely "as built". In 1991 I published my Ph.D. thesis: Constructing the past: computerassisted architectural-historical research: the application of image-processing using the computer and Computer-Aided Design for the study of the urban environment, illustrated by the use of treatises in seventeenth-century architecture (Utrecht 1991). Here, a reconstruction of this historical communication process will be presented on the basis of a project studying the use of the Classical orders as prescribed in various architectural treatises, compared to the use of the orders in a specific group of still existing buildings in The Netherlands dating from the late sixteenth and entire seventeenth century. Comparisons were made by using vector-drawings. Both the illustrations in the the treatises and actual buildings were "translated" into computer-drawings and then analyzed.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:03

_id e80e
authors Van der Does, Jan
year 1993
title Visualising by Means of Endoscope, Computer and Hand-Drawn Techniques
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 167-180
summary Traditionally, communication during the various stages of the building process takes place via drawings of floor plans, elevations, perspectives and scale models. Computerized drawing techniques have recently come into use. Ways of presenting designs have increasingly become of far-reaching importance in current architecture. Nowadays architectural firms employ specialists who are familiar with the latest developments in the field of presentation techniques, or they farm this highly significant part of their job out to gifted designers. Some of the new techniques being developed endeavor to provide a more realistic presentation of designs of housing estates. Apart from new drawing techniques, mention should also be made of the endoscope, an instrument which can simulate an eye-level tour around a scale model while recording it on videotape. Realistic representations differ quite a lot from the conventional architectural presentation techniques applied, which require a larger amount of imagination on the part of the onlookers. The afore mentioned architectural notation systems, on the one hand, can only be understood by experts, in spite of added explanatory signs and symbols. The often used models and artist’s impressions, on the other hand, frequently create a somewhat distorted view, due to lack of concern for spatial proportions. As a consequence, the design presented and the actual architectural realisation may turn out to differ widely. To bridge the widening gap between the experts and the users, clients and government officials, research concerning architectural representation is needed. In 1990 a Dutch scientific journal, issued by The Delft University, published an illustrated report of research findings under the title Overdracht en Simulatie (Information and Simulation). The article gives a description of a pilot study carried out by a research team (Van Der Does, Van Haaften, Kegel and Vrins) to assess and evaluate various presentation techniques used in architecture. This study was just a first step towards a more detailed follow-up study, to which I shall come back after having given a summarized view of the pilot study.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id e9f1
authors Alaimo, G., Pellitteri, G. and Scianna, A.
year 1993
title A Tool for Typological Analysis
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Any design problem is faced drawing from the architect's knowledge both case knowledge and general knowledge. One type of the latter is abstracted from a multiplicity of cases of which the common features are recognised in such a way as to single out a prototype representing in the best way a class of architectural objects. If applied to a set of residential buildings and to the flats in them the analysis is typological and it is one of the fundamental ways of acquiring general knowledge to be used to face design problems. The tool we present is aimed at such a type of analysis and is based on the idea that it possible to acquire qualitative knowledge through the statistical analysis of measurable characteristics of the examined architectural objects. It has been tested by applying it to the typological analysis of a set of flats of illegal buildings in Sicily. The procedure is organised in two main phases. The first one consists in a series of elaborations performed during the reading of architectural organism; the second one consists in a series of statistical analyses on the results (characteristic variables) of the first.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id a927
authors Amirante, Isabella and Bosco, Antonio
year 1995
title Hypertext Between Research and Teaching: An Experience in a Didactic Building Technology Laboratory
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 3-12
summary IPER (hypertext for the knowledge of building patrimony) is the result of a research developed with C.N.R. (National Research Institute). The aim of IPER is to provide the knowledge, the description and the management of one or more historical buildings for public or private institutions. IPER allowed us to improve our methodology of building analysis, covering various disciplinary fields, in two different systems. (1.) the first one, synthetic and suitable for a group of historical buildings, (2.) the second one, complex and particularly made for monumental buildings. // This experience is related to the new regulation of teaching architecture in Italy made in 1993. The main novelty is the introduction of the laboratories with the contemporary presence of two or three teachers of different disciplines, working together with the students on the same project with different approaches. This opportunity allowed us to introduce the "knowledge engineer" as a teacher in the laboratory of building technology. IPER is given to the students with the aim of experimenting and solving the theoretical and practical difficulties that students of different years may encounter in the knowledge and representation of buildings and in the organisation of all the data from the case study.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_1.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 2ff9
id 2ff9
authors Ataman, Osman
year 1993
title Knowledge-based Stair Design
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 163-171
summary The application of computer--based technique to support architectural design has often concentrated on matters of representation. Typically, this means computer-aided drafting, and less frequently, computer-aided modeling and visualization. The promise of new computer-based tools to support the process of design has thus far failed to produce any significant tool that has had a widespread impact on the architectural profession. Most developments remain in university based research labs where they are used as teaching instruments in CAD courses or less often in design studios. While there are many reasons for this lack of dissemination, including a reluctance on the part of the architectural profession itself, the primary obstacles deal with difficulties in explicating design knowledge, representing this knowledge in a manner that can be used for design, and providing an intuitive and effective user interface, allowing the designer to easily use the tool for its intended purpose.

This study describes a system that has been developed to address a number of these issues. Based on research findings from the field of Artificial Intelligence which expounds on the need for multiple techniques to represent any complex area of knowledge, we have selected a particular approach that focuses on multiple techniques for design representation. We review this approach in depth by considering its many facets necessary when implementing a knowledge-based system. We then partially test the viability of this approach through a small case study, implementing a knowledge-based system for designing stairs. While this effort only deals with a small part of the total design process, it does explore a number of significant issues facing the development of computer-based design assistants, and suggests several techniques for addressing these concerns.

series ACADIA
email oataman@uiuc.edu
last changed 2003/12/20 04:40

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email m.barros@ipt.pt
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ee23
authors Bille, Pia
year 1994
title A Study of Color
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 185-190
summary Color courses are traditionally based on exercises carried out with either water color or colored paper. Use of the computer as a tool for teaching color theory and analyzing color in architecture was the topic of a course given at the School of Architecture and Planning at the State University of New York at Buffalo, USA where I was an exchange faculty in the academic year 1993/94. The course was structured into 3 topics: color theory, color perception and application of color.
series eCAADe
email pia bille@mail.a-aarhus.dk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c207
authors Branzell, Arne
year 1993
title The Studio CTH-A and the Searching Picture
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 129-140
summary What happens during an architect’s search for the best solution? How does he (or she) begin, which tools are chosen, what happens when he comes to a standstill? The activities – sketching, discussions with other people, making models, taking walks to think, visits to the library, etc? What is an ordinary procedure and what is more specific? Do the tools have an impact on the final solution chosen? What happens during periods of no activity? Are they important? In which fields of activities are signs of the searching process to be found? In other words — what is the process of creative thinking for architects? Mikael Hedin and myself at Design Methods, Chalmers University of Technology, have started research into architects’ problem-solving. We have finished a pilot study on a very experienced architect working traditionally, without Cad (”The Bo Cederlöf Case”). We have started preliminary discussions with our second ”Case”, an architect in another situation, who has been working for many years with Cad equipment (Gert Wingårdh). For our next case, we will study a third situation – two or more architects who share the responsibility for the solution and where the searching is a consequence of a dialogue between equal partners. At present, we are preparing a report on theories in and methods for Searching and Creativity. I will give you some results of our work up till now, in the form of ten hypotheses on the searching process. Finally, I would like to present those fields of activity where we have so far found signs of searching. Our approach, in comparison with earlier investigations into searching (the most respected being Arnheim’s study on Picasso’s completion of the Guernica) is to collect and observe signs of searching during the process, not afterwards. We are, to use a metaphor, following in the footsteps of the hunter, recording the path he chooses, what marks he makes, what tools, implements and equipment he uses. For practising architects: a better understanding of what is going on and encouragement to try new ways of searching, for architectural students: better preparation and training for problem solving. It all began while we compared the different objects in our collection of sketches at the Chalmers STUDIO for Visualisation and Communication. (For some years, we have been gathering sketches by Alvar Aalto, Jorn Utzon, Ralph Erskine, Erik and Tore Ahlsén, Lewerenz, Nyrén, Lindroos, Wingårdh and others in a permanent exhibition). We observed similarities in these sketches which allowed us to frame ten hypotheses about the searching process.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
email branzell@arch.chalmers.se
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 6737
authors Casaus, A., Fargas, J. and Papuzian, P.
year 1993
title Hybrid Design Environments - A Research Program on Creative Collaboration and Communication
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary This paper gives an overview of a research program initiated in the Architectural Design Department of the Escola Tècnica Superior d'Arquitectura de Barcelona on issues of communication and collaboration in computer aided design. The work is centered around emerging design situations which can be attributed directly to the incorporation of new technologies in education and practice. One of these is the "design triangle" composed of a traditional designer, a CAD workstation and a computer literate collaborator acting as the design medium. Another is the "virtual workshop" consisting of design collaboration involving large-scale distributed communications networks. The research program stresses three common characteristics of these situations which it aims to study in parallel in the setting of an design workshop. The first of these is the characteristic of distance, both physical and conceptual, which separates, on the one hand, the traditional designer from the CAD document and, on the other, the participants of a distributed workshop from each other and each others' thinking. The second, is the typically hybrid nature of such situations where computer technology interacts with more traditional techniques and alternative media are combined both at the level of production and in channels and modes of communication. And finally, the third and most significant for the methodology of the research program, is the fact that both the design triangle and the virtual workshop make explicit aspects of design activity, interaction and intentions which remain hidden or are only implicit in traditional designing.

series eCAADe
email cajatic@libero.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 0b24
authors Chilton, J.C., Wester, T. and Yu, J.
year 1993
title Exploring Structural Morphology Using CAD
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Often in the design process the student's imagination is restricted by their inability to visualise, model or accurately sketch ideas for innovative structural systems. By using CAD as a design tool it is possible to explore the morphology of complex structures and to be able to produce perspective drawings of them with relative ease. Within AutoCAD there is a small library of standard three-dimensional objects and surfaces that can be called upon to generate more complex forms. However, to further facilitate the architectural design process, an extended library of innovative structural forms would allow the professional designer, or student, greater design freedom and any increase in the palette of structural forms available should stimulate creativity. As practical examples, the paper describes how students have been encouraged to experiment with the use of structures which can only be physically modelled with difficulty and which are also difficult to represent on the two- dimensional surface of the drawing board unless the geometry has previously been determined by the methods described. These are (i) Reciprocal Frame three-dimensional beam grillage structures and (ii) plate domes created from lattice structures by point-to- plane duality. The problem, of representation of these structures has been overcome, in the first case, by generating AutoLISP procedures to draw the complex three-dimensional geometrical form automatically in AutoCAD and, in the second case, by the development of the computer program CADual.

series eCAADe
email John.Chilton@nottingham.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/24 09:08

_id ecaade2014_153
id ecaade2014_153
authors David Morton
year 2014
title Augmented Reality in architectural studio learning:How Augmented Reality can be used as an exploratory tool in the design learning journey
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 343-356
wos WOS:000361384700034
summary The boundaries of augmented reality in the academic field are now being explored at an ever increasing level. In this paper we present the initial findings of an educational project focusing on the use of augmented reality in the design process of an architectural student. The study seeks to evaluate the use of AR as a tool in the design stages, allowing effective exploration of spatial qualities of design projects undertaken in the studio. The learning process is guided by the exploration and detection of a design idea in both form and function, with the virtual environment providing a dynamic environment (Mantovani, 2001). This is further reflected in the constructivist theory where the learning processes use conceptual models, which are used to create incremental stages that become the platform to attain the next [Winn, 1993]. The additional benefit of augmented reality within the learning journey is the ability of the students to visually explore the architectural forms they are creating in greater depth.
keywords Augmented reality; pedagogy; learning journey; exploration
series eCAADe
email david.e.morton@northumbria.ac.uk
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 2a5e
authors Does, J. van der and Giró, H.
year 1997
title Design communication and image processing
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [Proceedings of the 3rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 90-407-1669-2]
summary In the proceedings of the first EAEA conference, 1993, I mentioned our first study focused on refining endoscopic video images of a detailed architectural model and drawings. The study was based on work with 900 subjects, of which 200 were professional architects. It has led to a number of technical improvements. In the second study we compared computer-aided design techniques with two techniques from the first study, endoscopic video recordings and coloured and black and white elevations and perspective drawings. Four different groups of 50 subjects took part in this research. We found that computer images are invariably judged to be of moderate value, while drawings yielded consistently high scores. Endoscopic video recordings of the scale model received high scores as far as emotional response is concerned, and moderate scores when the participants were questioned on the actual content of the recordings.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email H.H.Giro@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 49f3
authors Glanville, Ranulph
year 1993
title Looking into Endoscopy - The Limitations of Evaluation in Architectural Design
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 185-193
summary The means available to architects in their age-old task of creating (most usually, though not necessarily) buildings that do not yet exist (ie. virtual realities), can be seen as falling into two groups. Those that help us develop architectural ideas (exploring), and those that help us evaluate or test them (illustrating). In the former category, we have, for instance, the ”drawing on the back of the envelope”, the discursive brainstorm, and the design ”conversation with ourselves via paper and pencil” (the drawing strikes back). In the latter, we may include physical model building, careful (projective) drawing (including drawings that are instructions for making), mathematical and design science modelling and calculating, visualising techniques such as the rendered perspective, most CAD (computer aided design) work and architectural endoscopy. These techniques may be thought of in two ways, as Bosselman reported: the explanation (eg. the organisational plan) and the experience (eg the ”photo-realistic” perspective). Attached to these we have rules for success, such as those of ”style” (in the broad sense of the personal style that allows us to assume that we have answers to problems that have yet to appear). It should be clear even from the list above that there are many more techniques and technologies for evaluation (illustration) than for exploration (design): such is the mystery of design. It is the primary purpose of this paper to invite those involved in providing the enormous effort that has gone into making such techniques for illustration — evaluation — to consider how their efforts help with that other, and crucial, area — that of exploring: and to redress some of the balance of that effort towards exploration. For it occurs to me (as a teacher of architecture), that evaluation does not provide a course for action — it merely helps us determine what may be wrong (according to some criteria with which we choose not to argue). And, no matter how right or wrong a design may be, knowing that it is wrong doesn’t help us either modify it, or find a better initial idea. It only tells us we are not right — always assuming the evaluative model is correct; perhaps.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id f44f
authors Huang, Ying-Hsiu
year 2000
title Investigating the Cognitive Behavior of Generating Idea Sketches. Neural Network Simulation
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 287-296
summary In idea sketches, there are a number of ambiguous shapes. Designers will associate and transform some shapes into others (Liu, 1993). Then, they evaluate these shapes in terms of functions and design requirements; furthermore, they would have generated other shapes that certified the design requirements (Huang, 1999). However, not only is the idea of design composed of one element, but also consisted of varied components. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how designers generate ideas of multi-component products, and to simulate this phenomenon by neural networks. At the same time, this paper attempts to study the design cognitive behavior of idea-generating stages, and explores the designers' cognitive phenomenon. Therefore, there are two stages in this paper: First, I conduct a cognitive experiment to realize how designers generate the multi-component product and acquire the sketches that designers generated. Second, I train the neural networks to simulate the behavior of idea generation and explore the cognitive phenomenon in design sketches. As a result, networks associate one shape that trained before, and then generate a complete idea. This phenomenon is similar to the cognitive behavior of designers who saw the ambiguous shape as one shape, which was retrieved from LTM. Moreover, the neural network is examined by a rectangle, which is totally different from the training patterns. The network will associate a confused shape. But the network will associate different shapes by adjusting some critical parameters. Designers can generate variable shapes from one shape, but the signal neural network can't simulate this kind of behavior. On the contrary, this paper proposes five sequential networks to generate variable shapes from the same shape and simulates how designers develop ideas.
series CAADRIA
email richhys@ms10.hinet.net
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id 09b4
authors Ismail, Ashraf and McCartney, Kevin
year 1993
title A Tool for Conceptual Design Evaluation Based on Compliance with Site-Development Briefs and Related Planning Regulations
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The need has been established for a computer based decision support tool to use during the conceptual stages of architectural design. The main functions are to check design compliance with the requirements of local planning authorities; characteristics evaluated will include building size, height, plot ratios, circulation and accessibility, and the preservation of natural features on site. This tool is being developed to operate under AutoCAD environment; the construction industry standard computer aided design software, following standard layering convention, integrated command lines, and pull-down menus. In addition to the common graphical output; i.c. plans, elevations and three dimensional models, it will generate textual analysis in report format to use as part of the Environmental Impact Analysis of proposed development. The tool's functions will be based upon the result of two types of field studies. First, interviews and questionnaires will be carried out with architects and planners of both private and public sectors. These will cover issues related to the performance of Computer Aided Architectural Design applications with regard to the evaluation of design schematics, and decision-making for the production of data for environmental statements. Second, field observation and participation will be carried out to observe decision-makers behaviour during assessment of building design proposals. A prototype is currently under development and will be tested against the expectations of the tool designer, Ashraf Ismail, and a team of professionals to be involved in the field studies. A critical analysis of the prototype design methodology and the study findings will be documented in the research thesis to be presented in June 1995.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:01

_id ed78
authors Jog, Bharati
year 1993
title Integration of Computer Applications in the Practice of Architecture
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 89-97
summary Computer Applications in Architecture is emerging as an important aspect of our profession. The field, which is often referred to as Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) has had a notable impact on the profession and academia in recent years. A few professionals have predicted that as slide rules were replaced by calculators, in the coming years drafting boards and parallel bars will be replaced by computers. On the other hand, many architects do not anticipate such a drastic change in the coming decade as present CAD systems are supporting only a few integral aspects of architectural design. However, all agree that architecture curricula should be modified to integrate CAAD education.

In 1992-93, in the Department of Architecture of the 'School of Architecture and interior Design' at the University of Cincinnati, a curriculum committee was formed to review and modify the entire architecture curriculum. Since our profession and academia relate directly to each other, the author felt that while revising the curriculum, the committee should have factual information about CAD usage in the industry. Three ways to obtain such information were thought of, namely (1) conducting person to person or telephone interviews with the practitioners (2) requesting firms to give open- ended feed back and (3) surveying firms by sending a questionnaire. Of these three, the most effective, efficient and suitable method to obtain such information was an organized survey through a questionnaire. In mid December 1992, a survey was organized which was sponsored by the School of Architecture and Interior Design, the Center for the Study of the Practice of Architecture (CSPA) and the University Division of Professional Practice, all from the University of Cincinnati.

This chapter focuses on the results of this survey. A brief description of the survey design is also given. In the next section a few surveys organized in recent years are listed. In the third section the design of this survey is presented. The survey questions and their responses are given in the fourth section. The last section presents the conclusions and brief recommendations regarding computer curriculum in architecture.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/02/25 09:25

_id 2d1f
authors Kavakli, Manolya and Bayazit, Nigan
year 1993
title An Experiment on the Image Schemata
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The main objective of this paper is to explain the process of knowledge acquisition utilising the method for the decomposition of the components of a system to extract design rules. The furnished drawing of a dwelling is considered as the language of a designer. These drawings contain the semantic knowledge that can be called general architectural know-how. This paper bases on the decomposition of the syntax of a room image. The syntax of a room image consists of walls, windows, circulation zones and furniture such as beds, wardrobes, commodes, dressing tables, etc. The syntax of a room image has some linkages. The designer put the syntax together with the joints of circulation zones as a grammar to match. The existing relations between the objects in a design can be called grammar. An experiment is applied to three classes of a CAAD course organised by the Turkish Chamber of Architects. The living room is given already furnished in the experiment and the rest of a dwelling is expected to be furnished. In the first phase, the experiment is applied on two different classes in different times. It is interesting that the same grammar is used by 6 of 8 couple of designers for 3 different types (A, B and D) of bedrooms. Only one of the bedrooms of C type) has different design styles in spite of looking much like each other. In the second phase, for the third class of 6 groups, plan is modified slightly. In this case all of the 6 couples of designers use the same grammar for 2 alternatives of D type bedroom for parents. An original method is applied in the elicitation of the knowledge in this experiment. The properties of the objects and their links are represented by a semantic network graph. This paper also presents the grammar of the furnished rooms and shows the density of preferences. Design rules are extracted from these drawings of a furnished dwelling by searching for similarities in the plans designed by different designers. The designers have some specifications about the grammar of furnishing and an image schema of the proposed room in their minds, depending on their education and experiences. During the design of a room, designers look for differences and the similarities existing in the syntax of the proposed room image and the image of furnished room on the screen. If these images match with each other, the designers satisfy with the result This paper investigates the image schemata of the designers by evaluating their drawings. Some design rules are represented by means of image schemata. Matching the joints of circulation zones, the designers put the syntax of different image schemata together and they can illustrate different alternatives, restricted by the translation of these image schemata.

series eCAADe
email bayazit@sariyer.cc.itu.edu.tr
last changed 1998/08/24 08:49

_id a4f8
authors Monedero, Javier
year 1993
title Renderings. Some Technical and Non Technical Questions Raised by the Use of Computers in the Visual Analysis of Architecture
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary It should be expected, in a Congress, that participants bring with them, not only ideas, but also results or, at least, stimulating images. In the Laboratory of Architectural Graphic Techniques at the ETS of Barcelona, we have spent some time generating images directly related with architecture, based on the work of both students and professors. These images have been produced with academic purposes, but also in relation with some works carried out with City Institutions interested in the study of the evaluation of environment visual impact and the role that computers may play in this area. In our previous Congress, in Barcelona, we showed some of these images, obtained by direct digital processing of bitmaps. In another Congress, later, we showed some other images, obtained by rendering, with simple local models (Phong models) and some tricks that helped to make them more realistic. Although I do agree with the old chinese saying that a good image is worth a thousand words, in this case, I have thought more convenient to present a paper that may be read quietly by those interested in these subjects, that might be useful just as it gathers references known by many but grouped in a particular order, and that pretends, respectfully, to criticize the actual situation. This can explain why we consider that the results we have obtained should be improved by new and better techniques and why we think that this dissatisfaction should be shared by others who do not seem to feel the same as we do. The aim of this contribution is, therefore, to reflect on the actual situation and the ways there seem to be open for us to follow.

series eCAADe
email monedero@ega1.upc.es
last changed 1998/08/24 09:02

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